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1.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(3): e28104, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) may develop a wide array of neurological symptoms, but associated cerebral physiologic changes are poorly understood. We examined cerebral hemodynamic properties of pediatric LCH using arterial spin-labeling (ASL) perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in 23 children with biopsy-proven LCH. Analysis was performed on routine brain MRI obtained before or after therapy. Region of interest (ROI) methodology was used to determine ASL cerebral blood flow (CBF) (mL/100 g/min) in the following bilateral regions: angular gyrus, anterior prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and hippocampus. Quantile (median) regression was performed for each ROI location. CBF patterns were compared between pre- and posttreatment LCH patients as well as with age-matched healthy controls. RESULTS: Significantly reduced CBF was seen in posttreatment children with LCH compared to age-matched controls in angular gyrus (P = .046), anterior prefrontal cortex (P = .039), and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (P = .023). Further analysis revealed dominant perfusion abnormalities in the right hemisphere. No significant perfusion differences were observed in the hippocampus or orbitofrontal cortex. CONCLUSION: Perfusion in specific cerebral regions may be consistently reduced in children with LCH, and may represent effects of underlying disease physiology and/or sequelae of chemotherapy. Studies that combine a formal cognitive assessment and hemodynamic data may further provide insight into perfusion deficits associated with the disease and the potential neurotoxic effects in children treated by chemotherapy.

2.
J Pediatr ; 212: 66-72.e3, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the "risk status" of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the gastrointestinal tract. STUDY DESIGN: Outcomes from 43 published cases of patients with LCH and gastrointestinal tract involvement were matched to 43 patients with LCH without gastrointestinal tract involvement cared for at our institution. Comparisons were made of the 5-year overall survival rates determined from Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the entire cohort of patients, as well as subgroups defined by lack of risk organ involvement and later era of treatment (to control for temporal changes in LCH treatment regimens). In addition, an association between LCH-gastrointestinal tract and risk organ involvement was investigated. RESULTS: The 5-year overall survival for children with LCH-gastrointestinal tract (45.3%) was significantly worse than for those without gastrointestinal tract involvement (94.6%; P = .001). This difference remained significant after we excluded risk organ involvement (53.6%% vs 100%; P = .001), and analyzing subjects diagnosed after 2000 (75% vs 100%; P = .012). A 4-fold increase in risk organ involvement with LCH-gastrointestinal tract was observed (OR 4.359; 95% CI 1.75-10.82, P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: This limited retrospective study suggests that patients with LCH-gastrointestinal tract involvement may have decreased survival, independent of risk organ involvement, and provides evidence to support a prospective study to evaluate risk organ status of LCH-gastrointestinal tract. LCH-gastrointestinal tract may be associated with a 4-fold risk for risk organ involvement. Attention to gastrointestinal symptoms and LCH-gastrointestinal tract in young children diagnosed with LCH is warranted.

3.
Am J Hematol ; 94(7): 741-750, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945320

RESUMO

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder with isolated thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic risk. While many children with ITP can be safely observed, treatments are often needed for various reasons, including to decrease bleeding, or to improve health related quality of life (HRQoL). There are a number of available second-line treatments, including rituximab, thrombopoietin-receptor agonists, oral immunosuppressive agents, and splenectomy, but data comparing treatment outcomes are lacking. ICON1 is a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 120 children starting second-line treatments for ITP designed to compare treatment outcomes including platelet count, bleeding, and HRQoL utilizing the Kids ITP Tool (KIT). While all treatments resulted in increased platelet counts, romiplostim had the most pronounced effect at 6 months (P = .04). Only patients on romiplostim and rituximab had a significant reduction in both skin-related (84% to 48%, P = .01 and 81% to 43%, P = .004) and non-skin-related bleeding symptoms (58% to 14%, P = .0001 and 54% to 17%, P = .0006) after 1 month of treatment. HRQoL significantly improved on all treatments. However, only patients treated with eltrombopag had a median improvement in KIT scores at 1 month that met the minimal important difference (MID). Bleeding, platelet count, and HRQoL improved in each treatment group, but the extent and timing of the effect varied among treatments. These results are hypothesis generating and help to improve our understanding of the effect of each treatment on specific patient outcomes. Combined with future randomized trials, these findings will help clinicians select the optimal second-line treatment for an individual child with ITP.

