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IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(12): 4507-4519, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746267


We introduce Tilt Map, a novel interaction technique for intuitively transitioning between 2D and 3D map visualisations in immersive environments. Our focus is visualising data associated with areal features on maps, for example, population density by state. Tilt Map transitions from 2D choropleth maps to 3D prism maps to 2D bar charts to overcome the limitations of each. Our article includes two user studies. The first study compares subjects' task performance interpreting population density data using 2D choropleth maps and 3D prism maps in virtual reality (VR). We observed greater task accuracy with prism maps, but faster response times with choropleth maps. The complementarity of these views inspired our hybrid Tilt Map design. Our second study compares Tilt Map to: a side-by-side arrangement of the various views; and interactive toggling between views. The results indicate benefits for Tilt Map in user preference; and accuracy (versus side-by-side) and time (versus toggle).

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1171-1181, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048740


Immersive technologies offer new opportunities to support collaborative visual data analysis by providing each collaborator a personal, high-resolution view of a flexible shared visualisation space through a head mounted display. However, most prior studies of collaborative immersive analytics have focused on how groups interact with surface interfaces such as tabletops and wall displays. This paper reports on a study in which teams of three co-located participants are given flexible visualisation authoring tools to allow a great deal of control in how they structure their shared workspace. They do so using a prototype system we call FIESTA: the Free-roaming Immersive Environment to Support Team-based Analysis. Unlike traditional visualisation tools, FIESTA allows users to freely position authoring interfaces and visualisation artefacts anywhere in the virtual environment, either on virtual surfaces or suspended within the interaction space. Our participants solved visual analytics tasks on a multivariate data set, doing so individually and collaboratively by creating a large number of 2D and 3D visualisations. Their behaviours suggest that the usage of surfaces is coupled with the type of visualisation used, often using walls to organise 2D visualisations, but positioning 3D visualisations in the space around them. Outside of tightly-coupled collaboration, participants followed social protocols and did not interact with visualisations that did not belong to them even if outside of its owner's personal workspace.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 27(2): 1225-1235, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048742


Shaded relief is an effective method for visualising terrain on topographic maps, especially when the direction of illumination is adapted locally to emphasise individual terrain features. However, digital shading algorithms are unable to fully match the expressiveness of hand-crafted masterpieces, which are created through a laborious process by highly specialised cartographers. We replicate hand-drawn relief shading using U-Net neural networks. The deep neural networks are trained with manual shaded relief images of the Swiss topographic map series and terrain models of the same area. The networks generate shaded relief that closely resemble hand-drawn shaded relief art. The networks learn essential design principles from manual relief shading such as removing unnecessary terrain details, locally adjusting the illumination direction to accentuate individual terrain features, and varying brightness to emphasise larger landforms. Neural network shadings are generated from digital elevation models in a few seconds, and a study with 18 relief shading experts found that they are of high quality.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136995


Immersive virtual- and augmented-reality headsets can overlay a flat image against any surface or hang virtual objects in the space around the user. The technology is rapidly improving and may, in the long term, replace traditional flat panel displays in many situations. When displays are no longer intrinsically flat, how should we use the space around the user for abstract data visualisation? In this paper, we ask this question with respect to origin-destination flow data in a global geographic context. We report on the findings of three studies exploring different spatial encodings for flow maps. The first experiment focuses on different 2D and 3D encodings for flows on flat maps. We find that participants are significantly more accurate with raised flow paths whose height is proportional to flow distance but fastest with traditional straight line 2D flows. In our second and third experiment we compared flat maps, 3D globes and a novel interactive design we call MapsLink, involving a pair of linked flat maps. We find that participants took significantly more time with MapsLink than other flow maps while the 3D globe with raised flows was the fastest, most accurate, and most preferred method. Our work suggests that careful use of the third spatial dimension can resolve visual clutter in complex flow maps.