*Rev Sci Instrum ; 93(3): 033101, 2022 Mar 01.*

##### RESUMO

We develop a polarization characterization platform for optical devices in free-space quantum communications. We demonstrate an imaging polarimeter, which analyzes both incident polarization states and the angle of incidence, attached to a six-axis collaborative robot arm, enabling polarization characterization at any position and direction with consistent precision. We present a detailed description of each subsystem, including the calibration and polarization-test procedure, and analyze polarization measurement errors caused by imperfect orientations of the robot arm using a Mueller-matrix model of polarimeters at tilt incidence. We perform a proof-of-principle experiment for an angle-dependent polarization test for a commercial silver-coated mirror for which the polarization states of the reflected light can be accurately calculated. Quantitative agreement between the theory and experiment validates our methodology. We demonstrate the polarization test for a 20.3 cm lens designed for a quantum optical transmitter in Canada's Quantum Encryption and Science Satellite mission.

*Opt Express ; 29(20): 31348-31363, 2021 Sep 27.*

##### RESUMO

We investigate the impact of fiber birefringence and spontaneous Raman scattering on the properties of photon pairs that are generated by the spontaneous four-wave mixing process in birefringent fibers. Starting from the formulation of the theory of four-wave mixing, we show a theoretical model for a generated optical field with the consideration of the Raman scattering and a Gaussian-distributed pump. The theoretical model is then applied for deriving the closed expressions of the photon-pair spectral properties as a function of the fiber birefringence. Also, with the modeled Raman gain, we evaluate the reduction of the pair production rate due to the presence of the Raman effect as well as the contributions of the Raman-scattered photons over a broad wavelength range. The predictions are experimentally verified with a commercial polarization-maintaining fiber.

*Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(4): 041101, 2021 Apr 01.*

##### RESUMO

Entangled photon pairs are a critical resource in quantum communication protocols ranging from quantum key distribution to teleportation. The current workhorse technique for producing photon pairs is via spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in bulk nonlinear crystals. The increased prominence of quantum networks has led to a growing interest in deployable high performance entangled photon-pair sources. This manuscript provides a review of the state-of-the-art bulk-optics-based SPDC sources with continuous wave pump and discusses some of the main considerations when building for deployment.

*Light Sci Appl ; 10(1): 121, 2021 Jun 07.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum channels in free-space, an essential prerequisite for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum technologies in open space, have so far been based on direct line-of-sight because the predominant approaches for photon-encoding, including polarization and spatial modes, are not compatible with randomly scattered photons. Here we demonstrate a novel approach to transfer and recover quantum coherence from scattered, non-line-of-sight photons analyzed in a multimode and imaging interferometer for time-bins, combined with photon detection based on a 8 × 8 single-photon-detector-array. The observed time-bin visibility for scattered photons remained at a high 95% over a wide scattering angle range of -450 to +450, while the individual pixels in the detector array resolve or track an image in its field of view of ca. 0.5°. Using our method, we demonstrate the viability of two novel applications. Firstly, using scattered photons as an indirect channel for quantum communication thereby enabling non-line-of-sight quantum communication with background suppression, and secondly, using the combined arrival time and quantum coherence to enhance the contrast of low-light imaging and laser ranging under high background light. We believe our method will instigate new lines for research and development on applying photon coherence from scattered signals to quantum sensing, imaging, and communication in free-space environments.

*Opt Express ; 28(14): 20943-20953, 2020 Jul 06.*

##### RESUMO

The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect ranks among the most notable quantum interference phenomena, and is central to many applications in quantum technologies. The fundamental effect appears when two independent and indistinguishable photons are superimposed on a beam splitter, which achieves a complete suppression of coincidences between the two output ports. Much less studied, however, is when the fields share coherence (continuous-wave lasers) or mode envelope properties (pulsed lasers). In this case, we expect the existence of two distinct and concurrent HOM interference regimes: the traditional HOM dip on the coherence length time scale, and a structured HOM interference pattern on the pulse length scale. We develop a theoretical framework that describes HOM interference for laser fields having arbitrary temporal waveforms and only partial overlap in time. We observe structured HOM interference from a continuous-wave laser via fast polarization modulation and time-resolved single photon detection fast enough to resolve these structured HOM dips.

*Opt Express ; 27(26): 37214-37223, 2019 Dec 23.*

##### RESUMO

Despite its widespread use in fiber optics, encoding quantum information in photonic time-bin states is usually considered impractical for free-space quantum communication as turbulence-induced spatial distortion impedes the analysis of time-bin states at the receiver. Here, we demonstrate quantum key distribution using time-bin photonic states distorted by turbulence and depolarization during free-space transmission. Utilizing a novel analyzer apparatus, we observe stable quantum bit error ratios of 5.32 %, suitable for generating secure keys, despite significant wavefront distortions and polarization fluctuations across a 1.2 km channel. This shows the viability of time-bin quantum communication over long-distance free-space channels, which will simplify direct fiber/free-space interfaces and enable new approaches for practical free-space quantum communication over multi-mode, turbulent, or depolarizing channels.