4.
Genet Med ; 21(7): 1517-1524, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542204

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kaposiform lymphangiomatosis (KLA) is a rare, frequently aggressive, systemic disorder of the lymphatic vasculature, occurring primarily in children. Even with multimodal treatments, KLA has a poor prognosis and high mortality rate secondary to coagulopathy, effusions, and systemic involvement. We hypothesized that, as has recently been found for other vascular anomalies, KLA may be caused by somatic mosaic variants affecting vascular development. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing of tumor samples from five individuals with KLA, along with samples from uninvolved control tissue in three of the five. We used digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) to validate the exome findings and to screen KLA samples from six other individuals. RESULTS: We identified a somatic activating NRAS variant (c.182 A>G, p.Q61R) in lesional tissue from 10/11 individuals, at levels ranging from 1% to 28%, that was absent from the tested control tissues. CONCLUSION: The activating NRAS p.Q61R variant is a known "hotspot" variant, frequently identified in several types of human cancer, especially melanoma. KLA, therefore, joins a growing group of vascular malformations and tumors caused by somatic activating variants in the RAS/PI3K/mTOR signaling pathways. This discovery will expand treatment options for these high-risk patients as there is potential for use of targeted RAS pathway inhibitors.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Doenças Linfáticas/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Doenças Linfáticas/patologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
Cancer ; 125(6): 963-971, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplasm characterized by the presence of abnormal CD1a-positive (CD1a+ )/CD207+ histiocytes. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) represents a spectrum of hyperinflammatory syndromes typified by the dysregulated activation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Patients with LCH, particularly those with multisystem (MS) involvement, can develop severe hyperinflammation mimicking that observed in HLH. Nevertheless, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding the prevalence, timing, risk factors for development, and outcomes of children and young adults who develop HLH within the context of MS-LCH (hereafter referred to LCH-associated HLH). METHODS: To gain further insights, the authors conducted a retrospective, multicenter study and collected data regarding all patients diagnosed with MS-LCH between 2000 and 2015. RESULTS: Of 384 patients with MS-LCH, 32 were reported by their primary providers to have met the diagnostic criteria for HLH, yielding an estimated 2-year cumulative incidence of 9.3% ± 1.6%. The majority of patients developed HLH at or after the diagnosis of MS-LCH, and nearly one-third (31%) had evidence of an intercurrent infection. Patient age <2 years at the time of diagnosis of LCH; female sex; LCH involvement of the liver, spleen, and hematopoietic system; and a lack of bone involvement each were found to be independently associated with an increased risk of LCH-associated HLH. Patients with MS-LCH who met the criteria for HLH had significantly poorer 5-year survival compared with patients with MS-LCH who did not meet the criteria for HLH (69% vs 97%; P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Given its inferior prognosis, further efforts are warranted to enhance the recognition and optimize the treatment of patients with LCH-associated HLH.


Assuntos
Sistema Hematopoético/imunologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/complicações , Fígado/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/epidemiologia , Baço/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Sistema Hematopoético/patologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fígado/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Baço/patologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA Dermatol ; 154(11): 1316-1319, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326494

