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1.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395988

RESUMO

Ammine metal borohydrides show potential for solid-state hydrogen storage and can be tailored toward hydrogen release at low temperatures. Here, we report the synthesis and structural characterization of seven new ammine metal borohydrides, M(BH4)3·nNH3, M = La (n = 6, 4, or 3) or Ce (n = 6, 5, 4, or 3). The two compounds with n = 6 are isostructural and have new orthorhombic structure types (space group P21212) built from cationic complexes, [M(NH3)6(BH4)2]+, and are charge balanced by BH4-. The structure of Ce(BH4)3·5NH3 is orthorhombic (space group C2221) and is built from cationic complexes, [Ce(NH3)5(BH4)2]+, and charge balanced by BH4-. These are rare examples of borohydride complexes acting both as a ligand and as a counterion in the same compound. The structures of M(BH4)3·4NH3 are monoclinic (space group C2), built from neutral molecular complexes of [M(NH3)4(BH4)3]. The new compositions, M(BH4)3·3NH3 (M = La, Ce), among ammine metal borohydrides, are orthorhombic (space group Pna21), containing molecular complexes of [M(NH3)3(BH4)3]. A revised structural model for A(BH4)3·5NH3 (A = Y, Gd, Dy) is presented, and the previously reported composition A(BH4)3·4NH3 (A = Y, La, Gd, Dy) is proposed in fact to be M(BH4)3·3NH3 along with a new structural model. The temperature-dependent structural properties and decomposition are investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction in vacuum and argon atmosphere and by thermal analysis combined with mass spectrometry. The compounds with n = 6, 5, and 4 mainly release ammonia at low temperatures, while hydrogen evolution occurs for M(BH4)3·3NH3 (M = La, Ce). Gas-release temperatures and gas composition from these compounds depend on the physical conditions and on the relative stability of M(BH4)3·nNH3 and M(BH4)3.

2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232248

RESUMO

Light weight and cheap electrolytes with fast multi-valent ion conductivity can pave the way for future high-energy density solid-state batteries, beyond the lithium-ion battery. Here we present the mechanism of Mg-ion conductivity of monoammine magnesium borohydride, Mg(BH4)2·NH3. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) reveal that the neutral molecule (NH3) in Mg(BH4)2·NH3 is exchanged between the lattice and interstitial Mg2+ facilitated by a highly flexible structure, mainly owing to a network of di-hydrogen bonds, N-Hδ+-δH-B and the versatile coordination of the BH4- ligand. DFT shows that di-hydrogen bonds in inorganic matter and hydrogen bonds in bio-materials have similar bond strengths and bond lengths. As a result of the high structural flexibiliy, the Mg-ion conductivity is dramatically improved at moderate temperature, e.g. σ(Mg2+) = 3.3 × 10-4 S cm-1 at T = 80 °C for Mg(BH4)2·NH3, which is approximately 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Mg(BH4)2. Our results may inspire a new approach for the design and discovery of unprecedented multivalent ion conductors.

3.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(28): 3971-3974, 2020 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152608

RESUMO

Hemiammine lithium borohydride, LiBH4·1/2NH3, is characterized and a new Li+ conductivity mechanism is identified. It exhibits a Li+ conductivity of 7 × 10-4 S cm-1 at 40 °C in the solid state and 3.0 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 55 °C after melting. The molten state of LiBH4·1/2NH3 has a high viscosity and can be mechanically stabilized in nano-composites with inert metal oxides and other hydrides making it a promising battery electrolyte.

4.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(17)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470536

RESUMO

This paper is a collection of selected contributions of the 1st International Workshop on Mechanochemistry of Metal Hydrides that was held in Oslo in May 2018. In this paper, the recent developments in the use of mechanochemistry to synthesize and modify metal hydrides are reviewed. A special emphasis is made on new techniques beside the traditional way of ball milling. High energy milling, ball milling under hydrogen reactive gas, cryomilling and severe plastic deformation techniques such as High-Pressure Torsion (HPT), Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) and cold rolling are discussed. The new characterization method of in-situ X-ray diffraction during milling is described.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 48(24): 8872-8881, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140508

