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1.
Biomed Phys Eng Express ; 7(6)2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647906

RESUMO

Objective. Electrical stimulation of the auricular vagus nerve is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that has been used for various conditions, including depression, epilepsy, headaches, and cerebral ischemia. However, unwanted non-vagal nerve stimulations can occur because of diffused stimulations. The objective of this study is to develop a region-specific non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) technique using the millimeter wave (MMW) as a stimulus for the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (ABVN).Approach. A numerical simulation was conducted to ascertain whether the MMW could excite the ABVN in the human outer-ear with a millimeter-scale spatial resolution. Additionally, MMW-induced neuronal responses in seven mice were evaluated. Transcutaneous auricular VNS (ta-VNS) was applied to the cymba conchae innervated by the AVBN using a 60-GHz continuous wave (CW). As a control, the auricle's exterior margin was stimulated and referred to as transcutaneous auricular non-vagus nerve stimulation (ta-nonVNS). During stimulation, the local field potential (LFP) in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), an afferent vagal projection site, was recorded simultaneously.Main results. The ta-VNS with a stimulus level of 13 dBm showed a significant increase in the LFP power in the NTS. The mean increases in power (n = 7) in the gamma high and gamma very high bands were 8.6 ± 2.0% and 18.2 ± 5.9%, respectively. However, the ta-nonVNS with a stimulus level of 13 dBm showed a significant decrease in the LFP power in the NTS. The mean decreases in power in the beta and gamma low bands were 11.0 ± 4.4% and 10.8 ± 2.8%, respectively. These findings suggested that MMW stimulation clearly induced a different response according to the presence of ABVN.Significance. Selective auricular VNS is feasible using the MMW. This study provides the basis for the development of a new clinical treatment option using the stimulation of the ta-VNS with a square millimeter spatial resolution.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15828, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349156

RESUMO

Precise remote evaluation of both suicide risk and psychiatric disorders is critical for suicide prevention as well as for psychiatric well-being. Using questionnaires is an alternative to labor-intensive diagnostic interviews in a large general population, but previous models for predicting suicide attempts suffered from low sensitivity. We developed and validated a deep graph neural network model that increased the prediction sensitivity of suicide risk in young adults (n = 17,482 for training; n = 14,238 for testing) using multi-dimensional questionnaires and suicidal ideation within 2 weeks as the prediction target. The best model achieved a sensitivity of 76.3%, specificity of 83.4%, and an area under curve of 0.878 (95% confidence interval, 0.855-0.899). We demonstrated that multi-dimensional deep features covering depression, anxiety, resilience, self-esteem, and clinico-demographic information contribute to the prediction of suicidal ideation. Our model might be useful for the remote evaluation of suicide risk in the general population of young adults for specific situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Área Sob a Curva , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/prevenção & controle , Prognóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , República da Coreia , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Autoimagem , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11534, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075140

RESUMO

Affective states influence our decisions even when processed unconsciously. Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is a new variant of binocular rivalry that can be used to render the prime subliminal. Nonetheless, how prior information from emotional faces suppressed by CFS influences subsequent decision-making remains unclear. Here, we employed a CFS priming task to examine the effect of the two main types of information conveyed by faces, i.e., facial identity and emotion, on the evaluation of target words as positive or negative. The hierarchical diffusion model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms. A significant interaction effect on response time was observed following the angry face prime but not the happy or neutral face primes. The results of the diffusion model analyses revealed that the priming effects of facial identity were mapped onto the drift rate and erased the 'positive bias' (the processing advantage of positive over negative stimuli). Meanwhile, the positive emotional faces increased the nondecision time in response to negative target words. The model-based analysis implies that both facial identity and emotion are processed under CFS.

