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1.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1519-1531, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231135

RESUMO

In clinical exome sequencing (cES), the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommends limiting variant interpretation to established human-disease genes. The diagnostic yield of cES in intellectual disability and/or multiple congenital anomalies (ID/MCA) is currently about 30%. Though the results may seem acceptable for rare diseases, they mean that 70% of affected individuals remain genetically undiagnosed. Further analysis extended to all mutated genes in a research environment is a valuable strategy for improving diagnostic yields. This study presents the results of systematic research reanalysis of negative cES in a cohort of 313 individuals with ID/MCA. We identified 17 new genes not related to human disease, implicated 22 non-OMIM disease-causing genes recently or previously rarely related to disease, and described 1 new phenotype associated with a known gene. Twenty-six candidate genes were identified and are waiting for future recurrence. Overall, we diagnose 15% of the individuals with initial negative cES, increasing the diagnostic yield from 30% to more than 40% (or 46% if strong candidate genes are considered). This study demonstrates the power of such extended research reanalysis to increase scientific knowledge of rare diseases. These novel findings can then be applied in the field of diagnostics.

2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(8): 1197-1214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019283

RESUMO

With exome/genome sequencing (ES/GS) integrated into the practice of medicine, there is some potential for reporting incidental/secondary findings (IFs/SFs). The issue of IFs/SFs has been studied extensively over the last 4 years. In order to evaluate their implications in care organisation, we retrospectively evaluated, in a cohort of 700 consecutive probands, the frequency and burden of introducing the search for variants in a maximum list of 244 medically actionable genes (genes that predispose carriers to a preventable or treatable disease in childhood/adulthood and genes for genetic counselling issues). We also focused on the 59 PharmGKB class IA/IB pharmacogenetic variants. We also compared the results in different gene lists. We identified variants (likely) affecting protein function in genes for care in 26 cases (3.7%) and heterozygous variants in genes for genetic counselling in 29 cases (3.8%). Mean time for the 700 patients was about 6.3 min/patient for medically actionable genes and 1.3 min/patient for genes for genetic counselling, and a mean time of 37 min/patients for the reinterpreted variants. These results would lead to all 700 pre-test counselling sessions being longer, to 55 post-test genetic consultations and to 27 secondary specialised medical evaluations. ES also detected 42/59 pharmacogenetic variants or combinations of variants in the majority of cases. An extremely low metabolizer status in genes relevant for neurodevelopmental disorders (CYP2C9 and CYP2C19) was found in 57/700 cases. This study provides information regarding the need to anticipate the implementation of genomic medicine, notably the work overload at various steps of the process.

3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 701-710, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710147

RESUMO

Exome sequencing (ES) has revolutionized diagnostic procedures in medical genetics, particularly for developmental diseases. The variety and complexity of the information produced has raised issues regarding its use in a clinical setting. Of particular interest are patients' expectations regarding the information disclosed, the accompaniment provided, and the value patients place on these. To explore these issues in parents of children with developmental disorders and no diagnosis with known etiology, a multidisciplinary group of researchers from social and behavioral sciences and patient organizations conducted a mixed-methodology study (quantitative and qualitative) in two centers of expertise for rare diseases in France. The quantitative study aimed to determine the preferences of 513 parents regarding the disclosure of ES results. It showed that parents wished to have exhaustive information, including variants of unknown significance possibly linked to their child's disorder and secondary findings. This desire for information could be a strategy to maximize the chances of obtaining a diagnosis. The qualitative study aimed to understand the expectations and reactions of 57 parents interviewed just after the return of ES results. In-depth analysis showed that parents had ambivalent feelings about the findings whatever the results returned. The contrasting results from these studies raise questions about the value of the information provided and parents' high expectations regarding the results. The nature of parental expectations has emerged as an important topic in efforts to optimize accompaniment and support for families during the informed decision-making process and after disclosure of the results in an overall context of uncertainty.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 319-330, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639322

RESUMO

ZMIZ1 is a coactivator of several transcription factors, including p53, the androgen receptor, and NOTCH1. Here, we report 19 subjects with intellectual disability and developmental delay carrying variants in ZMIZ1. The associated features include growth failure, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and various other congenital malformations. Of these 19, 14 unrelated subjects carried de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or single-base insertions/deletions, 3 siblings harbored a heterozygous single-base insertion, and 2 subjects had a balanced translocation disrupting ZMIZ1 or involving a regulatory region of ZMIZ1. In total, we identified 13 point mutations that affect key protein regions, including a SUMO acceptor site, a central disordered alanine-rich motif, a proline-rich domain, and a transactivation domain. All identified variants were absent from all available exome and genome databases. In vitro, ZMIZ1 showed impaired coactivation of the androgen receptor. In vivo, overexpression of ZMIZ1 mutant alleles in developing mouse brains using in utero electroporation resulted in abnormal pyramidal neuron morphology, polarization, and positioning, underscoring the importance of ZMIZ1 in neural development and supporting mutations in ZMIZ1 as the cause of a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1657-1661, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563986