RESUMO

Octahydridoborate, i.e. [B3H8]- containing compounds, have recently attracted interest for hydrogen storage. In the present study, the structural, hydrogen storage, and ion conductivity properties of KB3H8 have been systematically investigated. Two distinct polymorphic transitions are identified for KB3H8 from a monoclinic (α) to an orthorhombic (α') structure at 15 °C via a second-order transition and eventually to a cubic (ß) structure at 30 °C by a first-order transition. The ß-polymorph of KB3H8 displays a high degree of disorder of the [B3H8]- anion, which facilitates increased cation mobility, reaching a K+ conductivity of ∼10-7 S cm-1 above 100 °C. ß-KB3H8 starts to release hydrogen at ∼160 °C, simultaneously with the release of B5H9 and trace amounts of B2H6. KBH4 and K3(BH4)(B12H12) are identified as crystalline decomposition products above 200 °C, and the formation of a KBH4 deficient structure of K3-x(BH4)1-x(B12H12) is observed at elevated temperature. The hydrogen-uptake properties of a KB3H8-2KH composite have been examined under 380 bar H2, resulting in the formation of KBH4 at T≥ 150 °C along with higher metal hydridoborates, i.e. K2B9H9, K2B10H10, and K2B12H12.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 58(8): 4753-4760, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938152

RESUMO

Ammonia borane, NH3BH3 (AB), is very attractive for hydrogen storage; however, it dehydrogenates exothermally, producing a mixture of polymeric products with limited potential for direct rehydrogenation. Recently, it was shown that AB complexed with Al3+ in Al(BH4)3·AB endothermically dehydrogenates to a single product identified as Al(BH4)3·NHBH, with the potential for direct rehydrogenation of AB. Here we explore the reactivity of AB-derived RNH2BH3 (R = -CH3, -CH2-) with AlX3 salts (X = BH4-, Cl-), aiming to extend the series to different anions and to enlarge the stability window for Al(BH4)3·NRBH. Three novel complexes were identified: Al(BH4)3·CH3NH2BH3 having a molecular structure similar to that of Al(BH4)3·AB but different dehydrogenation properties, as well as [Al(CH3NH2BH3)2Cl2][AlCl4] and [Al(NH2CH2CH2NH2)(BH4)2][Al(BH4)4], rare examples of Al3+ making part of the cations and anions simultaneously. The latter compounds are of interest in the design of novel electrolytes for Al-based batteries. The coordination of two ABs to a single Al atom opens a route to materials with higher hydrogen content.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 58(9): 5503-5517, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013080

RESUMO

Synthesis, crystal structures, and thermal and magnetic properties of the complete series of halide-free rare-earth (RE) metal borohydrides are presented. A new synthesis method provides high yield and high purity products. Fifteen new metal borohydride structures are reported. The trends in crystal structures, thermal behavior, and magnetic properties for the entire series of RE(BH4) x are compared and discussed. The RE(BH4) x possess a very rich crystal chemistry, dependent on the oxidation state and the ionic size of the rare-earth ion. Due to the lanthanide contraction, there is a significant decrease in the volume of the RE3+-ion with increasing atomic number, which correlates linearly with the unit cell volume of the α- and ß-RE(BH4)3 polymorphs and the solvated complexes α-RE(BH4)3·S(CH3)2. The thermal analysis reveals a one-step decomposition pathway in the temperature range from 247 to 277 °C for all RE(BH4)3 except Lu(BH4)3, which follows a three-step decomposition pathway. In contrast, the RE(BH4)2 decompose at higher temperatures in the range 306 to 390 °C due to lower charge density on the rare-earth ion. The RE(BH4)3 show increasing stability with increasing Pauling electronegativity, which contradicts other main group and transition metal borohydrides. The majority of the compounds follow Curie-Weiss paramagnetic behavior down to 3 K with weak antiferromagnetic interactions and magnetic moments in accord with those of isolated 4f ions. Some of the RE(BH4) x display varying degrees of temperature-dependent magnetic moments due to low-lying excited stated induced by crystal field effects. Additionally, a weak antiferromagnetic ordering is observed in Gd(BH4)3, indicating superexchange through a borohydride group.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 48(15): 5048-5057, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916691