RESUMO

Importance: Current therapeutic options for patients with extracranial head and neck arteriovenous malformations are limited. Surgical intervention, such as sclerotherapy or resection, often result in rapid recurrence and progression of disease. Objective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of sirolimus as an adjuvant therapy for endovascular embolization in the management of complicated extracranial head and neck arteriovenous malformations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series examined 6 patients with extracranial head and neck arteriovenous malformations treated from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017, at a multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinic within Stanford Hospital and Clinics. Intervention: Initiation of sirolimus at least 1 month prior to endovascular embolization, targeting a trough level of 10 to 15 ng/mL throughout the course of the endovascular embolization series and continued for at least 1 month after the series. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical manifestations; disease progression and overall response to treatment were assessed via clinical evaluation and radiographic imaging. Results: All 6 patients (4 male and 2 female patients; mean age, 24.5 years [range, 9-44 years]) responded favorably to the combination of sirolimus therapy followed by endovascular embolization, and 4 patients exhibited a near-complete response. The median duration of follow-up was 19 months (range, 6-40 months). One patient discontinued sirolimus soon after embolization and experienced regrowth of the arteriovenous malformation after 1 year. Sirolimus was resumed, which has stabilized his disease for more than 2 years. Mild adverse effects were noted in 4 patients. The combination therapy was well tolerated in all patients. One patient developed skin ulceration after embolization and required surgical debridement. Another patient developed pulmonary microthrombi after embolization with cyanoacrylate glue that resolved with a brief course of anti-inflammatory therapy. Conclusions and Relevance: Although further prospective trials are needed, this report suggests the benefit of a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor as an adjuvant therapy for surgical embolization of complex, extracranial head and neck arteriovenous malformations. The optimal dosing and therapeutic duration of sirolimus treatment before and after embolization remain to be determined.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Malformações Arteriovenosas/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Cabeça/irrigação sanguínea , Pescoço/irrigação sanguínea , Escleroterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cancer ; 124(12): 2607-2620, 2018 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29624648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system Langerhans cell histiocytosis (CNS-LCH) brain involvement may include mass lesions and/or a neurodegenerative disease (LCH-ND) of unknown etiology. The goal of this study was to define the mechanisms of pathogenesis that drive CNS-LCH. METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers including CSF proteins and extracellular BRAFV600E DNA were analyzed in CSF from patients with CNS-LCH lesions compared with patients with brain tumors and other neurodegenerative conditions. Additionally, the presence of BRAFV600E was tested in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) as well as brain biopsies from LCH-ND patients, and the response to BRAF-V600E inhibitor was evaluated in 4 patients with progressive disease. RESULTS: Osteopontin was the only consistently elevated CSF protein in patients with CNS-LCH compared with patients with other brain pathologies. BRAFV600E DNA was detected in CSF of only 2/20 (10%) cases, both with LCH-ND and active lesions outside the CNS. However, BRAFV600E+ PBMCs were detected with significantly higher frequency at all stages of therapy in LCH patients who developed LCH-ND. Brain biopsies of patients with LCH-ND demonstrated diffuse perivascular infiltration by BRAFV600E+ cells with monocyte phenotype (CD14+ CD33+ CD163+ P2RY12- ) and associated osteopontin expression. Three of 4 patients with LCH-ND treated with BRAF-V600E inhibitor experienced significant clinical and radiologic improvement. CONCLUSION: In LCH-ND patients, BRAFV600E+ cells in PBMCs and infiltrating myeloid/monocytic cells in the brain is consistent with LCH-ND as an active demyelinating process arising from a mutated hematopoietic precursor from which LCH lesion CD207+ cells are also derived. Therapy directed against myeloid precursors with activated MAPK signaling may be effective for LCH-ND. Cancer 2018;124:2607-20. © 2018 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/diagnóstico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico , Osteopontina/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biópsia , Encéfalo/patologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Hematol ; 93(7): 882-888, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659042

RESUMO

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired autoimmune bleeding disorder which presents with isolated thrombocytopenia and risk of hemorrhage. While most children with ITP promptly recover with or without drug therapy, ITP is persistent or chronic in others. When needed, how to select second-line therapies is not clear. ICON1, conducted within the Pediatric ITP Consortium of North America (ICON), is a prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study of 120 children from 21 centers starting second-line treatments for ITP which examined treatment decisions. Treating physicians reported reasons for selecting therapies, ranking the top three. In a propensity weighted model, the most important factors were patient/parental preference (53%) and treatment-related factors: side effect profile (58%), long-term toxicity (54%), ease of administration (46%), possibility of remission (45%), and perceived efficacy (30%). Physician, health system, and clinical factors rarely influenced decision-making. Patient/parent preferences were selected as reasons more often in chronic ITP (85.7%) than in newly diagnosed (0%) or persistent ITP (14.3%, P = .003). Splenectomy and rituximab were chosen for the possibility of inducing long-term remission (P < .001). Oral agents, such as eltrombopag and immunosuppressants, were chosen for ease of administration and expected adherence (P < .001). Physicians chose rituximab in patients with lower expected adherence (P = .017). Treatment choice showed some physician and treatment center bias. This study illustrates the complexity and many factors involved in decision-making in selecting second-line ITP treatments, given the absence of comparative trials. It highlights shared decision-making and the need for well-conducted, comparative effectiveness studies to allow for informed discussion between patients and clinicians.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Médicos/psicologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Esplenectomia
9.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 40(1): 67-70, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28859041

