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1.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191480

RESUMO

In optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterojunctions, the efficient charge transport of photogenerated carriers across the interface is a critical factor to determine the device performances. Here, we report an unexplored approach to boost the optoelectronic device performances of the WSe2-MoS2 p-n heterojunctions via the monolithic-oxidation-induced doping and resultant modulation of the interface band alignment. In the proposed device, the atomically thin WOx layer, which is directly formed by layer-by-layer oxidation of WSe2, is used as a charge transport layer for promoting hole extraction. The use of the ultrathin oxide layer significantly enhanced the photoresponsivity of the WSe2-MoS2 p-n junction devices, and the power conversion efficiency increased from 0.7 to 5.0%, maintaining the response time. The enhanced characteristics can be understood by the formation of the low Schottky barrier and favorable interface band alignment, as confirmed by band alignment analyses and first-principle calculations. Our work suggests a new route to achieve interface contact engineering in the heterostructures toward realizing high-performance 2D optoelectronics.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(2): 026401, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004053

RESUMO

Artificial crystals synthesized by atomic-scale epitaxy provide the ability to control the dimensions of the quantum phases and associated phase transitions via precise thickness modulation. In particular, the reduction in dimensionality via quantized control of atomic layers is a powerful approach to revealing hidden electronic and magnetic phases. Here, we demonstrate a dimensionality-controlled and induced metal-insulator transition (MIT) in atomically designed superlattices by synthesizing a genuine two-dimensional (2D) SrRuO_{3} crystal with highly suppressed charge transfer. The tendency to ferromagnetically align the spins in an SrRuO_{3} layer diminishes in 2D as the interlayer exchange interaction vanishes, accompanying the 2D localization of electrons. Furthermore, electronic and magnetic instabilities in the two SrRuO_{3} unit cell layers induce a thermally driven MIT along with a metamagnetic transition.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100543

RESUMO

The material-efficient monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a promising class of ultrathin nanomaterials with properties ranging from insulating through semiconducting to metallic, opening a wide variety of their potential applications from catalysis and energy storage to optoelectronics, spintronics, and valleytronics. In particular, TMDs have a great potential as emerging inexpensive alternatives to noble metal-based catalysts in electrochemical hydrogen evolution. Herein, we report a straightforward, low-cost, and general colloidal synthesis of various 2D transition-metal disulfide nanomaterials, such as MoS2, WS2, NiSx, FeSx, and VS2, in the absence of organic ligands. This new preparation route provides many benefits including relatively mild reaction conditions, high reproducibility, high yields, easy upscaling, no post-thermal annealing/treatment steps to enhance the catalytic activity, and, finally, especially for molybdenum disulfide nanosheets, high activity in the hydrogen evolution reaction. To underline the universal application of the synthesis, we prepared mixed CoxMo1-xS2 nanosheets in one step to optimize the catalytic activity of pure undoped MoS2, which resulted in an enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction performance characterized by onset potentials as low as 134 mV and small Tafel slopes of 55 mV/dec.

4.
ACS Nano ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999424

RESUMO

Atomically dispersed precious metal catalysts have emerged as a frontier in catalysis. However, a robust, generic synthetic strategy toward atomically dispersed catalysts is still lacking, which has limited systematic studies revealing their general catalytic trends distinct from those of conventional nanoparticle (NP)-based catalysts. Herein, we report a general synthetic strategy toward atomically dispersed precious metal catalysts, which consists of "trapping" precious metal precursors on a heteroatom-doped carbonaceous layer coated on a carbon support and "immobilizing" them with a SiO2 layer during thermal activation. Through the "trapping-and-immobilizing" method, five atomically dispersed precious metal catalysts (Os, Ru, Rh, Ir, and Pt) could be obtained and served as model catalysts for unravelling catalytic trends for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Owing to their isolated geometry, the atomically dispersed precious metal catalysts generally showed higher selectivity for H2O2 production than their NP counterparts for the ORR. Among the atomically dispersed catalysts, the H2O2 selectivity was changed by the types of metals, with atomically dispersed Pt catalyst showing the highest selectivity. A combination of experimental results and density functional theory calculations revealed that the selectivity trend of atomically dispersed catalysts could be correlated to the binding energy difference between *OOH and *O species. In terms of 2 e- ORR activity, the atomically dispersed Rh catalyst showed the best activity. Our general approach to atomically dispersed precious metal catalysts may help in understanding their unique catalytic behaviors for the ORR.