*Opt Express ; 27(12): 17369-17376, 2019 Jun 10.*

##### RESUMO

A new implementation of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer is presented. Aimed at facilitating coherent optical wavelength conversion, the interferometer utilizes a novel double displacement technique that eliminates dispersion induced phase discrepancies between its input and output arms. To demonstrate the design, the interferometer was incorporated into a source of polarization entangled photon pairs. The source produced on average 2-3 million photon pairs per second per mW of pump power, the pairs emitted being maximally entangled in the polarization degree of freedom with a fidelity of ≥98%_. The new interferometer implementation is simple and robust and promises to become a design benchmark for polarization entangled photon sources.

*Opt Express ; 26(16): 21020-21032, 2018 Aug 06.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD) promises information theoretic secure key as long as the device performs as assumed in the theoretical model. One of the assumptions is an absence of information leakage about individual photon detection outcomes of the receiver unit. Here we investigate the information leakage from a QKD receiver due to photon emission caused by detection events in single-photon detectors (backflash). We test commercial silicon avalanche photodiodes and a photomultiplier tube, and find that the former emit backflashes. We study the spectral, timing and polarization characteristics of these backflash photons. We experimentally demonstrate on a free-space QKD receiver that an eavesdropper can distinguish which detector has clicked inside it, and thus acquire secret information. A set of countermeasures both in theory and on the physical devices are discussed.

*Nat Commun ; 9: 16198, 2018 03 26.*

##### RESUMO

This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ncomms5997.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(15): 153602, 2017 Apr 14.*

##### RESUMO

Multiparticle quantum interference is critical for our understanding and exploitation of quantum information, and for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. A remarkable example of multi-partite correlations is exhibited by the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. In a GHZ state, three particles are correlated while no pairwise correlation is found. The manifestation of these strong correlations in an interferometric setting has been studied theoretically since 1990 but no three-photon GHZ interferometer has been realized experimentally. Here we demonstrate three-photon interference that does not originate from two-photon or single photon interference. We observe phase-dependent variation of three-photon coincidences with (92.7±4.6)% visibility in a generalized Franson interferometer using energy-time entangled photon triplets. The demonstration of these strong correlations in an interferometric setting provides new avenues for multiphoton interferometry, fundamental tests of quantum mechanics, and quantum information applications in higher dimensions.

*EPJ Quantum Technol ; 4(1): 10, 2017.*

##### RESUMO

Single-photon detectors in space must retain useful performance characteristics despite being bombarded with sub-atomic particles. Mitigating the effects of this space radiation is vital to enabling new space applications which require high-fidelity single-photon detection. To this end, we conducted proton radiation tests of various models of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and one model of photomultiplier tube potentially suitable for satellite-based quantum communications. The samples were irradiated with 106 MeV protons at doses approximately equivalent to lifetimes of 0.6 , 6, 12 and 24 months in a low-Earth polar orbit. Although most detection properties were preserved, including efficiency, timing jitter and afterpulsing probability, all APD samples demonstrated significant increases in dark count rate (DCR) due to radiation-induced damage, many orders of magnitude higher than the 200 counts per second (cps) required for ground-to-satellite quantum communications. We then successfully demonstrated the mitigation of this DCR degradation through the use of deep cooling, to as low as - 86 ∘ C . This achieved DCR below the required 200 cps over the 24 months orbit duration. DCR was further reduced by thermal annealing at temperatures of +50 to + 100 ∘ C .

*EPJ Quantum Technol ; 4(1): 11, 2017.*

##### RESUMO

Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are a practical option for space-based quantum communications requiring single-photon detection. However, radiation damage to APDs significantly increases their dark count rates and thus reduces their useful lifetimes in orbit. We show that high-power laser annealing of irradiated APDs of three different models (Excelitas C30902SH, Excelitas SLiK, and Laser Components SAP500S2) heals the radiation damage and several APDs are restored to typical pre-radiation dark count rates. Of nine samples we test, six APDs were thermally annealed in a previous experiment as another solution to mitigate the radiation damage. Laser annealing reduces the dark count rates further in all samples with the maximum dark count rate reduction factor varying between 5.3 and 758 when operating at - 80 ∘ C . This indicates that laser annealing is a more effective method than thermal annealing. The illumination power to reach these reduction factors ranges from 0.8 to 1.6 W. Other photon detection characteristics, such as photon detection efficiency, timing jitter, and afterpulsing probability, fluctuate but the overall performance of quantum communications should be largely unaffected by these variations. These results herald a promising method to extend the lifetime of a quantum satellite equipped with APDs.

*Opt Express ; 24(18): 20947-55, 2016 Sep 05.*

##### RESUMO

Correlated photon pairs produced by a spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) process can be used for secure quantum communication over long distances including free space transmission over a link through turbulent atmosphere. We experimentally investigate the possibility to utilize the intrinsic strong correlation between the pump and output photon spatial modes to mitigate the negative targeting effects of atmospheric beam wander. Our approach is based on a demonstration observing the deflection of the beam on a spatially resolved array of single photon avalanche diodes (SPAD-array).