5.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 132(8): 1866-1877, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147011

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Signal variability is linked to irregularities in time series caused by intrinsic nonlinearities of the neural system and can be measured on variable temporal scales over short time series. By measuring refined complex multiscale permutation entropy (RCMPE) from resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) data, we investigated the presence of a specific range of time scales characterizing major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: We used an EEG dataset acquired from 22 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls in the eyes-closed (EC) and eyes-open (EO) states available on the PRED + CT website. Signal variability in both the EC and EO states was compared between the two groups, and their relationship to depressive symptom severity was examined. RESULTS: In the EC state, the RCMPE was higher in the MDD group than in the control group on a coarse temporal scale, approximately 20-32 ms, at almost all sensors. It also showed a negative correlation with depressive symptom severity on a fine temporal scale, approximately 2-26 ms, in the frontal, right temporal, and left parietal sensor areas in MDD. The EO state revealed a group difference but no relationship with depressive symptom severity. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that the diagnosis of MDD as a trait and the severity of depressive symptoms as a state are linked to EEG signal variability on the coarse temporal scale and the fine scale in the resting state, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: Signal variability reflects different characteristics of depression depending on the temporal scale.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
Brain Behav ; 10(12): e01870, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire (TAQ) is a traumatic experience scale that measures exposure to traumatic events across four age periods. Although the TAQ has good convergent validity with other traumatic scales, the classification of the domains and the psychometric properties of the scale has not been verified. METHODS: A total of 290 young adults completed the TAQ, and 156 participated in the retest. The number of trauma domains was determined using principal component analysis. Rasch model was used for verifying the items that each domain might represent in one common measurement. RESULTS: When scores were transformed as binary a code 0 and 1 from the original 4 categories, 8 domains were established consisting of Domestic violence, Sexual/other rare trauma, Incompetence, Caring family, Accidents to close person, Unstable caring environment, Safe environment, and Lack of sexual/extreme trauma. Most domains had acceptable psychometric properties with a mean-square fit value within the range of 0.7-1.3. The Bland and Altman analysis suggest 98.7% of difference scores between test and retest were within ±2 standard deviations from the mean. TAQ severity showed a significant relationship with the multiplicity score of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure scale (r = 0.677). CONCLUSIONS: The newly proposed scoring system and 8 domains for the TAQ demonstrated excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity. Further studies are needed to develop new items in domains with less than 5 items to improve the psychometric properties of the scale and to create a maltreatment domain that includes bullying items.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Sexual , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(11): 1260-1270, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104801

RESUMO

In many decision-making situations, sub-optimal choices are increased by uncertainty. However, when wrong choices could lead to social punishment, such as blame, people might try to improve their performance by minimizing sub-optimal choices, which could be achieved by increasing the subjective cost of errors, thereby globally reducing decision noise or reducing an uncertainty-induced component of decision noise. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 46 participants performed a choice task in which the probability of a correct choice with a given cue and the conditional probability of blame feedback (by making an incorrect choice) changed continuously. By comparing computational models of behaviour, we found that participants optimized their performance by preferentially reducing a component of decision noise associated with uncertainty. Simultaneously, expecting blame significantly deteriorated participants' mood. Model-based fMRI analyses and dynamic causal modelling indicate that the optimization mechanism based on the expectation of being blamed would be controlled by a neural circuit centred on the right medial prefrontal cortex. These results show novel behavioural and neural mechanisms regarding how humans optimize uncertain decisions under the expectation of being blamed.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Punição/psicologia , Incerteza , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Radiology ; 297(1): 178-188, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749203

