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1.
HERD ; : 1937586720953529, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim is to investigate how a new master studies course "Architecture, Health, and Well-being" (AHW) supports development of students' skills in understanding and assessing health-related research as well as applying research-based knowledge through unfolding of user perspectives in their design projects. BACKGROUND: With the growing focus on health-related research in Danish design practice, knowing how to translate research findings into research-informed design strategies becomes a preferable, if not (yet) a critical, skill. This calls for architecture educations to reconsider their graduate profiles and teaching curricula, thereby addressing research-to-practice gap. METHOD: Based on design project hand-ins, we evaluate whether students participating in the AHW course demonstrate greater sensibility toward user experiences and research-based design (RBD) in their master thesis projects, compared to students attending a more traditional architectural tectonic track. Evaluation relates to the use of scientific literature and theoretical frameworks on topics like "healing architecture" and applied user-oriented methods (interviews, personas, demographics). RESULTS: Our explorative analysis indicates that students have the skills to make a detailed user analysis when it comes to well-defined user groups in a highly specialized building (e.g., hospice patients and staff). The extent to which health-related research and user perspectives are applied in the design process seems to be primarily driven by thematic focus of the project (welfare buildings in contrast to housing). CONCLUSION: Despite the challenges in teaching students to assess and apply academic literature, a RBD paradigm in architectural education can help bridge emerging research knowledge with design skills and professional competencies.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967306

RESUMO

The environment plays an important role in disease dynamics and in determining the health of individuals. Specifically, the built environment has a large impact on the prevention and containment of both chronic and infectious disease in humans and in non-human animals. The effects of the built environment on health can be direct, for example, by influencing environmental quality, or indirect by influencing behaviours that impact disease transmission and health. Furthermore, these impacts can happen at many scales, from the individual to the society, and from the design of the plates we eat from to the design of cities. In this paper, we review the ways that the built environment affects both the prevention and the containment of chronic and infectious disease. We bring examples from both human and animal societies and attempt to identify parallels and gaps between the study of humans and animals that can be capitalized on to advance the scope and perspective of research in each respective field. By consolidating this literature, we hope to highlight the importance of built structures in determining the complex dynamics of disease and in impacting the health behaviours of both humans and animals.This article is part of the theme issue 'Interdisciplinary approaches for uncovering the impacts of architecture on collective behaviour'.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Doença Crônica , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Animais , Arquitetura , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Humanos , Comportamento de Nidação , Comportamento Social
3.
Front Psychol ; 7: 481, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27065937

RESUMO

Over the last few years, the efforts to reveal through neuroscientific lens the relations between the mind, body, and built environment have set a promising direction of using neuroscience for architecture. However, little has been achieved thus far in developing a systematic account that could be employed for interpreting current results and providing a consistent framework for subsequent scientific experimentation. In this context, the enactive perspective is proposed as a guide to studying architectural experience for two key reasons. Firstly, the enactive approach is specifically selected for its capacity to account for the profound connectedness of the organism and the world in an active and dynamic relationship, which is primarily shaped by the features of the body. Thus, particular emphasis is placed on the issues of embodiment and motivational factors as underlying constituents of the body-architecture interactions. Moreover, enactive understanding of the relational coupling between body schema and affordances of architectural spaces singles out the two-way bodily communication between architecture and its inhabitants, which can be also explored in immersive virtual reality settings. Secondly, enactivism has a strong foothold in phenomenological thinking that corresponds to the existing phenomenological discourse in architectural theory and qualitative design approaches. In this way, the enactive approach acknowledges the available common ground between neuroscience and architecture and thus allows a more accurate definition of investigative goals. Accordingly, the outlined model of architectural subject in enactive terms-that is, a model of a human being as embodied, enactive, and situated agent, is proposed as a basis of neuroscientific and phenomenological interpretation of architectural experience.

4.
Cogn Process ; 16 Suppl 1: 425-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26224275

RESUMO

The recent efforts aimed at providing neuroscientific explanations of how people perceive and experience architectural environments have largely justified the initial belief in the value of neuroscience for architecture. However, a systematic development of a coherent theoretical and experimental framework is missing. To investigate the neurophysiological reactions related to the appreciation of ambiances, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in an immersive virtual reality during the appreciation of interior designs. Such data have been analyzed according to the working hypothesis that appreciated environments involve embodied simulation mechanisms and circuits mediating approaching stimuli. EEG recordings of 12 healthy subjects have been performed during the perception of three-dimensional interiors that have been simulated in a CAVE system and judged according to dimensions of familiarity, novelty, comfort, pleasantness, arousal and presence. A correlation analysis on personal judgments returned that scores of novelty, pleasantness and comfort are positively correlated, while familiarity and novelty are in negative way. Statistical spectral maps reveal that pleasant, novel and comfortable interiors produce a de-synchronization of the mu rhythm over left sensorimotor areas. Interiors judged more pleasant and less familiar generate an activation of left frontal areas (theta and alpha bands), along an involvement of areas devoted to spatial navigation. An increase in comfort returns an enhancement of the theta frontal midline activity. Cerebral activations underlying appreciation of architecture could involve different mechanisms regulating corporeal, emotional and cognitive reactions. Therefore, it might be suggested that people's experience of architectural environments is intrinsically structured by the possibilities for action.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções , Meio Ambiente , Motivação/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Espectral , Estatística como Assunto , Interface Usuário-Computador
5.
Front Psychol ; 6: 1944, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26733924

RESUMO

Nowadays there is the hope that neuroscientific findings will contribute to the improvement of building design in order to create environments which satisfy man's demands. This can be achieved through the understanding of neurophysiological correlates of architectural perception. To this aim, the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals of 12 healthy subjects were recorded during the perception of three immersive virtual reality environments (VEs). Afterwards, participants were asked to describe their experience in terms of Familiarity, Novelty, Comfort, Pleasantness, Arousal, and Presence using a rating scale from 1 to 9. These perceptual dimensions are hypothesized to influence the pattern of cerebral spectral activity, while Presence is used to assess the realism of the virtual stimulation. Hence, the collected scores were used to analyze the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the EEG for each behavioral dimension in the theta, alpha and mu bands by means of time-frequency analysis and topographic statistical maps. Analysis of Presence resulted in the activation of the frontal-midline theta, indicating the involvement of sensorimotor integration mechanisms when subjects expressed to feel more present in the VEs. Similar patterns also characterized the experience of familiar and comfortable VEs. In addition, pleasant VEs increased the theta power across visuomotor circuits and activated the alpha band in areas devoted to visuospatial exploration and processing of categorical spatial relations. Finally, the de-synchronization of the mu rhythm described the perception of pleasant and comfortable VEs, showing the involvement of left motor areas and embodied mechanisms for environment appreciation. Overall, these results show the possibility to measure EEG correlates of architectural perception involving the cerebral circuits of sensorimotor integration, spatial navigation, and embodiment. These observations can help testing architectural hypotheses in order to design environments matching the changing needs of humans.

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