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1.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 115, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been linked to increased risk of ischemic heart disease, yet evidence on stroke shows mixed results. We examine the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incidence of stroke, overall and by subtype (ischemic or hemorrhagic), after adjustment for air pollution. METHODS: Twenty-five thousand six hundred and sixty female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort recruited in 1993 or 1999 were followed for stroke-related first-ever hospital contact until December 31st, 2014. Full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained and annual means of road traffic noise (Lden [dB]) and air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm [PM2.5 and PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitrogen oxides [NOx]) were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for the associations of one-, three-, and 23-year running means of Lden preceding stroke (all, ischemic or hemorrhagic), adjusting for stroke risk factors and air pollutants. The World Health Organization and the Danish government's maximum exposure recommendations of 53 and 58 dB, respectively, were explored as potential Lden thresholds. RESULTS: Of 25,660 nurses, 1237 developed their first stroke (1089 ischemic, 148 hemorrhagic) during 16 years mean follow-up. For associations between a 1-year mean of Lden and overall stroke incidence, the estimated HR (95% CI) in the fully adjusted model was 1.06 (0.98-1.14) per 10 dB, which attenuated to 1.01 (0.93-1.09) and 1.00 (0.91-1.09) in models further adjusted for PM2.5 or NO2, respectively. Associations for other exposure periods or separately for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were similar. There was no evidence of a threshold association between Lden and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was suggestively positively associated with the risk of overall stroke, although not after adjusting for air pollution.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e021436, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612059

RESUMO

Background We examined the association of long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise with incident heart failure (HF). Methods And Results Using data on female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort (aged >44 years), we investigated associations between 3-year mean exposures to air pollution and road traffic noise and incident HF using Cox regression models, adjusting for relevant confounders. Incidence of HF was defined as the first hospital contact (inpatient, outpatient, or emergency) between cohort baseline (1993 or 1999) and December 31, 2014, based on the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm since 1990 and NO2 and road traffic noise since 1970 were estimated at participants' residences. Of the 22 189 nurses, 484 developed HF. We detected associations with all 3 pollutants, with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.17 (95% CI, 1.01-1.36), 1.10 (95% CI, 0.99-1.22), and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.99-1.26) per increase of 5.1 µg/m3 in particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm, 8.6 µg/m3 in NO2, and 9.3 dB in road traffic noise, respectively. We observed an enhanced risk of HF incidence for those exposed to high levels of the 3 pollutants; however, the effect modification of coexposure was not statistically significant. Former smokers and nurses with hypertension showed the strongest associations with particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (Peffect modification<0.05). Conclusions We found that long-term exposures to air pollution and road traffic noise were independently associated with HF.

3.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(12): 1447-1455, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Few studies have suggested that traffic noise is a risk factor for cancer, but evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate whether road traffic and railway noise are associated with risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: We obtained address history for all 3.5 million people above 40 years of age and living in Denmark for the period 1990-2017 and estimated road traffic and railway noise (Lden) at the most and least exposed facades of all addresses as well as air pollution (PM2.5). During follow-up (2000-2017), 35,881 persons developed colon cancer and 19,755 developed rectal cancer. Information on individual and area-level demographic and socioeconomic variables was collected from Danish registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including traffic noise as time-varying 10-year average exposure. RESULTS: Exposure to road traffic noise at the most exposed façade was associated with an incidence rate ratio and 95% confidence interval for proximal colon cancer of 1.018 (0.999-1.038) per 10 dB higher noise. We observed no associations for road traffic noise at the least exposed façade or for railway noise in relation to proximal colon cancer. Also, we found no association between road traffic or railway noise and risk for distal colon cancer or rectal cancer. CONCLUSION: Traffic noise did not seem associated with higher risk for colorectal cancer, although the suggestion of a slightly higher risk of proximal colon cancer following exposure to road traffic noise warrants further research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Ruído dos Transportes , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos
4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(8): 87002, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise have been established for ischemic heart disease, but findings have been mixed for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to examine associations of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution with AF. METHODS: Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate associations of 1-, 3-, and 23-y mean road traffic noise and air pollution exposures with AF incidence in 23,528 women enrolled in the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44y at baseline in 1993 or 1999). AF diagnoses were ascertained via the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean weighted 24-h average road traffic noise levels (Lden) at the nurses' residences, since 1970, were estimated using the Nord2000 model, and annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated using the DEHM/UBM/AirGIS model. RESULTS: Of 23,528 nurses with no prior AF diagnosis at the cohort baseline, 1,522 developed AF during follow-up. In a fully adjusted model (including PM2.5), the estimated risk of AF was 18% higher [hazard ratio (HR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18; 1.02, 1.36] in nurses with residential 3-y mean Lden levels >58 dB vs. <48 dB, with similar findings for 1-y mean exposures. A 3.9-µg/m3 increase in 3-y mean PM2.5 was associated with incident AF before and after adjustment for concurrent exposure to road traffic noise (HR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20 and 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.19, respectively). Associations with 1-y mean PM2.5 exposures were positive but closer to the null and not significant. Associations with NO2 were null for all time periods before and after adjustment for road traffic noise and inverse when adjusted for concurrent PM2.5. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of prospective data from a cohort of Danish female nurses followed for up to 14 y provided suggestive evidence of independent associations between incident AF and 1- and 3-y exposures to road traffic noise and PM2.5. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8090.