RESUMO

Altering the decomposition pathway of potassium alanate, KAlH4, with aluminium sulfide, Al2S3, presents a new opportunity to release all of the hydrogen, increase the volumetric hydrogen capacity and avoid complications associated with the formation of KH and molten K. Decomposition of 6KAlH4-Al2S3 during heating under dynamic vacuum began at 185 °C, 65 °C lower than for pure KAlH4, and released 71% of the theoretical hydrogen content below 300 °C via several unknown compounds. The major hydrogen release event, centred at 276 °C, was associated with two new compounds indexed with monoclinic (a = 10.505, b = 7.492, c = 11.772 Å, ß = 122.88°) and hexagonal (a = 10.079, c = 7.429 Å) unit cells, respectively. Unlike the 6NaAlH4-Al2S3 system, the 6KAlH4-Al2S3 system did not have M3AlH6 (M = alkali metal) as one of the intermediate decomposition products nor were the final products M2S and Al observed. Decomposition performed under hydrogen pressure initially followed a similar reaction pathway to that observed during heating under vacuum but resulted in partial melting of the sample between 300 and 350 °C. The measured enthalpy of hydrogen absorption (ΔHabs) was in the range -44.5 to -51.1 kJ mol-1 H2, which is favourable for moderate temperature hydrogen applications. Although, the hydrogen capacity decreases during consecutive H2 release and uptake cycles, the presence of excess amounts of aluminium allow for further optimisation of hydrogen storage properties.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 48(16): 5140-5143, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916702

RESUMO

An efficient synthetic method for MB3H8 (M = Li and Na) has been developed with improved yields on the basis of the investigation of the interconversion between THF·B3H7 and corresponding MB3H8. The mechanism was tentatively proposed based on the understanding of the nucleophilicity of the B-H bonding pair electrons.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(23): 3410-3413, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839031

RESUMO

Solvated lithium closo-dodecaborate, Li2B12H12 with tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, show unexpected melting below 150 °C. This feature has been explored to melt-infiltrate Li2B12H12 in a nanoporous SiO2 scaffold. The ionic conductivity of Li2B12H12·xACN reaches 0.08 mS cm-1 in the liquid state at 150 °C making them suitable as battery electrolytes.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 47(46): 16737-16746, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426999

RESUMO

The new compound Sr(BH4)2(NH3BH3)2 has been synthesized and characterized with in situ powder X-ray diffraction and fast (28 or 60 kHz) magic angle spinning 1H, 11B and 15N NMR and structurally optimized with density functional theory calculations. This investigation reveals complex structural rearrangements for this compound as a function of temperature. A room temperature orthorhombic polymorph, α-Sr(BH4)2(NH3BH3)2, with the space group symmetry Pbca, has been determined with a layered structure of alternating ammonia borane and Sr(BH4)2, partially stabilized by dihydrogen bonding. Surprisingly the crystal symmetry is lowered upon heating, as evidenced both by in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and 11B MAS NMR data, resulting in an intermediate polymorph, ß'-Sr(BH4)2(NH3BH3)2, present from ∼65 to 115 °C. ß-Sr(BH4)2(NH3BH3)2, a sub structure of the ß'-polymorph showing higher symmetry with the space group symmetry Aba2, forms upon further heating. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the ammonia borane molecule can dynamically alternate between a bidentate and a tridentate coordination to Sr at finite temperature. The dynamic properties of the ammonia borane molecule in the solid state are suggested to cause the observed structural complexity. Based on simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry, the decomposition of the compound was investigated showing a stabilization of ammonia borane in the structure relative to other metal borohydride ammonia boranes and neat ammonia borane.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 57(17): 10768-10780, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137973