RESUMO

Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT, MIM# 604498) is a rare congenital bone marrow failure syndrome which presents early in life with abnormal bleeding because of thrombocytopenia. Classically, megakaryocytes are decreased to absent in the bone marrow. The development of aplastic anemia early in childhood has led to the recommendation for early stem cell transplantation. Quantitative or loss-of-function mutations in the myeloproliferative leukemia gene (c-mpl), whose gene product functions as the thrombopoietin receptor, have been identified as causative for CAMT. Approximately 100 cases of CAMT are published in the medical literature. We describe 2 cases of CAMT who demonstrate disparate clinical courses, thereby highlighting phenotypic differences and increasing awareness of this clinical entity.


Assuntos
Mutação , Receptores de Trombopoetina/genética , Trombocitopenia/genética , Anemia Aplástica/etiologia , Anemia Aplástica/terapia , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Megacariócitos/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco
10.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 34(5): 559-565, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are challenging to treat. Reports on the benefits of sildenafil for LM management have been mixed. This study evaluated long-term clinical outcomes of pediatric LM patients after sildenafil treatment. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on pediatric LM patients treated with sildenafil in the past 5 years. Patients were also contacted to complete a survey of comprehensive questions about their LM after sildenafil and subsequent interventions. RESULTS: Of 12 patients identified, 10 (83.3%) participated in the follow-up survey. The average age was 8 years (range 4-16 yrs), median treatment duration was 9 months, and the average time of follow-up after sildenafil was 4 years; one patient is still taking sildenafil. Ten patients surveyed (83.3%) reported positive therapeutic response, with improvement in the size and compressibility of their LM during posttreatment clinical visits. Six received additional interventions (four sirolimus, one sclerotherapy, one surgery) after sildenafil was discontinued, with all but one reporting a positive response to subsequent interventions. Minor side effects at the time of sildenafil treatment included mild flushing, dizziness, and transient nausea, but no adverse effects were reported at the long-term follow-up. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of long-term follow-up of pediatric LM patients treated with sildenafil. Our findings suggest that sildenafil is beneficial for the symptomatic treatment of LMs. Additional analysis on the role of sildenafil as adjuvant therapy is necessary to optimize the use of this medication in the management of complex LMs.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Linfáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Citrato de Sildenafila/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
11.
Transfusion ; 57(11): 2639-2648, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergic transfusion reactions are drawbacks to the benefits of transfusion. Classically, allergic transfusion reactions depend on histamine release from mast cells or basophils, but other leukocyte subsets may also be important. Thus, we propose to better define the exact leukocyte subsets involved in allergic transfusion reactions. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The overall objective of the current study was to compare the activation of specific peripheral blood leukocyte subsets (monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) in a cohort of 13 patients who received chronic transfusions and had a history of allergic transfusion reactions compared with a control group of patients who received chronic transfusions and had no history of allergic transfusion reactions. Leukocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry at baseline and after red blood cell transfusion, and cytokine levels in platelet-free plasma collected at the same time points were measured by Luminex assay. RESULTS: Flow cytometry and cytokine profiles before and after transfusion did not differ significantly between patients who did and did not have a history of allergic transfusion reactions (p > 0.05). However, post-transfusion samples from both groups showed a decrease in CD63 expression in basophils, monocytes, and eosinophils and a decrease in CD45 expression in all leukocyte subsets compared with pretransfusion samples. Interleukin 10 levels increased after transfusion in the group with a history of allergic transfusion reactions (p = 0.0469), and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) was significantly decreased post-transfusion in all patients (p = 0.0122). CONCLUSION: None of the leukocyte subsets from patients who had a history of allergic transfusion reactions significantly increased in activation either before or after transfusion. All leukocyte subsets from patients who did and did not have a history of allergic transfusion reactions decreased in their activation profile upon transfusion challenge.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Transfusão de Leucócitos/efeitos adversos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Plasma/metabolismo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/análise , Leucócitos/citologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Plasma/citologia , Tetraspanina 30/análise , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Pediatr ; 189: 72-78.e3, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a diagnostic score that assists in discriminating primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (pHLH) from macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) related to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis. STUDY DESIGN: The clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic features of 362 patients with MAS and 258 patients with pHLH were collected in a multinational collaborative study. Eighty percent of the population was assessed to develop the score and the remaining 20% constituted the validation sample. Variables that entered the best fitted model of logistic regression were assigned a score, based on their statistical weight. The MAS/HLH (MH) score was made up with the individual scores of selected variables. The cutoff in the MH score that discriminated pHLH from MAS best was calculated by means of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Score performance was examined in both developmental and validation samples. RESULTS: Six variables composed the MH score: age at onset, neutrophil count, fibrinogen, splenomegaly, platelet count, and hemoglobin. The MH score ranged from 0 to 123, and its median value was 97 (1st-3rd quartile 75-123) and 12 (1st-3rd quartile 11-34) in pHLH and MAS, respectively. The probability of a diagnosis of pHLH ranged from <1% for a score of <11 to >99% for a score of ≥123. A cutoff value of ≥60 revealed the best performance in discriminating pHLH from MAS. CONCLUSION: The MH score is a powerful tool that may aid practitioners to identify patients who are more likely to have pHLH and, thus, could be prioritized for functional and genetic testing.