5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 412, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964881

RESUMO

Chlorine evolution reaction (CER) is a critical anode reaction in chlor-alkali electrolysis. Although precious metal-based mixed metal oxides (MMOs) have been widely used as CER catalysts, they suffer from the concomitant generation of oxygen during the CER. Herein, we demonstrate that atomically dispersed Pt-N4 sites doped on a carbon nanotube (Pt1/CNT) can catalyse the CER with excellent activity and selectivity. The Pt1/CNT catalyst shows superior CER activity to a Pt nanoparticle-based catalyst and a commercial Ru/Ir-based MMO catalyst. Notably, Pt1/CNT exhibits near 100% CER selectivity even in acidic media, with low Cl- concentrations (0.1 M), as well as in neutral media, whereas the MMO catalyst shows substantially lower CER selectivity. In situ electrochemical X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals the direct adsorption of Cl- on Pt-N4 sites during the CER. Density functional theory calculations suggest the PtN4C12 site as the most plausible active site structure for the CER.

6.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 559-566, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790269

RESUMO

Phosphorene, a monolayer of black phosphorus (BP), is an elemental two-dimensional material with interesting physical properties, such as high charge carrier mobility and exotic anisotropic in-plane properties. To fundamentally understand these various physical properties, it is critically important to conduct an atomic-scale structural investigation of phosphorene, particularly regarding various defects and preferred edge configurations. However, it has been challenging to investigate mono- and few-layer phosphorene because of technical difficulties arising in the preparation of a high-quality sample and damages induced during the characterization process. Here, we successfully fabricate high-quality monolayer phosphorene using a controlled thinning process with transmission electron microscopy and subsequently perform atomic-resolution imaging. Graphene protection suppresses the e-beam-induced damage to multilayer BP and one-side graphene protection facilitates the layer-by-layer thinning of the samples, rendering high-quality monolayer and bilayer regions. We also observe the formation of atomic-scale crystalline edges predominantly aligned along the zigzag and (101) terminations, which is originated from edge kinetics under e-beam-induced sputtering process. Our study demonstrates a new method to image and precisely manipulate the thickness and edge configurations of air-sensitive two-dimensional materials.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(50): 47182-47189, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755257

RESUMO

It is demonstrated that the electric dipole layer due to the overlapping of electron wave functions at the metal/graphene contact results in a negative Fermi-level pinning effect on the region of the GaAs surface with low interface-trap density in the metal/graphene/n-GaAs(001) junction. The graphene interlayer plays the role of a diffusion barrier, preventing the atomic intermixing at the interface and preserving the low interface-trap density region. The negative Fermi-level pinning effect is supported by the decrease of the Schottky barrier with the increase of the metal work function. Our work shows that the graphene interlayer can invert the effective work function of the metal between high and low, making it possible to form both Schottky and Ohmic-like contacts with identical (particularly high work function) metal electrodes on a semiconductor substrate possessing low surface-state density.