RESUMO

Commencing from metal hydrides, versatile synthesis, purification, and desolvation approaches are presented for a wide range of metal borohydrides and their solvates. An optimized and generalized synthesis method is provided for 11 different metal borohydrides, M(BH4) n, (M = Li, Na, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Y, Nd, Sm, Gd, Yb), providing controlled access to more than 15 different polymorphs and in excess of 20 metal borohydride solvate complexes. Commercially unavailable metal hydrides (MH n, M = Sr, Ba, Y, Nd, Sm, Gd, Yb) are synthesized utilizing high pressure hydrogenation. For synthesis of metal borohydrides, all hydrides are mechanochemically activated prior to reaction with dimethylsulfide borane. A purification process is devised, alongside a complementary desolvation process for solvate complexes, yielding high purity products. An array of polymorphically pure metal borohydrides are synthesized in this manner, supporting the general applicability of this method. Additionally, new metal borohydrides, α-, α'- ß-, γ-Yb(BH4)2, α-Nd(BH4)3 and new solvates Sr(BH4)2·1THF, Sm(BH4)2·1THF, Yb(BH4)2· xTHF, x = 1 or 2, Nd(BH4)3·1Me2S, Nd(BH4)3·1.5THF, Sm(BH4)3·1.5THF and Yb(BH4)3· xMe2S (" x" = unspecified), are presented here. Synthesis conditions are optimized individually for each metal, providing insight into reactivity and mechanistic concerns. The reaction follows a nucleophilic addition/hydride-transfer mechanism. Therefore, the reaction is most efficient for ionic and polar-covalent metal hydrides. The presented synthetic approaches are widely applicable, as demonstrated by permitting facile access to a large number of materials and by performing a scale-up synthesis of LiBH4.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(23): 16266-16275, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863201

RESUMO

The hydrogen absorption properties of metal closo-borate/metal hydride composites, M2B10H10-8MH and M2B12H12-10MH, M = Li or Na, are studied under high hydrogen pressures to understand the formation mechanism of metal borohydrides. The hydrogen storage properties of the composites have been investigated by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction at p(H2) = 400 bar and by ex situ hydrogen absorption measurements at p(H2) = 526 to 998 bar. The in situ experiments reveal the formation of crystalline intermediates before metal borohydrides (MBH4) are formed. On the contrary, the M2B12H12-10MH (M = Li and Na) systems show no formation of the metal borohydride at T = 400 °C and p(H2) = 537 to 970 bar. 11B MAS NMR of the M2B10H10-8MH composites reveal that the molar ratio of LiBH4 or NaBH4 and the remaining B species is 1 : 0.63 and 1 : 0.21, respectively. Solution and solid-state 11B NMR spectra reveal new intermediates with a B : H ratio close to 1 : 1. Our results indicate that the M2B10H10 (M = Li, Na) salts display a higher reactivity towards hydrogen in the presence of metal hydrides compared to the corresponding [B12H12]2- composites, which represents an important step towards understanding the factors that determine the stability and reversibility of high hydrogen capacity metal borohydrides for hydrogen storage.

14.
Dalton Trans ; 47(25): 8307-8319, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892753

RESUMO

In this work, praseodymium(iii) borohydride, Pr(BH4)3, and an isotopically enriched analogue, Pr(11BD4)3, are prepared by a new route via a solvate complex, Pr(11BD4)3S(CH3)2. Nd(BH4)3 was synthesized using the same method and the structures, polymorphic transformations, and thermal stabilities of these compounds are investigated in detail. α-Pr(BH4)3 and α-Nd(BH4)3 are isostructural with cubic unit cells (Pa3[combining macron]) stable at room temperature (RT) and a unit cell volume per formula unit (V/Z) of 180.1 and 175.8 Å3, respectively. Heating α-Pr(BH4)3 to T ∼ 190 °C, p(Ar) = 1 bar, introduces a transition to a rhombohedral polymorph, r-Pr(BH4)3 (R3[combining macron]c) with a smaller unit cell volume and a denser structure, V/Z = 156.06 Å3. A similar transition was not observed for Nd(BH4)3. However, heat treatment of α-Pr(BH4)3, at T ∼ 190 °C, p(H2) = 40 bar and α-Nd(BH4)3, at T ∼ 270 °C, p(H2) = 98 bar facilitates reversible formation of another three cubic polymorph, denoted as ß, ß' and ß''-RE(BH4)3 (Fm3[combining macron]c). Moreover, the transition ß- to ß'- to ß''- is considered a rare example of stepwise negative thermal expansion. For Pr(BH4)3, ∼2/3 of the sample takes this route of transformation whereas in argon only ∼5 wt%, and the remaining transforms directly from α- to r-Pr(BH4)3. The ß-polymorphs are porous with V/Z = 172.4 and 172.7 Å3 for ß''-RE(BH4)3, RE = Pr or Nd, respectively, and are stabilized by the elevated hydrogen pressures. The polymorphic transitions occur due to rotation of RE(BH4)6 octahedra without breaking or forming chemical bonds. Structural DFT optimization reveals the decreasing stability of α-Pr(BH4)3 > ß-Pr(BH4)3 > r-Pr(BH4)3.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(44): 30157-30165, 2017 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29104996

