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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(2): 2171-2179, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872997

RESUMO

Solar steam generation is regarded as a perspective technology, due to its potentials in solar light absorption and photothermal conversion for seawater desalination and water purification. Although lots of steam generation systems have been reported to possess high conversion efficiencies recently, researches of simple, cost-effective, and sustainable materials still need to be done. Here, inspired by natural young sunflower heads' property increasing the temperature of dish-shaped flowers by tracking the sun, we used 3D-structured carbonized sunflower heads as an effective solar steam generator. The evaporation rate and efficiency of these materials under 1 sun (1 kW m-2) are 1.51 kg m-2 h-1 and 100.4%, respectively, beyond the theoretical limit of 2D materials. This high solar efficiency surpasses all other biomass-based materials ever reported. It is demonstrated that such a high capability is mainly attributed to the 3D-structured top surface, which could reabsorb the lost energy of diffuse reflection and thermal radiation, as well as provide enlarged water/air interface for steam escape. 3D-structured carbonized sunflower heads provide a new method for the future design and fabrication of high-performance photothermal devices.

2.
J Biophotonics ; 12(12): e201900218, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452335

RESUMO

Modern document protection relies on the simultaneous combination of many optical features with micron and submicron structures, whose complexity is the main obstacle for unauthorized copying. In that sense, documents are best protected by the diffractive optical elements generated lithographically and mass-produced by embossing. The problem is that the resulting security elements are identical, facilitating mass-production of both original and counterfeited documents. Here, we prove that each butterfly wing-scale is structurally and optically unique and can be used as an inimitable optical memory tag and applied for document security. Wing-scales, exhibiting angular variability of their color, were laser-cut and bleached to imprint cryptographic information of an authorized issuer. The resulting optical memory tag is extremely durable, as verified by several century-old insect specimens still retaining their coloration. The described technique is simple, amenable to mass-production, low cost and easy to integrate within the existing security infrastructure.

3.
Opt Express ; 26(11): 14143-14158, 2018 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877457

RESUMO

Thermal cameras were constructed long ago, but working principles and complex technologies still limit their resolution, total number of pixels, and sensitivity. We address the problem of finding a new sensing mechanism surpassing existing limits of thermal radiation detection. Here we reveal the new mechanism on the butterfly wing, whose wing-scales act as pixels of an imaging array on a thermal detector. We observed that the tiniest features of a Morpho butterfly wing-scale match the mean free path of air molecules at atmospheric pressure - a condition when the radiation-induced heating produces an additional, thermophoretic force that deforms the wing-scales. The resulting deformation field was imaged holographically with mK temperature sensitivity and 200 Hz response speed. By imitating butterfly wing-scales, the effect can be further amplified through a suitable choice of material, working pressure, sensor design, and detection method. The technique is universally applicable to any nano-patterned, micro-scale system in other spectral ranges, such as UV and terahertz.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Borboletas/fisiologia , Raios Infravermelhos , Fotografação/instrumentação , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Desenho de Equipamento
4.
Soft Matter ; 14(27): 5595-5603, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29911714

RESUMO

We describe a new type of photonic material inspired by a Diachrysia chrysitis moth, whose nano-structured wings exhibit a prominent golden color. This is a layered photonic structure with a large refractive index contrast, whose alternating layers are rough at the nanoscale level. Theoretical analysis shows that the scattering and interference interact to enhance the local field within the layers and increase the absorption of the material, particularly in the UV-blue part of the spectrum. Theory is experimentally verified using holographically manufactured Bragg gratings in the dichromated-pullulan (DCP). Alternating air-pullulan layers are produced and held in place by sparsely separated nano-pillars. Air voids are filled with 20-100 nm diameter spherical nanoparticles which act as scatterers. Such materials, with a high refractive index contrast and nano-scale scatterers, are important for achieving large reflectance and a broad spectrum, with scattering as an additional mechanism for spectral control.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisiológica , Materiais Biomiméticos , Mariposas , Nanotecnologia , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Fenômenos Ópticos , Asas de Animais
5.
J Biomed Opt ; 22(2): 26003, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28301654