8.
ACS Nano ; 13(11): 13047-13055, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618016

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) heterostructured or alloyed monolayers composed of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have recently emerged as promising materials with great potential for atomically thin electronic applications. However, fabrication of such artificial TMDC heterostructures with a sharp interface and a large crystal size still remains a challenge because of the difficulty in controlling various growth parameters simultaneously during the growth process. Here, a facile synthetic protocol designed for the production of the lateral TMDC heterostructured and alloyed monolayers is presented. A chemical vapor deposition approach combined with solution-processed precursor deposition makes it possible to accurately control the sequential introduction time and the supersaturation levels of the vaporized precursors and thus reliably and exclusively produces selective and heterogeneous epitaxial growth of TMDC monolayer crystals. In addition, TMDC core/shell heterostructured (MoS2/alloy, alloy/WS2) or alloyed (Mo1-xWxS2) monolayers are also easily obtained with precisely controlled growth parameters, such as sulfur introduction timing and growth temperature. These results represent a significant step toward the development of various 2D materials with interesting properties.

9.
Nano Lett ; 19(10): 6827-6838, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476862

RESUMO

Achieving high emission efficiency in solid-state quantum dots (QDs) is an essential requirement for high-performance QD optoelectronics. However, most QD films suffer from insufficient excitation and light extraction efficiencies, along with nonradiative energy transfer between closely adjacent QDs. Herein, we suggest a highly effective strategy to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of QD composite films through an assembly of QDs and poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine)) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer (BCP). A BCP matrix casted under controlled humidity provides multiscale phase-separation features based on (1) submicrometer-scale spinodal decomposition between polymer-rich and water-rich phases and (2) sub-10 nm-scale microphase separation between polymer blocks. The BCP-QD composite containing bicontinuous random pores achieves significant enhancement of both light absorption and extraction efficiencies via effective random light scattering. Moreover, the microphase-separated morphology substantially reduces the Förster resonance energy transfer efficiency from 53% (pure QD film) to 22% (BCP-QD composite), collectively achieving an unprecedented 21-fold enhanced PL over a broad spectral range.

10.
Nat Mater ; 18(12): 1309-1314, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451781

RESUMO

Metallic transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)1-8 are good catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The overpotential and Tafel slope values of metallic phases and edges9 of two-dimensional (2D) TMDs approach those of Pt. However, the overall current density of 2D TMD catalysts remains orders of magnitude lower (~10-100 mA cm-2) than industrial Pt and Ir electrolysers (>1,000 mA cm-2)10,11. Here, we report the synthesis of the metallic 2H phase of niobium disulfide with additional niobium (2H Nb1+xS2, where x is ~0.35)12 as a HER catalyst with current densities of >5,000 mA cm-2 at ~420 mV versus a reversible hydrogen electrode. We find the exchange current density at 0 V for 2H Nb1.35S2 to be ~0.8 mA cm-2, corresponding to a turnover frequency of ~0.2 s-1. We demonstrate an electrolyser based on a 2H Nb1+xS2 cathode that can generate current densities of 1,000 mA cm-2. Our theoretical results reveal that 2H Nb1+xS2 with Nb-terminated surface has free energy for hydrogen adsorption that is close to thermoneutral, facilitating HER. Therefore, 2H Nb1+xS2 could be a viable catalyst for practical electrolysers.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(30): 11786-11790, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318202

RESUMO

Efficiently converting unstable linkages into stable linkages is an important objective in the chemistry of covalent organic frameworks (COFs), because it enhances stability and preserves crystallinity. Here, an unstable imine-linked COF was converted into a stable aromatic benzoxazole-linked COF (BO-COF) via post-oxidative cyclization, based on chemistry used to form fused-aromatic ladder-like rigid-rod polymers. The structure of the porous BO-COF was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, infrared and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, powder X-ray diffraction patterns, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The efficient post-treatment of an unstable reversible COF converted it into a stable irreversible COF, which had significantly improved thermal and chemical stabilities as well as high crystallinity. This strategy can be universally applied for the synthesis of stable fused-aromatic COFs, expanding their practical applications.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(34): 11670-11675, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197930

RESUMO

Ordered graphitic carbon nanosheets (GCNs) were, for the first time, synthesized by the direct condensation of multifunctional phenylacetyl building blocks (monomers) in the presence of phosphorous pentoxide. The GCNs had highly ordered structures with random hole defects and oxygenated functional groups, showing paramagnetism. The results of combined structural and magnetic analyses indicate that the hole defects and functional groups are associated with the appearance and stabilization of unpaired spins. DFT calculations further suggest that the emergence of stabilized spin moments near the edge groups necessitates the presence of functionalized carbon atoms around the hole defects. That is, both hole defects and oxygenated functional groups are essential ingredients for the generation and stabilization of spins in GCNs.