RESUMO

Fluoride substitution in LiBH4 is studied by investigation of LiBH4-LiBF4 mixtures (9 : 1 and 3 : 1). Decomposition was followed by in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (in situ SR-PXD), thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry with gas analysis (TGA/DSC-MS) and in situ infrared spectroscopy (in situ FTIR). Upon heating, fluoride substituted LiBH4 forms (LiBH4-xFx) and decomposition occurs, releasing diborane and solid decomposition products. The decomposition temperature is reduced more than fourfold relative to the individual constituents, with decomposition commencing at T = 80 °C. The degree of fluoride substitution is quantified by sequential Rietveld refinement and shows a selective manner of substitution. In situ FTIR experiments reveal formation of bands originating from LiBH4-xFx. Formation of LiF and observation of diborane release implies that the decomposing materials have a composition that facilitates formation of diborane and LiF, i.e. LiBH4-xFx (LiBH3F). An alternative approach for fluoride substitution was performed, by addition of Et3N·3HF to LiBH4, yielding extremely unstable products. Spontaneous decomposition indicates fluoride substitution to have occurred. From our point of view, this is the most significant destabilization effect seen for borohydride materials so far.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(36): 25071-25079, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879366

RESUMO

A combination of experimental and computational techniques has been used to fully describe the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of the LiBH4-NaBH4-KBH4 system. The Calphad method was used to assess the thermodynamic properties of LiBH4-NaBH4, LiBH4-KBH4, and NaBH4-KBH4 binary systems and to extend the investigation to the LiBH4-NaBH4-KBH4 ternary system. Samples with various compositions in the ternary system were synthesised, both by ball milling and manual mixing of the parent borohydrides, and their thermal stability has been studied using in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction as a function of temperature and using differential scanning calorimetry. From collected experimental and literature data, a thermodynamic assessment of the ternary system led to the determination of the phase diagrams. In all cases, the solid solutions can be described in the frame of the regular solution model, with interaction parameters positive or equal to zero (i.e. ideal solution). In contrast, the liquid phase was described using negative interaction parameters. A new ternary eutectic composition was estimated and it was confirmed experimentally to be equal to a molar fraction of 0.66LiBH4-0.11NaBH4-0.23KBH4 with a melting temperature of 102 °C.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 46(39): 13421-13431, 2017 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28948259

RESUMO

Formation, stability and properties of new metal borohydrides within RE(BH4)3-NaBH4, RE = Ce, Pr, Er or Gd is investigated. Three new bimetallic sodium rare-earth borohydrides, NaCe(BH4)4, NaPr(BH4)4 and NaEr(BH4)4 are formed based on an addition reaction between NaBH4 and halide free rare-earth metal borohydrides RE(BH4)3, RE = Ce, Pr, Er. All the new compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic crystal system. NaCe(BH4)4 has unit cell parameters of a = 6.8028(5), b = 17.5181(13), c = 7.2841(5) Å and space group Pbcn. NaPr(BH4)4 is isostructural to NaCe(BH4)4 with unit cell parameters of a = 6.7617(2), b = 17.4678(7), c = 7.2522(3) Å. NaEr(BH4)4 crystallizes in space group Cmcm with unit cell parameters of a = 8.5379(2), b = 12.1570(4), c = 9.1652(3) Å. The structural relationships, also to the known RE(BH4)3, are discussed in detail and related to the stability and synthesis conditions. Heat treatment of NaBH4-Gd(BH4)3 mixture forms an unstable amorphous phase, which decomposes after one day at RT. NaCe(BH4)4 and NaPr(BH4)4 show reversible hydrogen storage capacity of 1.65 and 1.04 wt% in the fourth H2 release, whereas that of NaEr(BH4)4 continuously decreases. This is mainly assigned to formation of metal hydrides and possibly slower formation of sodium borohydride. The dehydrogenated state clearly contains rare-earth metal borides, which stabilize boron in the dehydrogenated state.