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exome sequencing (ES) powerfully identifies the molecular bases of heterogeneous conditions such as intellectual disability and/or multiple congenital anomalies (ID/MCA). Current ES analysis, combining diagnosis analysis restricted to disease-causing genes reported in OMIM database and subsequent research investigation extended to other genes, indicated causal and candidate genes around 40% and 10%. Nonconclusive results are frequent in such ultrarare conditions that recurrence and genotype-phenotype correlations are limited. International data-sharing permits the gathering of additional patients carrying variants in the same gene to draw definitive conclusions on their implication as disease causing. Several web-based tools have been developed and grouped in Matchmaker Exchange. In this study, we report our current experience as a regional center that has implemented ES as a first-line diagnostic test since 2013, working with a research laboratory devoted to disease gene identification. METHODS: We used GeneMatcher over 2.5 years to share 71 novel candidate genes identified by ES. RESULTS: Matches occurred in 60/71 candidate genes allowing to confirm the implication of 39% of matched genes as causal and to rule out 6% of them. CONCLUSION: The introduction of user-friendly gene-matching tools, such as GeneMatcher, appeared to be an essential step for the rapid identification of novel disease genes responsible for ID/MCA.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(5): 995-1007, 2018 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656858

RESUMO

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis.

8.
Genet Med ; 20(6): 645-654, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29095811

RESUMO

PurposeCongenital anomalies and intellectual disability (CA/ID) are a major diagnostic challenge in medical genetics-50% of patients still have no molecular diagnosis after a long and stressful diagnostic "odyssey." Solo clinical whole-exome sequencing (WES) was applied in our genetics center to improve diagnosis in patients with CA/ID.MethodsThis retrospective study examined 416 consecutive tests performed over 3 years to demonstrate the effectiveness of periodically reanalyzing WES data. The raw data from each nonpositive test was reanalyzed at 12 months with the most recent pipeline and in the light of new data in the literature. The results of the reanalysis for patients enrolled in the third year are not yet available.ResultsOf the 416 patients included, data for 156 without a diagnosis were reanalyzed. We obtained 24 (15.4%) additional diagnoses: 12 through the usual diagnostic process (7 new publications, 4 initially misclassified, and 1 copy-number variant), and 12 through translational research by international data sharing. The final yield of positive results was 27.9% through a strict diagnostic approach, and 2.9% through an additional research strategy.ConclusionThis article highlights the effectiveness of periodically combining diagnostic reinterpretation of clinical WES data with translational research involving data sharing for candidate genes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Doenças Raras/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
9.
Nat Genet ; 49(4): 527-536, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28288114

RESUMO

Gain-of-function mutations in some genes underlie neurodegenerative conditions, whereas loss-of-function mutations in the same genes have distinct phenotypes. This appears to be the case with the protein ataxin 1 (ATXN1), which forms a transcriptional repressor complex with capicua (CIC). Gain of function of the complex leads to neurodegeneration, but ATXN1-CIC is also essential for survival. We set out to understand the functions of the ATXN1-CIC complex in the developing forebrain and found that losing this complex results in hyperactivity, impaired learning and memory, and abnormal maturation and maintenance of upper-layer cortical neurons. We also found that CIC activity in the hypothalamus and medial amygdala modulates social interactions. Informed by these neurobehavioral features in mouse mutants, we identified five individuals with de novo heterozygous truncating mutations in CIC who share similar clinical features, including intellectual disability, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorder. Our study demonstrates that loss of ATXN1-CIC complexes causes a spectrum of neurobehavioral phenotypes.


Assuntos
Ataxina-1/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Animais , Cerebelo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(1): 185-9, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25402011

RESUMO

Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO)-like syndrome is also known as brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR; OMIM 60040). This disorder includes intellectual disability in all patients, skeletal abnormalities, including brachydactyly E (BDE) in approximately half, obesity, and facial dysmorphism. Patients with 2q37 microdeletion or HDAC4 mutation are defined as having an AHO-like phenotype with normal stimulatory G (Gs) function. HDAC4 is involved in neurological, cardiac, and skeletal function. This paper reports the first familial case of 2q37.3 interstitial deletion affecting two genes, HDAC4 and TWIST2. Patients presented with BDE and short stature without intellectual disability, showing that haploinsufficiency of the HDAC4 critical region may lead to a spectrum of phenotypes, ranging from isolated brachydactyly type E to BDMR.


Assuntos
Estatura , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Braquidactilia/genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Braquidactilia/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Família , Feminino , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Radiografia
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