13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2623, 2019 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197162

RESUMO

Identification of active sites is one of the main obstacles to rational design of catalysts for diverse applications. Fundamental insight into the identification of the structure of active sites and structural contributions for catalytic performance are still lacking. Recently, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory (DFT) provide important tools to disclose the electronic, geometric and catalytic natures of active sites. Herein, we demonstrate the structural identification of Zn-N2 active sites with both experimental/theoretical X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra. Further DFT calculations reveal that the oxygen species activation on Zn-N2 active sites is significantly enhanced, which can accelerate the reduction of oxygen with high selectivity, according well with the experimental results. This work highlights the identification and investigation of Zn-N2 active sites, providing a regular principle to obtain deep insight into the nature of catalysts for various catalytic applications.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(17): 7037-7045, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964997

RESUMO

The formation of inorganic nanoparticles has been understood based on the classical crystallization theory described by a burst of nucleation, where surface energy is known to play a critical role, and a diffusion-controlled growth process. However, this nucleation and growth model may not be universally applicable to the entire nanoparticle systems because different precursors and surface ligands are used during their synthesis. Their intrinsic chemical reactivity can lead to a formation pathway that deviates from a classical nucleation and growth model. The formation of metal oxide nanoparticles is one such case because of several distinct chemical aspects during their synthesis. Typical carboxylate surface ligands, which are often employed in the synthesis of oxide nanoparticles, tend to continuously remain on the surface of the nanoparticles throughout the growth process. They can also act as an oxygen source during the growth of metal oxide nanoparticles. Carboxylates are prone to chemical reactions with different chemical species in the synthesis such as alcohol or amine. Such reactions can frequently leave reactive hydroxyl groups on the surface. Herein, we track the entire growth process of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized from conventional iron precursors, iron-oleate complexes, with strongly chelating carboxylate moieties. Mass spectrometry studies reveal that the iron-oleate precursor is a cluster comprising a tri-iron-oxo core and carboxylate ligands rather than a mononuclear complex. A combinatorial analysis shows that the entire growth, regulated by organic reactions of chelating ligands, is continuous without a discrete nucleation step.

15.
ACS Nano ; 13(5): 5502-5512, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026145

RESUMO

Developing cost-effective, efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is the heart of metal-air batteries as a renewable-energy technology. Herein, well-distributed nanopolyhedron (NP) Co3O4 grown on iron (Fe) encapsulated in graphitic layers on a nitrogenated, porous two-dimensional (2D) structure, namely, a C2N matrix, (NP Co3O4/Fe@C2N), presents an outstanding bifunctional catalytic activity with a comparable overpotential and Tafel slope to those of benchmark Pt/C and IrO2. The rationally designed atomic configuration of Co3O4 on the C2N matrix has a well-controlled NP morphology with a (111) plane, leading to bifunctional activities for the ORR and OER. Interestingly, the specific interaction between the NP Co3O4 nanoparticles and the C2N matrix introduces synergistic coupling and changes the electronic configuration of Co atoms and the C2N framework. Benefiting from the synergistic coupling of Co3O4 with the C2N matrix, the NP Co3O4/Fe@C2N electrocatalyst exhibits exceptionally high stability and an even lower charge-discharge overpotential gap of 0.85 V at 15 mA cm-2 than that of the Pt/C+IrO2 catalyst (1.01 V) in Zn-air batteries. This work provides insights into the rational design of a metal oxide on a C2N matrix for bifunctional, low-cost electrochemical catalysts.