5.
Environ Epidemiol ; 5(3): e148, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33912785

RESUMO

Background: Evidence of nonauditory health effects of road traffic noise exposure is growing. This prospective cohort study aimed to estimate the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise above a threshold and incident myocardial infarction (MI) in Denmark. Methods: In the Danish Nurse Cohort study, we used data of 22,378 women, at recruitment in 1993 and 1999, who reported information on MI risk factors. The participants' first hospital contact or out-of-hospital death due to MI were followed-up until 2014. We investigated a relationship between residential exposures to road traffic noise levels (Lden) up to 23 years and incident MI (overall, nonfatal, and fatal) using time-varying Cox regression models adjusting for potential confounders and air pollutants. We estimated thresholds of road traffic noise (53, 56, and 58 dB) associated with incident MI in a piece-wise linear regression model. Results: Of the 22,378 participants, 633 developed MI, 502 of which were nonfatal. We observed a non-linear relationship between the 23-year running mean of Lden and incident MI with a threshold level of 56 dB, above which hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.30 (0.97, 1.75) for overall and 1.46 (1.05, 2.03) for nonfatal MI per 10 dB. The association with nonfatal MI attenuated slightly to 1.34 (0.95, 1.90) after adjustment for fine particles. Conclusions: We found that long-term exposure to road traffic noise above 56 dB may increase the risk of MI. The study findings suggest that road traffic noise above 56 dB may need regulation in addition to the regulation of ambient pollutants.

6.
J Clean Prod ; 292: 125987, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495673

RESUMO

It is believed that weather conditions such as temperature and humidity have effects on COVID-19 transmission. However, these effects are not clear due to the limited observations and difficulties in separating impact of social distancing. COVID-19 data and social-economic features of 1236 regions in the world (1112 regions at the provincial level and 124 countries with the small land area) were collected. Large-scale satellite data was combined with these data with a regression analysis model to explore the effects of temperature and relative humidity on COVID-19 spreading, as well as the possible transmission risk by seasonal cycles. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity are negatively correlated with COVID-19 transmission throughout the world. Government intervention (e.g. lockdown policies) and lower population movement contributed to decrease the new daily case ratio. Weather conditions are not the decisive factor in COVID-19 transmission, in that government intervention as well as public awareness, could contribute to the mitigation of the spreading of the virus. So, it deserves a dynamic government policy to mitigate COVID-19 transmission in winter.

7.
Environ Res ; 195: 110739, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested that transportation noise may increase risk for breast cancer, but existing literature is scarce and inconclusive. We aimed to investigate associations between road traffic and railway noise and risk for breast cancer across the entire Danish female population. METHODS: For all 2.8 million residential addresses across Denmark, we modelled road and railway noise at the most and least exposed façades for the period 1990-2017. We calculated 10-year time-weighted mean noise exposure for 1.8 million women aged >35 years, of whom 66,006 developed breast cancer during follow-up from 2000 to 2017. We analysed data using Cox proportional hazards models with noise exposure included as 10-year running means and adjusted for a number of individual and area-level socioeconomic co-variates and air pollution with fine particles estimated for all addresses. RESULTS: For exposures at the least exposed façade, we found that a 10 dB increase in 10-year time-weighted noise was associated with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer of 1.032 (1.019-1.046) for road noise and 1.023 (0.993-1.053) for railway noise. For exposures at the most exposed façade, the IRRs (95% CIs) were 1.012 (1.002-1.022) for road noise and 1.020 (1.001-1.039) for railway noise. Associations were strongest among women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Road traffic and railway noise were associated with higher risk for breast cancer, especially noise at the least exposed façade, which is a proxy for noise exposure during sleep.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ruído dos Transportes , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos
8.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 71(2): 170-190, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216706