RESUMO

The present study describes utilization of two photon excitation fluorescence (2PE) microscopy for visualization of the hemoglobin in human and porcine erythrocytes and their empty membranes (i.e., ghosts). High-quality, label- and fixation-free visualization of hemoglobin was achieved at excitation wavelength 730 nm by detecting visible autofluorescence. Localization in the suspension and spatial distribution (i.e., mapping) of residual hemoglobin in erythrocyte ghosts has been resolved by 2PE. Prior to the 2PE mapping, the presence of residual hemoglobin in the bulk suspension of erythrocyte ghosts was confirmed by cyanmethemoglobin assay. 2PE analysis revealed that the distribution of hemoglobin in intact erythrocytes follows the cells' shape. Two types of erythrocytes, human and porcine, characterized with discocyte and echinocyte morphology, respectively, showed significant differences in hemoglobin distribution. The 2PE images have revealed that despite an extensive washing out procedure after gradual hypotonic hemolysis, a certain amount of hemoglobin localized on the intracellular side always remains bound to the membrane and cannot be eliminated. The obtained results open the possibility to use 2PE microscopy to examine hemoglobin distribution in erythrocytes and estimate the purity level of erythrocyte ghosts in biotechnological processes.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/química , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Animais , Membrana Eritrocítica/química , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Suínos
6.
Opt Express ; 23(14): 18014-28, 2015 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26191861

RESUMO

High-finesse optical cavities placed under vacuum are foundational platforms in quantum information science with photons and atoms. We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO2-Ta2O5 dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial low loss levels. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta2O5, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO2. The incurred optical loss can be reversed by filling the vacuum chamber with oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the recovery rate can be strongly accelerated by continuous laser illumination at 422 nm. Both the degradation and the recovery processes depend strongly on temperature. We find that a 1 nm-thick layer of SiO2 passivating the Ta2O5 surface layer is sufficient to reduce the degradation rate by more than a factor of 10, strongly supporting surface oxygen depletion as the primary degradation mechanism.

7.
J Biomed Opt ; 20(1): 016010, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25574994

RESUMO

We performed a study of the nonlinear optical properties of chemically purified chitin and insect cuticle using two-photon excited autofluorescence (TPEF) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. Excitation spectrum, fluorescence time, polarization sensitivity, and bleaching speed were measured. We have found that the maximum autofluorescence signal requires an excitation wavelength below 850 nm. At longer wavelengths, we were able to penetrate more than 150-um deep into the sample through the chitinous structures. The excitation power was kept below 10 mW (at the sample) in order to diminish bleaching. The SHG from the purified chitin was confirmed by spectral- and time-resolved measurements. Two cave-dwelling, depigmented, insect species were analyzed and three-dimensional images of the cuticular structures were obtained.


Assuntos
Quitina/química , Besouros/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Animais , Artrópodes/química , Cavernas , Desenho de Equipamento , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Dinâmica não Linear
8.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(6): 063108, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23822334

RESUMO

We present a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based device that simultaneously generates two arbitrary analog voltage signals with the maximum sample rate of 1.25 MHz and acquires two analog voltage signals with the maximum sample rate of 2.5 MHz. All signals are synchronized with internal FPGA clock. The personal computer application developed for controlling and communicating with FPGA chip provides the shaping of the output signals by mathematical expressions and real-time monitoring of the input signals. The main advantages of FPGA based digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital cards are high speed, rapid reconfigurability, friendly user interface, and low cost. We use this module in slow light and storage of light experiments performed in Rb buffer gas cell.