*Phys Rev Lett ; 116(7): 070501, 2016 Feb 19.*

##### RESUMO

We present an implementation of photonic qubit precertification that performs the delicate task of detecting the presence of a flying photon without destroying its qubit state, allowing loss-sensitive quantum cryptography and tests of nonlocality even over long distance. By splitting an incoming single photon in two via parametric down-conversion, we herald the photon's arrival from an independent photon source while preserving its quantum information with up to (92.3±0.6)% fidelity. With reduced detector dark counts, precertification will be immediately useful in quantum communication.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 115(25): 250402, 2015 Dec 18.*

##### RESUMO

We present a loophole-free violation of local realism using entangled photon pairs. We ensure that all relevant events in our Bell test are spacelike separated by placing the parties far enough apart and by using fast random number generators and high-speed polarization measurements. A high-quality polarization-entangled source of photons, combined with high-efficiency, low-noise, single-photon detectors, allows us to make measurements without requiring any fair-sampling assumptions. Using a hypothesis test, we compute p values as small as 5.9×10^{-9} for our Bell violation while maintaining the spacelike separation of our events. We estimate the degree to which a local realistic system could predict our measurement choices. Accounting for this predictability, our smallest adjusted p value is 2.3×10^{-7}. We therefore reject the hypothesis that local realism governs our experiment.

*Opt Express ; 23(26): 33437-47, 2015 Dec 28.*

##### RESUMO

Technological realities limit terrestrial quantum key distribution (QKD) to single-link distances of a few hundred kilometers. One promising avenue for global-scale quantum communication networks is to use low-Earth-orbit satellites. Here we report the first demonstration of QKD from a stationary transmitter to a receiver platform traveling at an angular speed equivalent to a 600 km altitude satellite, located on a moving truck. We overcome the challenges of actively correcting beam pointing, photon polarization and time-of-flight. Our system generates an asymptotic secure key at 40 bits/s.

*Nat Commun ; 5: 4997, 2014 Sep 26.*

##### RESUMO

Wave-particle duality, superposition and entanglement are among the most counterintuitive features of quantum theory. Their clash with our classical expectations motivated hidden-variable (HV) theories. With the emergence of quantum technologies, we can test experimentally the predictions of quantum theory versus HV theories and put strong restrictions on their key assumptions. Here, we study an entanglement-assisted version of the quantum delayed-choice experiment and show that the extension of HV to the controlling devices only exacerbates the contradiction. We compare HV theories that satisfy the conditions of objectivity (a property of photons being either particles or waves, but not both), determinism and local independence of hidden variables with quantum mechanics. Any two of the above conditions are compatible with it. The conflict becomes manifest when all three conditions are imposed and persists for any non-zero value of entanglement. We propose an experiment to test our conclusions.

*Opt Lett ; 39(6): 1481-4, 2014 Mar 15.*

##### RESUMO

Spectrally correlated photon pairs can be used to improve the performance of long-range fiber-based quantum communication protocols. We present a source based on spontaneous parametric downconversion, which allows one to control spectral correlations within the entangled photon pair without spectral filtering by changing the pump-pulse duration or the characteristics of the coupled spatial modes. The spectral correlations and polarization entanglement are characterized. We find that the generated photon pairs can feature both positive spectral correlations, decorrelation, or negative correlations at the same time as polarization entanglement with a high fidelity of 0.97 (no background subtraction) with the expected Bell state.

*Sci Rep ; 4: 4685, 2014 Apr 28.*

##### RESUMO

The double-slit experiment strikingly demonstrates the wave-particle duality of quantum objects. In this famous experiment, particles pass one-by-one through a pair of slits and are detected on a distant screen. A distinct wave-like pattern emerges after many discrete particle impacts as if each particle is passing through both slits and interfering with itself. Here we present a temporally- and spatially-resolved measurement of the double-slit interference pattern using single photons. We send single photons through a birefringent double-slit apparatus and use a linear array of single-photon detectors to observe the developing interference pattern. The analysis of the buildup allows us to compare quantum mechanics and the corpuscular model, which aims to explain the mystery of single-particle interference. Finally, we send one photon from an entangled pair through our double-slit setup and show the dependence of the resulting interference pattern on the twin photon's measured state. Our results provide new insight into the dynamics of the buildup process in the double-slit experiment, and can be used as a valuable resource in quantum information applications.

*Sci Rep ; 3: 2314, 2013.*

##### RESUMO

Creating miniature chip scale implementations of optical quantum information protocols is a dream for many in the quantum optics community. This is largely because of the promise of stability and scalability. Here we present a monolithically integratable chip architecture upon which is built a photonic device primitive called a Bragg reflection waveguide (BRW). Implemented in gallium arsenide, we show that, via the process of spontaneous parametric down conversion, the BRW is capable of directly producing polarization entangled photons without additional path difference compensation, spectral filtering or post-selection. After splitting the twin-photons immediately after they emerge from the chip, we perform a variety of correlation tests on the photon pairs and show non-classical behaviour in their polarization. Combined with the BRW's versatile architecture our results signify the BRW design as a serious contender on which to build large scale implementations of optical quantum processing devices.