RESUMO

The contribution of vehicle emissions to air pollution is considered a large environmental and health problem in big Brazilian cities caused, among other factors, by slow renewal of the old vehicle fleet. Brazilian studies usually only consider traffic-related issues in transportation analysis, with minor assessments of emissions and close to non-existent assessment of air quality. On this background, this research aimed to calibrate and evaluate the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM®) to Brazilian conditions by implementing Brazilian emission factors. The urban background concentrations were modeled with the Urban Background Model (UBM) as part of the air quality system (THOR-AirPAS). In this case, we used meteorological data from a ground meteorological station outside Fortaleza processed by meteorological pre-processor and regional background concentrations from the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) as input to UBM. New air quality measurements were collected in busy streets of the city of Fortaleza during the year of 2017. The study collected samples of daily NO2 and PM10 concentrations to evaluate OSPM daily estimations. In addition, a transportation travel demand model (TRANUS) has been calibrated to the case study area with observed traffic data collected, in order to provide Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) as inputs to OSPM®. Two sets of emission factors were evaluated. Official Brazilian emission factors were applied to OSPM®, as well as adjusted emission factors derived in the project based on calibration that were higher than the official emission factors. Data showed that concentrations are significantly influenced by meteorological factors (such as temperature, wind speeds, wind directions), and especially precipitation for PM10 concentrations. OSPM® simulated results showed concentration levels and patterns close to air quality measurements with default emission factors and calibrated emission for UBM but large underestimations if official emissions were used for both UBM and OSPM. Implications: Busy urban streets in Brazilian cities with intense flow of diesel vehicles (such as buses and trucks) can significantly increase air pollution, especially for NO2 and PM10. With OSPM calibrated and evaluated to Brazilian conditions, the model system can be used by authorities to assess the impact of policy measures, such as vehicle access restrictions in Low Emission Zones, in order to consider not only traffic related issues, but also air pollution due to mobile sources with outdated emission technologies.