RESUMO

Background Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters obtained from dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) MRI evaluates the microcirculation permeability of astrocytomas, but the unreliability from arterial input function (AIF) remains a challenge. Purpose To develop a deep learning model that improves the reliability of AIF for DCE MRI and to validate the reliability and diagnostic performance of PK parameters by using improved AIF in grading astrocytomas. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 386 patients (mean age, 52 years ± 16 [standard deviation]; 226 men) with astrocytomas diagnosed with histopathologic analysis who underwent dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-enhanced and DCE MRI preoperatively from April 2010 to January 2018. The AIF was obtained from each sequence: AIF obtained from DSC-enhanced MRI (AIFDSC) and AIF measured at DCE MRI (AIFDCE). The model was trained to translate AIFDCE into AIFDSC, and after training, outputted neural-network-generated AIF (AIFgenerated DSC) with input AIFDCE. By using the three different AIFs, volume transfer constant (Ktrans), fractional volume of extravascular extracellular space (Ve), and vascular plasma space (Vp) were averaged from the tumor areas in the DCE MRI. To validate the model, intraclass correlation coefficients and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of the PK parameters in grading astrocytomas were compared by using different AIFs. Results The AIF-generated, DSC-derived PK parameters showed higher AUCs in grading astrocytomas than those derived from AIFDCE (mean Ktrans, 0.88 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.81, 0.93] vs 0.72 [95% CI: 0.63, 0.79], P = .04; mean Ve, 0.87 [95% CI: 0.79, 0.92] vs 0.70 [95% CI: 0.61, 0.77], P = .049, respectively). Ktrans and Ve showed higher intraclass correlation coefficients for AIFgenerated DSC than for AIFDCE (0.91 vs 0.38, P < .001; and 0.86 vs 0.60, P < .001, respectively). In AIF analysis, baseline signal intensity (SI), maximal SI, and wash-in slope showed higher intraclass correlation coefficients with AIFgenerated DSC than AIFDCE (0.77 vs 0.29, P < .001; 0.68 vs 0.42, P = .003; and 0.66 vs 0.45, P = .01, respectively. Conclusion A deep learning algorithm improved both reliability and diagnostic performance of MRI pharmacokinetic parameters for differentiating astrocytoma grades. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Astrocitoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710334

RESUMO

Maltreatment experiences alter brain development associated with emotion processing, and dysregulation of emotion may trigger mental health problems in maltreated people. However, studies revealing alterations in brain networks during cognitive reappraisal in victims of maltreatment are strikingly insufficient. In this study, 27 healthy subjects were recruited. The maltreatment experiences and positive reappraisal abilities were measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), respectively. A cognitive reappraisal task using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was designed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments. Cognitive reappraisal induced more activities in the bilateral inferior parietal lobes and bilateral middle temporal gyri compared to the condition of "look" (false discovery rate (FDR) corrected p < 0.05). Furthermore, the left inferior parietal lobe and right middle temporal gyrus functionally interacted with components of the default mode network, including the precuneus and the posterior cingulate cortex. In residual analyses after controlling for age and depressive symptoms, the bilateral inferior parietal and middle temporal activities exhibited positive correlations with cognitive reappraisal abilities (all ps < 0.05), and emotional maltreatment experiences were negatively correlated with the left inferior parietal cortex, bilateral middle temporal cortex activities, and left inferior parietal lobe-posterior cingulate cortex connectivity (all ps < 0.05). We found that semantic networks were significant to cognitive reappraisal, especially reinterpretation, and negative effects of emotional maltreatment experiences on semantic network activities.

10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7867, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398788

