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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514327

RESUMO

Community-based participatory research is a growing approach, but often includes higher levels of community engagement in the research design and data collection stages than in the data interpretation stage. Involving study participants in this stage could further knowledge justice, science that aligns with and supports social justice agendas. This article reports on two community-based participatory environmental health surveys conducted between 2015 and 2019 in an industrial region near Marseille, France, and focuses specifically on our approach of organizing focus groups to directly involve residents and community stakeholders in the analysis and interpretation process. We found that, in these focus groups, residents triangulated across many different sources of information-study findings, local knowledge, and different types of expert knowledge-to reach conclusions about the health of their community and make recommendations for what should be done to improve community health outcomes. We conclude that involving residents in the data analysis and interpretation stage can promote epistemic justice and lead to final reports that are more useful to community stakeholders and decision-makers.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Saúde Ambiental , Grupos Focais , Asma/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , França , Humanos , Conhecimento , Neoplasias/psicologia , Justiça Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Environ Res ; 163: 43-52, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triggers of multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses are essentially unknown. PM10 exposure has recently been associated with an increased risk of relapses. OBJECTIVES: We further explore the short-term associations between PM10, NO2, benzene (C6H6), O3, and CO exposures, and the odds of MS relapses' occurrence. METHODS: Using a case-crossover design, we studied 424 MS patients living in the Strasbourg area, France between 2000 and 2009 (1783 relapses in total). Control days were chosen to be ± 35 days relative to the case (relapse) day. Exposure was modeled through ADMS-Urban software at the census block scale. We consider single-pollutant and multi-pollutant conditional logistic regression models coupled with a distributed-lag linear structure, stratified by season ("hot" vs. "cold"), and adjusted for meteorological parameters, pollen count, influenza-like epidemics, and holidays. RESULTS: The single-pollutant analyses indicated: 1) significant associations between MS relapse incidence and exposures to NO2, PM10, and O3, and 2) seasonality in these associations. For instance, an interquartile range increase in NO2 (lags 0-3) and PM10 exposure were associated with MS relapse incidence (OR = 1.08; 95%CI: [1.03-1.14] and OR = 1.06; 95%CI: [1.01-1.11], respectively) during the "cold" season (i.e., October-March). We also observed an association with O3 and MS relapse incidence during "hot" season (OR = 1.16; 95%CI: [1.07-1.25]). C6H6 and CO were not significantly related to MS relapse incidence. However, using multi-pollutant models, only O3 remained significantly associated with the odds of relapse triggering during "hot" season. CONCLUSION: We observed significant single-pollution associations between the occurrence of MS relapses and exposures to NO2, O3 and PM10, only O3 remained significantly associated with occurrence of MS relapses in the multi-pollutant model.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Esclerose Múltipla , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Ozônio , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Recidiva , Estações do Ano
3.
PLoS One ; 11(10): e0159039, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to address the open question of a possible association between the socioeconomic level of the neighborhoods in which pregnant women live and the risk of Congenital Heart Defects (CHDs), Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) and OroFacial Clefts (OFCs). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE from its inception to December 20th, 2015 for case-control, cohort and ecological studies assessing the association between neighborhood socioeconomic level and the risk of CHDs, NTDs and the specific phenotypes Cleft Lip with or without Cleft Palate (CLP) and Cleft Palate (CP). Study-specific risk estimates were pooled according to random-effect and fixed-effect models. RESULTS: Out of 245 references, a total of seven case-control studies, two cohort studies and two ecological studies were assessed in the systematic review; all studies were enrolled in the meta-analysis with the exception of the two cohort studies. No significant association has been revealed between CHDs or NTDs and neighborhood deprivation index. For CLP phenotype subgroups, we found a significantly higher rate in deprived neighborhoods (Odds Ratios (OR) = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.36) whereas this was not significant for CP phenotype subgroups (OR = 1.20, 95%CI: 0.89, 1.61). CONCLUSION: In spite of the small number of epidemiological studies included in the present literature review, our findings suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic level where mothers live is associated only with an increased risk of CLP phenotype subgroups. This finding has methodological limitations that impede the formulation of firm conclusions, and further investigations should confirm this association.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/etiologia , Anormalidades da Boca/etiologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/etiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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