9.
Environ Pollut ; 270: 116240, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338959

RESUMO

Road traffic noise is the most pervasive source of ambient outdoor noise pollution in Europe. Traffic noise prediction models vary in parameterisation and therefore may produce different estimates of noise levels depending on the geographical setting in terms of emissions sources and propagation field. This paper compares three such models: the European standard, Common Noise Assessment Methods for the EU Member States (hereafter, CNOSSOS), Nord2000 and Traffic Noise Exposure (TRANEX) model based on the UK methodology, in terms of their source and propagation characteristics. The tools are also compared by analysing estimated noise (LAeq) from CNOSSOS, Nord2000 (2006 version), and TRANEX for more than one hundred test cases (N = 111) covering a variety of source and receiver configurations (e.g. varying source to receiver distance). The main aim of this approach was to investigate the potential pattern in differences between models' performance for certain types of configurations. Discrepancies in performance may thus be linked to the differences in parameterisations of the CNOSSOS, Nord2000, and TRANEX (e.g. handling of diffraction, refraction). In most cases, both CNOSSOS and TRANEX reproduced LAeq levels of Nord2000 (2006 version) within three to five dBA (CNOSSOS: 87%, TRANEX: 94%). The differences in LAeq levels of CNOSSOS, compared to Nord2000, can be related to several shortcomings of the existing CNOSSOS algorithms (e.g. ground attenuation, multiple diffractions, and mean ground plane). The analyses show that more research is required in order to improve CNOSSOS for its implementation in the EU. In this context, amendments for CNOSSOS proposed by an EU Working Group hold significant potential. Overall, both CNOSSOS and TRANEX produced similar results, with TRANEX reproducing Nord2000 LAeq values slightly better than the CNOSSOS. The lack of measured noise data highlights one of the significant limitations of this study and needs to be addressed in future work.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Algoritmos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Geografia
10.
Environ Int ; 143: 105983, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between air pollution and mortality is well established, yet some uncertainties remain: there are few studies that account for road traffic noise exposure or that consider in detail the shape of the exposure-response function for cause-specific mortality outcomes, especially at low-levels of exposure. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between long-term exposure to particulate matter [(PM) with a diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), <10 µm (PM10)], and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total and cause-specific mortality, accounting for road traffic noise. METHODS: We used data on 24,541 females (age > 44 years) from the Danish Nurse Cohort, who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and linked to the Danish Causes of Death Register for follow-up on date of death and its cause, until the end of 2013. Annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 at the participants' residences since 1990 were estimated using the Danish DEHM/UBM/AirGIS dispersion model, and annual mean road traffic noise levels (Lden) were estimated using the Nord2000 model. We examined associations between the three-year running mean of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 with total and cause-specific mortality by using time-varying Cox Regression models, adjusting for individual characteristics and residential road traffic noise. RESULTS: During the study period, 3,708 nurses died: 843 from cardiovascular disease (CVD), 310 from respiratory disease (RD), and 64 from diabetes. In the fully adjusted models, including road traffic noise, we detected associations of three-year running mean of PM2.5 with total (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval: 1.06; 1.01-1.11), CVD (1.14; 1.03-1.26), and diabetes mortality (1.41; 1.05-1.90), per interquartile range of 4.39 µg/m3. In a subset of the cohort exposed to PM2.5 < 20 µg/m3, we found even stronger association with total (1.19; 1.11-1.27), CVD (1.27; 1.01-1.46), RD (1.27; 1.00-1.60), and diabetes mortality (1.44; 0.83-2.48). We found similar associations with PM10 and none with NO2. All associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. DISCUSSION: Long-term exposure to low-levels of PM2.5 and PM10 is associated with total mortality, and mortality from CVD, RD, and diabetes. Associations were even stronger at the PM2.5 levels below EU limit values and were independent of road traffic noise.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ruído dos Transportes , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(5): 57004, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological research on effects of transportation noise on incident hypertension is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether residential road traffic noise increases the risk for hypertension. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 57,053 individuals 50-64 years of age at enrollment, we identified 21,241 individuals who fulfilled our case definition of filling ≥2 prescriptions and ≥180 defined daily doses of antihypertensive drugs (AHTs) within a year, during a mean follow-up time of 14.0 y. Residential addresses from 1987 to 2016 were obtained from national registers, and road traffic noise at the most exposed façade as well as the least exposed façade was modeled for all addresses. Analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We found no associations between the 10-y mean exposure to road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs, with incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of 0.999 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.980, 1.019)] per 10-dB increase in road traffic noise at the most exposed façade and of 1.001 (95% CI: 0.977, 1.026) at the least exposed façade. Interaction analyses suggested an association with road traffic noise at the least exposed façade among subpopulations of current smokers and obese individuals. CONCLUSION: The present study does not support an association between road traffic noise and filled prescriptions for AHTs. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6273.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 726: 138577, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315856

RESUMO

Air pollution and noise originating from urban road traffic have been linked to the adverse health effects e.g. cardiovascular disease (CVD), although their generation and propagation mechanisms vary. We aimed to (i) develop a tool to model exposures to air pollution and noise using harmonized inputs based on similar geographical structure (ii) explore the relationship (using Spearman's rank correlation) of both pollutions at residential exposure level (iii) investigate the influence of traffic speed and Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) on air-noise relationship. The annual average (2005) air pollution (NOx, NO2, PM10, PM2.5) and noise levels (Lday, Leve, Lnight, Lden, LAeq,24h) are modelled at address locations in Copenhagen and Roskilde (N = 11,000 and 1500). The new AirGIS system together with the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM®) is used to produce air pollution estimates. Whereas, noise is estimated using Common Noise Assessment Methods in the EU (CNOSSOS-EU, hereafter CNOSSOS) with relatively coarser inputs (100 m CORINE land cover, simplified vehicle composition). In addition, noise estimates (Lday, Leve, Lnight) from CNOSSOS are also compared with noise estimates from Road Traffic Noise 1996 (RTN-96, one of the Nordic noise prediction standards). The overall air-noise correlation structure varied significantly in the range |rS| = 0.01-0.42, which was mainly affected by the background concentrations of air pollution as well as non-traffic emission sources. Moreover, neither AADT nor traffic speed showed substantial influence on the air-noise relationship. The noise levels estimated by CNOSSOS were substantially lower, and showed much lower variation than levels obtained by RTN-96. CNOSSOS, therefore, needs to be further evaluated using more detailed inputs (e.g. 10 m land cover polygons) to assess its feasibility for epidemiological noise exposure studies in Denmark. Lower to moderate air-noise correlations point towards significant potential to determine the independent health effects of air pollution and noise.