RESUMO

Depression diagnosis is one of the most important issues in psychiatry. Depression is a complicated mental illness that varies in symptoms and requires patient cooperation. In the present study, we demonstrated a novel data-driven attempt to diagnose depressive disorder based on clinical questionnaires. It includes deep learning, multi-modal representation, and interpretability to overcome the limitations of the data-driven approach in clinical application. We implemented a shared representation model between three different questionnaire forms to represent questionnaire responses in the same latent space. Based on this, we proposed two data-driven diagnostic methods; unsupervised and semi-supervised. We compared them with a cut-off screening method, which is a traditional diagnostic method for depression. The unsupervised method considered more items, relative to the screening method, but showed lower performance because it maximized the difference between groups. In contrast, the semi-supervised method adjusted for bias using information from the screening method and showed higher performance. In addition, we provided the interpretation of diagnosis and statistical analysis of information using local interpretable model-agnostic explanations and ordinal logistic regression. The proposed data-driven framework demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing depressed patients with items directly or indirectly related to depression.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados/métodos , Ciência de Dados/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Algoritmos , Mineração de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciência de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizado Profundo , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neuroimage Clin ; 27: 102263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is commonly comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the addiction is more severe when comorbid with ADHD, little is known about the neural correlates of the association. This study aimed to identify whether an ADHD-related structural brain network exists in IGD patients with comorbid ADHD (IGDADHD+) by comparing them with those without comorbid ADHD (IGDADHD-) and elucidating how the sub-network is associated with addiction severity. METHODS: Brain structural networks were constructed based on streamline tractography with diffusion tensor imaging in a cohort of 46 male IGDADHD+ patients, 48 male IGDADHD- patients, and 34 healthy controls (HC). We used network-based statistics (NBS) to identify the sub-network differences between the two IGD groups. Furthermore, the edges in the sub-network that significantly contributed to explaining the Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) score were delineated using partial least square (PLS) regression analyses in IGD patients. RESULTS: The YIAS score was higher in the IGDADHD+ group than in the IGDADHD- group and was correlated with the Korean Dupaul's ADHD scale score (r = 0.42, p <0.01). The NBS detected a sub-network with stronger connectivity in the IGDADHD+ group than in the IGDADHD-group. The PLS regression model showed that the sub-network is associated with the YIAS score in the IGDADHD+ group (q2 = 0.019). Edges connecting the left pre- and postcentral gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, medial orbital parts, and left fusiform to the inferior temporal gyrus were most important predictors in the regression model. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that an aberrant increase in some structural connections within circuits related to inhibitory function or sensory integration can indicate how comorbid ADHD is associated with addiction severity in IGD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtorno de Adição à Internet/fisiopatologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Humanos , Internet , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(7): 609-619, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the well-known association between anxiety and risk-avoidant decision making, it is unclear how pathological anxiety biases risk learning. We propose a Bayesian inference model with bias parameters of prior, learning, and perception during risk learning in individuals with pathological anxiety. METHODS: Patients with panic disorder (PD, n = 40) and healthy control subjects (n = 84) completed the balloon analog risk task (BART). By fitting our computational model of three bias parameters (prior belief, learning rate, and perceptual bias) to the participants' behavior, we estimated the degree of bias in risk learning and its relationship with anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: Relative to the healthy control subjects, the pathologically anxious participants exhibited a biased underestimation of perceptual evidence rather than differences in priors and learning rates. The degree of perceptual bias was correlated with the anxiety and depression symptom severity in the patients with PD. Furthermore, our proposed model was the winning model for BART data in an external data set from different patient groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that individuals with pathological anxiety demonstrate perceptual bias in evidence accumulation, which may explain why patients with anxiety overestimate risk in their daily lives. This clarification highlights the importance of interventions focusing on perceptual bias, such as enhancing the clarity of favorable outcome probabilities.


Assuntos
Transtorno de Pânico , Agorafobia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Transtorno de Pânico/epidemiologia
13.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 14(6): 2132-2147, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321662

RESUMO

The current study examined whether machine learning features best distinguishing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from typically developing children (TDC) can explain clinical phenotypes using multi-modal neuroimaging and genetic data. Cortical morphology, diffusivity scalars, resting-state functional connectivity and polygenic risk score (PS) from norepinephrine, dopamine and glutamate genes were extracted from 47 ADHD and 47 matched TDC. Using random forests, classification accuracy was measured for each uni- and multi-modal model. The optimal model was used to explain symptom severity or task performance and its robustness was validated in the independent dataset including 18 ADHD and 18 TDC. The model consisting of cortical thickness and volume features achieved the best accuracy of 85.1%. Morphological changes across insula, sensory/motor, and inferior frontal cortex were also found as key predictors. Those explained 18.0% of ADHD rating scale, while dynamic regional homogeneity within default network explained 6.4% of the omission errors in continuous performance test. Ensemble of PS to optimal model showed minor effect on accuracy. Validation analysis achieved accuracy of 69.4%. Current findings suggest that structural deformities relevant to salience detection, sensory processing, and response inhibition may be robust classifiers and symptom predictors of ADHD. Altered local functional connectivity across default network predicted attentional lapse. However, further investigation is needed to clarify roles of genetic predisposition.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
14.
eNeuro ; 6(4)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362956