9.
Opt Lett ; 37(11): 1989-91, 2012 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22660097

RESUMO

We report on a simple, compact, and robust 780 nm distributed Bragg reflector laser with subkilohertz intrinsic linewidth. An external cavity with optical path length of 3.6 m, implemented with an optical fiber, reduces the laser frequency noise by several orders of magnitude. At frequencies above 100 kHz the frequency noise spectral density is reduced by over 33 dB, resulting in an intrinsic Lorentzian linewidth of 300 Hz. The remaining low-frequency noise is easily removed by stabilization to an external reference cavity. We further characterize the influence of feedback power and current variation on the intrinsic linewidth. The system is suitable for experiments requiring a tunable laser with narrow linewidth and low high-frequency noise, such as coherent optical communication, optical clocks, and cavity QED experiments.

10.
Lasers Surg Med ; 42(4): 338-47, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20432283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Laser phototherapy could be potentially used for cancer treatment, but the mechanisms of laser-induced cell death are not completely understood. Autophagy is the process in which the damaged cellular proteins and organelles are engulfed by and destroyed in acidified multiple-membrane vesicles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of autophagy in laser-induced tumor cell death in vitro. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: The monolayers of U251 human glioma tumor cells were exposed to 532 nm laser light from a single mode frequency-doubled Nd-YVO4 laser. A flattened Gaussian radial profile of laser beam (0.5-4 W) was used to uniformly illuminate entire colony of cells for various amounts of time (15-120 seconds) in the absence of cell culture medium. The cells were grown for 24 hours and the cell viability was determined by crystal violet or MTT assay. The presence of autophagy was assessed after 16 hours by fluorescence microscopy/flow cytometric analysis of acridine orange-stained autophagolysosomes and Western blot analysis of the autophagosome-associated LC3-II protein. The concentration of the principal pro-autophagic protein beclin-1 was determined after 6 hours by cell-based ELISA. RESULTS: The intracytoplasmic accumulation of autophagic vesicles, increase in LC3-II and up-regulation of beclin-1 expression were clearly observed under irradiation conditions that caused approximately 50% cytotoxicity. Post-irradiation addition of three different autophagy inhibitors (bafilomycin A1, chloroquine, or wortmannin) further increased the laser-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting non-irradiated cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that beclin-1-dependent induction of autophagy can protect glioma cells from laser-mediated cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Glioma/patologia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1 , Western Blotting , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida , Técnicas In Vitro , Terapia a Laser/instrumentação , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Necrose , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Regulação para Cima
11.
Appl Opt ; 48(19): 3854-9, 2009 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19571946

RESUMO

We analyze a mechanism of direct laser writing of microlenses. We find that thermal effects and photochemical reactions are responsible for microlens formation on a sensitized gelatin layer. An infrared camera was used to assess the temperature distribution during the microlens formation, while the diffraction pattern produced by the microlens itself was used to estimate optical properties. The study of thermal processes enabled us to establish the correlation between thermal and optical parameters.


Assuntos
Gelatina , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Lentes , Raios Infravermelhos , Dispositivos Ópticos , Fenômenos Ópticos , Termografia
12.
Opt Express ; 13(5): 1448-56, 2005 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19495020

RESUMO

We have experimentally studied electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) in hot 85Rb atomic vapor using probe and coupling light with comparable power levels. We have shown that strong-probe EIT has different linewidth and appears in fewer configurations than does usual, weak probe EIT. In V-scheme, where optical pumping and saturation are dominant mechanisms, narrow EIT is possible only when a probe is tuned to a closed transition. The width of the EIT resonance increases with laser intensity with non-linear dependence, similar to the weak-probe EIT in Lambda- scheme. The EIT in Lambda- scheme was observed when two transitions had balanced population losses. The EIA was modified for the case of a strong probe as well: in four-level N-scheme with Zeeman sublevels the EIA was observed only for a cycling transition when F'=F+1, where F and F' are the angular momenta of the 5 2S1/2 (ground) and 5 2P3/2 (excited) state hyper-fine levels, respectively. The combination of strong probe and strong coupling laser beam intensities allows observation of an absorption dip due to three-photon resonance in a four-level scheme that involves the Raman transitions via virtual level.

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