13.
Sleep ; 43(8)2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083664

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Traffic noise has been associated with poor sleep quality and short sleep duration. This study investigates the association between nighttime road traffic noise at the least and most exposed façades of the residence and redemption of sleep medication. METHODS: In a cohort of 44,438 Danes, aged 50-64 at baseline (1993-1997), we identified all addresses from 1987 to 2015 from a national registry and calculated nighttime road traffic noise at the most and least exposed façades. Using Cox Proportional Hazard Models we investigated the association between residential traffic noise over 1, 5, and 10 years before redemption of the first sleep medication prescription in the Danish National Prescription Registry. During a median follow-up time of 18.5 years, 13,114 persons redeemed a prescription. RESULTS: We found that 10-year average nighttime exposure to road traffic noise at the most exposed façade was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.00 to 1.10) for Ln greater than 55 as compared to not more than 45 dB, which when stratified by sex was confined to men (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.25). For the least exposed façade the HR for Ln >45 vs ≤35 dB was 1.00, 95% CI (0.95 to 1.05). For the most exposed façade, the overall association was strongest in smokers and physically inactive. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term residential nighttime noise exposure at the most exposed façade may be associated with a higher likelihood of redeeming prescriptions for sleep medication, especially among men, smokers, and physically inactive.


Assuntos
Ruído dos Transportes , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Prescrições , Sono
14.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57006, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the association between road traffic noise and diabetes risk is sparse and inconsistent with respect to how confounding by air pollution was treated. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to examine whether long-term exposure to road traffic noise over 25 years is associated with incidence of diabetes, independent of air pollution. METHODS: A total of 28,731 female nurses from the Danish Nurse cohort ([Formula: see text] at recruitment in 1993 or 1999) were linked to the Danish National Diabetes Register with information on incidence of diabetes from 1995 until 2013. The annual mean weighted levels of 24-h average road traffic noise ([Formula: see text]) at nurses' residences from 1970 until 2013 were estimated with the Nord2000 method and annual mean levels of particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]), nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]), and nitrogen oxide ([Formula: see text]) with the Danish AirGIS modeling system. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association between residential [Formula: see text] in four different exposure windows (1-, 5-, 10-, and 25-years) and the incidence of diabetes, adjusted for lifestyle factors and air pollutants. RESULTS: Of 23,762 nurses free of diabetes at the cohort baseline, 1,158 developed diabetes during a mean follow-up of 15.2 years. We found weak positive associations between 5-y mean exposure to [Formula: see text] (per [Formula: see text] increase) and diabetes incidence in a crude model [hazard ratio (HR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.12], which attenuated in a model adjusted for lifestyle factors (HR:1.04; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.12), and reached unity after additional adjustment for [Formula: see text] (HR: 0.99; 0.91, 1.08). In analyses by level of urbanization, we found a positive association between noise and diabetes in urban areas (HR:1.27; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.63) that was unchanged after adjusting for [Formula: see text] (HR: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.62), but we found no apparent association in provincial (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.18) or rural areas (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.08). CONCLUSION: In the nationwide cohort of Danish nurses 44 years of age and older, we found no association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and diabetes incidence after adjustment for [Formula: see text] but found suggestive evidence of an association limited to urban areas. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4389.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Environ Res ; 172: 502-510, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that traffic noise is associated with markers of obesity. We investigated the association of exposure to road traffic noise with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in the Danish Nurse Cohort. METHODS: We used data on 15,501 female nurses (aged >44 years) from the nationwide Danish Nurse Cohort who, in 1999, reported information on self-measured height, weight, and waist circumference, together with information on socioeconomic status, lifestyle, work and health. Road traffic noise at the most exposed façade of the residence was estimated using Nord2000 as the annual mean of a weighted 24-h average (Lden). We used multiple linear regression models to examine associations of road traffic noise levels in 1999 (1-year mean) with BMI and waist circumference, adjusting for potential confounders, and evaluated effect modification by degree of urbanization, air pollution levels, night shift work, job strain, sedative use, sleep aid use, and family history of obesity. RESULTS: We did not observe associations between road traffic noise (per 10 dB increase in the 1-year mean Lden) and BMI (kg/m2) (ß: 0.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.07, 0.07) or waist circumference (cm) (ß: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.31, 0.31) in the fully adjusted model. We found significant effect modification of job strain and degree of urbanization on the associations between Lden and both BMI and waist circumference. Job strained nurses were associated with a 0.41 BMI-point increase, (95% CI: 0.06, 0.76) and a 1.00 cm increase in waist circumference (95% CI: 0.00, 2.00). Nurses living in urban areas had a statistically significant positive association of Lden with BMI (ß: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.42), whilst no association was found for nurses living in suburban and rural areas. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that road traffic noise exposure in nurses with particular susceptibilities, such as those with job strain, or living in urban areas, may lead to increased BMI, a marker of adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ruído dos Transportes , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/diagnóstico
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 634: 661-676, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29642048