Assuntos
Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Cancer ; 123(19): 3781-3790, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric oncology patients are at an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection due to immunosuppression. The risk of such infection in the absence of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/µL) is not well established and a validated prediction model for blood stream infection (BSI) risk offers clinical usefulness. METHODS: A 6-site retrospective external validation was conducted using a previously published risk prediction model for BSI in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia: the Esbenshade/Vanderbilt (EsVan) model. A reduced model (EsVan2) excluding 2 less clinically reliable variables also was created using the initial EsVan model derivative cohort, and was validated using all 5 external validation cohorts. One data set was used only in sensitivity analyses due to missing some variables. RESULTS: From the 5 primary data sets, there were a total of 1197 febrile episodes and 76 episodes of bacteremia. The overall C statistic for predicting bacteremia was 0.695, with a calibration slope of 0.50 for the original model and a calibration slope of 1.0 when recalibration was applied to the model. The model performed better in predicting high-risk bacteremia (gram-negative or Staphylococcus aureus infection) versus BSI alone, with a C statistic of 0.801 and a calibration slope of 0.65. The EsVan2 model outperformed the EsVan model across data sets with a C statistic of 0.733 for predicting BSI and a C statistic of 0.841 for high-risk BSI. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this external validation demonstrated that the EsVan and EsVan2 models are able to predict BSI across multiple performance sites and, once validated and implemented prospectively, could assist in decision making in clinical practice. Cancer 2017;123:3781-3790. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Neutropenia Febril/microbiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Staphylococcus aureus , Incerteza
14.
AJP Rep ; 6(4): e384, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27822433

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1593443.].

15.
AJP Rep ; 6(4): e355-e358, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27708981

RESUMO

Introduction Gorham-Stout Disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of bony destruction due to lymphangiomatosis, and is often triggered by hormones. One complication of GSD is the development of chylothorax, which carries a high mortality rate. Very little experience has been published to guide management in GSD during pregnancy to optimize both fetal and maternal health. Case Study A 20-year-old woman with known GSD presented with shortness of breath at 18 weeks of pregnancy, due to bilateral chylothoraces which required daily drainage. To minimize chylous fluid formation, she was placed on bowel rest with total parenteral nutrition (limiting lipid intake) and received octreotide to decrease splanchnic blood flow and chylous fluid drainage. Treatment options were limited due to her pregnancy. Twice daily home chest tube drainage of a single lung cavity, total parenteral nutrition, octreotide, and albumin infusions allowed successful delivery of a healthy 37 weeks' gestation infant by cesarean delivery. Discussion This case illustrates the management of a rare clinical disease of bone resorption and lymphangiomatosis complicated by bilateral, refractory chylothoraces, triggered by pregnancy, in whom treatment options are limited, and the need for a multidisciplinary health care team to ensure successful maternal and fetal outcomes.