RESUMO

In the resting state, heartbeats evoke cortical responses called heartbeat-evoked responses (HERs), which reflect cortical cardiac interoceptive processing. While previous studies have reported that the heartbeat evokes cortical responses at a regional level, whether the heartbeat induces synchronization between regions to form a network structure remains unknown. Using resting-state MEG data from 85 human subjects of both genders, we first showed that heartbeat increases the phase synchronization between cortical regions in the theta frequency but not in other frequency bands. This increase in synchronization between cortical regions formed a network structure called the heartbeat-induced network (HIN), which did not reflect artificial phase synchronization. In the HIN, the left inferior temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus played a central role as hubs. Furthermore, the HIN was modularized, containing five subnetworks called modules. In particular, module 1 played a central role in between-module interactions in the HIN. Furthermore, synchronization within module 1 had a positive association with the mood of an individual. In this study, we show the existence of the HIN and its network properties, advancing the current understanding of cortical heartbeat processing and its relationship with mood, which was previously confined to region level.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Sincronização Cortical , Frequência Cardíaca , Ritmo Teta , Adulto , Feminino , Coração/inervação , Coração/fisiologia , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7574, 2019 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31110325

RESUMO

To learn through feedback, feedback should be reliable. However, if feedback is blurred by irrelevant social information, learning in a volatile environment, which requires fast learning and adaptation, might be disturbed. In this study, we investigated how feedback with social noise interferes with learning in a volatile environment by designing a probabilistic associative learning task in which the association probability changes dynamically, and the outcome was randomly blurred by an emotional face with incongruent valence. Learning in this situation was modelled by HGF-S such that emotionally incongruent feedback induces perceptual uncertainty called social noise. The Bayesian model comparison showed that the HGF-S model explains the subjects' behaviour well, and the simulation showed that social noise interrupts both learning the association probability and the volatility. Furthermore, the learning interruption influenced the subsequent decision. Finally, we found that the individual difference in how the same emotionally incongruent feedback induces social noise in varying degrees was related to the differences in event-related desynchronization induced by happy and sad faces in the right anterior insula, which encodes the degree of emotional feeling. These results advance our understanding of how feedback with emotional interference affects learning.


Assuntos
Emoções , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Aprendizagem , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
16.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040800

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported an association between verbal abuse in early childhood and structural and functional alterations in the young adult brain, supporting the existence of critical periods in human brain development. In addition, exposure to verbal abuse in early childhood is strongly correlated with lifetime psychiatric illness. Resilience is defined as the ability to avoid the negative psychological, biological, and social consequences of stress that impair psychological and physical homeostasis and is used to cope with these psychiatric diseases. We attempted to explain the mediatable present function of resilience and its associations with several psychiatric disorders, with verbal abuse exposure in early childhood and with the present value of the readily measurable and conceptually connected generative Bayesian model parameter. Thirty-six subjects performed a cross-modal associative learning task requiring them to learn the predictive strength of auditory cues and predict a subsequent visual stimulus. The probability of the association changed across each trial block. Subjects' responses were modeled as a hierarchical Bayesian belief-updating process using a hierarchical Gaussian filter (HGF) with three levels, a Sutton K1 model, and a Rescorla-Wagner model. Subjects completed the Korean version of the Verbal Abuse Questionnaire (VAQ) for segmented periods (aged 0 to 6, 7 to 12, and 13 to 18 years), and their positive self-appraisal was estimated using the Resilience Appraisal Scale (RAS). Random-effects Bayesian model selection identified HGF as the best model. Of the VAQ values for specific periods, only preschool VAQ scores were negatively correlated with RAS scores. The tonic volatility parameter, ω2, of HGF showed a negative relationship with RAS emotion coping scores. The linear regression model explained 18.3% of the variance of emotion coping appraisal with ω2 and preschool VAQ scores. Based on the results obtained from young adults, decrease in emotion coping appraisal can be explained by an increase in the number of experiences of verbal abuse in early childhood and the increased tendency to update beliefs about the cue-outcome associative probability in a volatile environment.