RESUMO

Road traffic induces air and noise pollution in urban environments having negative impacts on human health. Thus, estimating exposure to road traffic air and noise pollution (hereafter, air and noise pollution) is important in order to improve the understanding of human health outcomes in epidemiological studies. The aims of this review are (i) to summarize current practices of modelling and exposure assessment techniques for road traffic air and noise pollution (ii) to highlight the potential of existing tools and techniques for their combined exposure assessment for air and noise together with associated challenges, research gaps and priorities. The study reviews literature about air and noise pollution from urban road traffic, including other relevant characteristics such as the employed dispersion models, Geographic Information System (GIS)-based tool, spatial scale of exposure assessment, study location, sample size, type of traffic data and building geometry information. Deterministic modelling is the most frequently used assessment technique for both air and noise pollution of short-term and long-term exposure. We observed a larger variety among air pollution models as compared to the applied noise models. Correlations between air and noise pollution vary significantly (0.05-0.74) and are affected by several parameters such as traffic attributes, building attributes and meteorology etc. Buildings act as screens for the dispersion of pollution, but the reduction effect is much larger for noise than for air pollution. While, meteorology has a greater influence on air pollution levels as compared to noise, although also important for noise pollution. There is a significant potential for developing a standard tool to assess combined exposure of traffic related air and noise pollution to facilitate health related studies. GIS, due to its geographic nature, is well established and has a significant capability to simultaneously address both exposures.

17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(4-5): 399-404, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520472

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Traffic is the most important source of community noise, and it has been proposed to be associated with a range of disease outcomes, including breast cancer. As mammographic breast density (MD) is one of the strongest risk factors for developing breast cancer, the present study investigated whether there is an association between residential exposure to traffic noise and MD in a Danish cohort. METHODS: We included women with reproductive and lifestyle information available from the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, who also participated in the Copenhagen Mammography Screening Programme (n = 5,260). Present and historical addresses from 1987 to 2011 were found in national registries, and traffic noise was modeled 5 years before mammogram. Analyses between residential traffic noise and MD were performed using logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no association between residential road and railway noise exposure 5 years before mammogram, and having a mixed/dense versus a fatty mammogram, and no interaction with menopausal status, BMI, HRT use, and railway noise exposure, for analyses on road traffic noise. CONCLUSION: The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise exposure and subsequent MD in a cohort of middle-aged Danish women.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Mamografia/métodos , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Environ Pollut ; 236: 983-991, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29122366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. METHODS: In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). RESULTS: Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Ruído dos Transportes , Fumar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Environ Res ; 160: 292-297, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29045908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise exposure has been found associated with diabetes incidence. Evidence for an association between railway noise exposure is less clear, as large studies with detailed railway noise modelling are lacking. PURPOSE: To investigate the association between residential railway noise and diabetes incidence, and to repeat previous analyses on road traffic noise and diabetes with longer follow-up time. METHODS: Among 50,534 middle-aged Danes enrolled into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort from 1993 to 97, we identified 5062 cases of incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 15.5 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2012 were found in national registries, and railway and road traffic noise (Lden) were modelled for all addresses, using the Nordic prediction method. We used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the association between residential traffic noise over 1 and 5 years before diagnosis, and diabetes incidence. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated as crude and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: We found no association between railway noise exposure and diabetes incidence among the 9527 persons exposed, regardless of exposure time-window: HR 0.99 (0.94-1.04) per 10dB for 5-year exposure in fully adjusted models. There was no effect modification by sex, road traffic noise, and education. We confirmed the previously found association between road traffic noise exposure and diabetes including 6 additional years of follow-up: HR 1.08 (1.04-1.13) per 10dB for 5-year exposure in fully adjusted models. CONCLUSION: The study does not suggest an association between residential railway noise exposure and diabetes incidence, but supports the finding of a direct association with residential road traffic noise.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferrovias/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Acta Oncol ; 56(10): 1310-1316, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28609173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. RESULTS: A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. CONCLUSIONS: The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.


Assuntos
Veículos Automotores , Neuroma Acústico/epidemiologia , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Humanos , Neuroma Acústico/etiologia
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