18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(5): 1337-45, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26025129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperzincemia and hypercalprotectinemia (Hz/Hc) is a distinct autoinflammatory entity involving extremely high serum concentrations of the proinflammatory alarmin myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8/14 (S100A8/S100A9 and calprotectin). OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the genetic cause and clinical spectrum of Hz/Hc. METHODS: Proline-serine-threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 1 (PSTPIP1) gene sequencing was performed in 14 patients with Hz/Hc, and their clinical phenotype was compared with that of 11 patients with pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne (PAPA) syndrome. PSTPIP1-pyrin interactions were analyzed by means of immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. A structural model of the PSTPIP1 dimer was generated. Cytokine profiles were analyzed by using the multiplex immunoassay, and MRP8/14 serum concentrations were analyzed by using an ELISA. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were heterozygous for a missense mutation in the PSTPIP1 gene, resulting in a p.E250K mutation, and 1 carried a mutation resulting in p.E257K. Both mutations substantially alter the electrostatic potential of the PSTPIP1 dimer model in a region critical for protein-protein interaction. Patients with Hz/Hc have extremely high MRP8/14 concentrations (2045 ± 1300 µg/mL) compared with those with PAPA syndrome (116 ± 74 µg/mL) and have a distinct clinical phenotype. A specific cytokine profile is associated with Hz/Hc. Hz/Hc mutations altered protein binding of PSTPIP1, increasing interaction with pyrin through phosphorylation of PSTPIP1. CONCLUSION: Mutations resulting in charge reversal in the y-domain of PSTPIP1 (E→K) and increased interaction with pyrin cause a distinct autoinflammatory disorder defined by clinical and biochemical features not found in patients with PAPA syndrome, indicating a unique genotype-phenotype correlation for mutations in the PSTPIP1 gene. This is the first inborn autoinflammatory syndrome in which inflammation is driven by uncontrolled release of members of the alarmin family.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Metais/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adolescente , Alarminas/genética , Alarminas/metabolismo , Calgranulina A/genética , Calgranulina A/metabolismo , Criança , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/genética , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Metais/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , Fosforilação , Ligação Proteica/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Multimerização Proteica , Pirina , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Rheumatol ; 42(6): 994-1001, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25877504

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To seek insights into the heterogeneity of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) complicating systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) through the analysis of a large patient sample collected in a multinational survey. METHODS: International pediatric rheumatologists and hemato-oncologists entered their patient data, collected retrospectively, in a Web-based database. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, histopathologic, therapeutic, and outcome data were analyzed in relation to (1) geographic location of caring hospital, (2) subspecialty of attending physician, (3) demonstration of hemophagocytosis, and (4) severity of clinical course. RESULTS: A total of 362 patients were included by 95 investigators from 33 countries. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic features were comparable among patients seen in diverse geographic areas or by different pediatric specialists. Patients seen in North America were given biologics more frequently. Patients entered by pediatric hemato-oncologists were treated more commonly with biologics and etoposide, whereas patients seen by pediatric rheumatologists more frequently received cyclosporine. Patients with demonstration of hemophagocytosis had shorter duration of sJIA at MAS onset, higher prevalence of hepatosplenomegaly, lower levels of platelets and fibrinogen, and were more frequently administered cyclosporine, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and etoposide. Patients with severe course were older, had longer duration of sJIA at MAS onset, had more full-blown clinical picture, and were more commonly given cyclosporine, IVIG, and etoposide. CONCLUSION: The clinical spectrum of MAS is comparable across patients seen in different geographic settings or by diverse pediatric subspecialists. There was a disparity in the therapeutic choices among physicians that underscores the need to establish uniform therapeutic protocols.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/epidemiologia , Artrite Juvenil/terapia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/terapia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Artrite Juvenil/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Síndrome de Ativação Macrofágica/diagnóstico , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise de Sobrevida
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