17.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(9): 1197-1209, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to predict isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genotypes of gliomas using an interpretable deep learning application for dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI. METHODS: Four hundred sixty-three patients with gliomas who underwent preoperative MRI were enrolled in the study. All the patients had immunohistopathologic diagnoses of either IDH-wildtype or IDH-mutant gliomas. Tumor subregions were segmented using a convolutional neural network followed by manual correction. DSC perfusion MRI was performed to obtain T2* susceptibility signal intensity-time curves from each subregion of the tumors: enhancing tumor, non-enhancing tumor, peritumoral edema, and whole tumor. These, with arterial input functions, were fed into a neural network as multidimensional inputs. A convolutional long short-term memory model with an attention mechanism was developed to predict IDH genotypes. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed to evaluate the model. RESULTS: The IDH genotype predictions had an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 92.8%, 92.6%, and 93.1%, respectively, in the validation set (area under the curve [AUC], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.969-0.991) and 91.7%, 92.1%, and 91.5%, respectively, in the test set (AUC, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.898-0.982). In temporal feature analysis, T2* susceptibility signal intensity-time curves obtained from DSC perfusion MRI with attention weights demonstrated high attention on the combination of the end of the pre-contrast baseline, up/downslopes of signal drops, and/or post-bolus plateaus for the curves used to predict IDH genotype. CONCLUSIONS: We developed an explainable recurrent neural network model based on DSC perfusion MRI to predict IDH genotypes in gliomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Meios de Contraste , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Genótipo , Glioma/genética , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Curva ROC
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5655, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948757

RESUMO

Verbal abuse is an emotional abuse intended to inflict intense humiliation-denigration-fear as perceived by exposed person. Network-based approaches have been applied to explore the integrative-segregated patterns of associations among the psychological features and external stimuli for diverse populations; few studies reported for verbal abuse effects in college population. Self-reporting measurements acquired form 5,616 college students were used for network analyses. Escalating cascades of verbal abuse from differential sources (parents, peers, or supervisors; network 1) and directed associations among verbal abuse severity-psychopathology-social interaction (network 2) were estimated using the directed acyclic graphs. Principal connectors of verbal abuse-psychopathology-social interaction were shown using the graph theory metrics calculated from the intra-individual covariance networks (network 3). Directed propagating patterns of verbal abuse phenomena differed by source (network 1). Severe peer-related verbal abuse affected psychomotor changes and influenced irritability (network 2). Verbal abuse of self-esteem damage and unjust blame served as connectors in the verbal abuse-psychopathology-social interaction; influence of smartphone overuse-related distress was stronger in cases with more severe verbal abuse (network 3). Verbal abuse that damages self-esteem and conveys unjust blame harms mental health and social interaction for college population.


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo Associado , Angústia Psicológica , República da Coreia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 13: 12, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760992

RESUMO

Despite the critical impact of parental dialog on children who remain physically and psychologically dependent, most studies have focused on brain alterations in people exposed to moderate-to-high levels of emotional maltreatment with/without psychopathology. We measured metabolites in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) acquired with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and anatomical connectivity assessed with probabilistic tractography in 46 healthy young adults who experienced no-to-low level parental verbal abuse (paVA) during their childhood and adolescence. The partial least square regression (PLSR) model showed that individual variance of perceived paVA was associated with chemical properties and structural connectivity of pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC; prediction R 2 = 0.23). The jackknife test was used to identify features that significantly contributed to the partial least square regression (PLSR) model; a negative association of paVA was found with myo-inositol concentration, anatomical connectivities with the right caudate and with the right transverse temporal gyrus. Of note, positive associations were also found with the left pars triangularis, left cuneus, right inferior temporal cortex, right entorhinal cortex and right amygdala. Our results showing both a negative association of frontal glial function and positive associations of anatomical connectivities in several networks associated with threat detection or visual information processing suggest both anatomical and neurochemical adaptive changes in medial frontolimbic networks to low-level paVA experiences.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 430, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674995

RESUMO

The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that the cortical representation of visceral signals is a crucial component of emotional processing. No previous study has investigated the information flow among brain regions that process visceral information during emotional perception. In this magnetoencephalography study of 32 healthy subjects of either sex, heartbeat-evoked responses (HERs), which reflect the cortical processing of heartbeats, were modulated by the perception of a sad face. The modulation effect was localized to the prefrontal cortices, the globus pallidus, and an interoceptive network including the right anterior insula (RAI) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (RdACC). Importantly, our Granger causality analysis provides the first evidence for the increased flow of heartbeat information from the RAI to the RdACC during sad face perception. Moreover, using a surrogate R-peak analysis, we have shown that this HER modulation effect was time-locked to heartbeats. These findings advance the understanding of brain-body interactions during emotional processing.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Interocepção/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Magnetoencefalografia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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