18.
Dalton Trans ; 46(35): 11905-11912, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28849828

RESUMO

A new synthesis method of samarium borohydride, Sm(BH4)2, using tetrahydrofuran borane, THF-BH3, and samarium hydride, SmH2, has been demonstrated and verified. The synthesised Sm(BH4)2 was mechanochemically treated with MBH4, M = K, Rb, Cs. Initially, the formation of KSm(BH4)3 is observed while subsequent heat treatment is necessary to form MSm(BH4)3, M = Rb, Cs. The new compounds crystallise in orthorhombic unit cells adopting perovskite-type 3D frameworks containing distorted [Sm(BH4)6] octahedra. In situ X-ray diffraction studies reveal two second-order polymorphic transitions of α-CsSm(BH4)3via a tetragonal intermediate, α'-CsSm(BH4)3, into a cubic high-temperature polymorph, ß-CsSm(BH4)3, resembling an ideal perovskite structure. The new compounds, MSm(BH4)3, are thermally stable up to T ∼ 280 °C after which they decompose into mainly MBH4, SmH2 and possibly SmB6 and SmB12H12. Finally, after three cycles of hydrogen release and uptake, the storage capacity was 1.0 wt% for KSm(BH4)3 and 0.84 wt% for RbSm(BH4)3 and CsSm(BH4)3.

19.
Dalton Trans ; 46(24): 7770-7781, 2017 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28590005

RESUMO

A series of ammine metal-dodecahydro-closo-dodecaboranes, MxB12H12·nNH3 (M = Li, Na, Ca) were synthesized and their structural and thermal properties studied with in situ time-resolved synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and temperature-programmed photographic analysis. The synthesized compounds, Li2B12H12·7NH3, Na2B12H12·4NH3 and CaB12H12·6NH3, contain high amounts of NH3, 43.3, 26.6 and 35.9 wt% NH3, respectively, which can be released and absorbed reversibly at moderate conditions without decomposition, thereby making the closo-boranes favorable 'host' materials for ammonia or indirect hydrogen storage in the solid state. In this work, fifteen new ammine metal dodecahydro-closo-dodecaborane compounds are observed by powder X-ray diffraction, of which six are structurally characterized, Li2B12H12·4NH3, Li2B12H12·2NH3, Na2B12H12·4NH3, Na2B12H12·2NH3, CaB12H12·4NH3 and CaB12H12·3NH3. Li2B12H12·4NH3 and Na2B12H12·4NH3 are isostructural and monoclinic (P21/n) whereas Na2B12H12·2NH3 and CaB12H12·3NH3 are both trigonal with space groups P3[combining macron]m1 and R3[combining macron]c, respectively. Generally, coordination between the metal and the icosahedral closo-borane anion is diverse and includes point sharing, edge sharing, or face sharing, while coordination of ammonia always occurs via the lone pair on nitrogen to the metal. Furthermore, a liquid intermediate is observed during heating of Li2B12H12·7NH3. This work provides deeper insight into the structural, physical, and chemical properties related to thermal decomposition and possible ammonia and hydrogen storage.

20.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15136, 2017 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28443627

RESUMO

Silver compounds share a rich history in technical applications including photography, catalysis, photocatalysis, cloud seeding and as antimicrobial agents. Here we present a class of silver compounds (Ag2B10H10 and Ag2B12H12) that are semiconductors with a bandgap at 2.3 eV in the green visible light spectrum. The silver boranes have extremely high ion conductivity and dynamic-anion facilitated Ag+ migration is suggested based on the structural model. The ion conductivity is enhanced more than two orders of magnitude at room temperature (up to 3.2 mS cm-1) by substitution with AgI to form new compounds. Furthermore, the closo-boranes show extremely fast silver nano-filament growth when excited by electrons during transmission electron microscope investigations. Ag nano-filaments can also be reabsorbed back into Ag2B12H12. These interesting properties demonstrate the multifunctionality of silver closo-boranes and open up avenues in a wide range of fields including photocatalysis, solid state ionics and nano-wire production.

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