16.
Nature ; 568(7750): 70-74, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918403

RESUMO

As the dimensions of the semiconducting channels in field-effect transistors decrease, the contact resistance of the metal-semiconductor interface at the source and drain electrodes increases, dominating the performance of devices1-3. Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have been demonstrated to be excellent semiconductors for ultrathin field-effect transistors4,5. However, unusually high contact resistance has been observed across the interface between the metal and the 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide3,5-9. Recent studies have shown that van der Waals contacts formed by transferred graphene10,11 and metals12 on few-layered transition-metal dichalcogenides produce good contact properties. However, van der Waals contacts between a three-dimensional metal and a monolayer 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide have yet to be demonstrated. Here we report the realization of ultraclean van der Waals contacts between 10-nanometre-thick indium metal capped with 100-nanometre-thick gold electrodes and monolayer MoS2. Using scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging, we show that the indium and gold layers form a solid solution after annealing at 200 degrees Celsius and that the interface between the gold-capped indium and the MoS2 is atomically sharp with no detectable chemical interaction between the metal and the 2D transition-metal dichalcogenide, suggesting van-der-Waals-type bonding between the gold-capped indium and monolayer MoS2. The contact resistance of the indium/gold electrodes is 3,000 ± 300 ohm micrometres for monolayer MoS2 and 800 ± 200 ohm micrometres for few-layered MoS2. These values are among the lowest observed for three-dimensional metal electrodes evaporated onto MoS2, enabling high-performance field-effect transistors with a mobility of 167 ± 20 square centimetres per volt per second. We also demonstrate a low contact resistance of 220 ± 50 ohm micrometres on ultrathin niobium disulfide (NbS2) and near-ideal band offsets, indicative of defect-free interfaces, in tungsten disulfide (WS2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) contacted with indium alloy. Our work provides a simple method of making ultraclean van der Waals contacts using standard laboratory technology on monolayer 2D semiconductors.

17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 697, 2019 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741942

RESUMO

Exsolution has been intensively studied in the fields of energy conversion and storage as a method for the preparation of catalytically active and durable metal nanoparticles. Under typical conditions, however, only a limited number of nanoparticles can be exsolved from the host oxides. Herein, we report the preparation of catalytic nanoparticles by selective exsolution through topotactic ion exchange, where deposited Fe guest cations can be exchanged with Co host cations in PrBaMn1.7Co0.3O5+δ. Interestingly, this phenomenon spontaneously yields the host PrBaMn1.7Fe0.3O5+δ, liberating all the Co cations from the host owing to the favorable incorporation energy of Fe into the lattice of the parent host (ΔEincorporation = -0.41 eV) and the cation exchange energy (ΔEexchange = -0.34 eV). Remarkably, the increase in the number of exsolved nanoparticles leads to their improved catalytic activity as a solid oxide fuel cell electrode and in the dry reforming of methane.

18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 987, 2019 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804336

RESUMO

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Matthew Holwill, which was incorrectly given as Mathew Holwill. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 230, 2019 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651554

RESUMO

Despite a rich choice of two-dimensional materials, which exists these days, heterostructures, both vertical (van der Waals) and in-plane, offer an unprecedented control over the properties and functionalities of the resulted structures. Thus, planar heterostructures allow p-n junctions between different two-dimensional semiconductors and graphene nanoribbons with well-defined edges; and vertical heterostructures resulted in the observation of superconductivity in purely carbon-based systems and realisation of vertical tunnelling transistors. Here we demonstrate simultaneous use of in-plane and van der Waals heterostructures to build vertical single electron tunnelling transistors. We grow graphene quantum dots inside the matrix of hexagonal boron nitride, which allows a dramatic reduction of the number of localised states along the perimeter of the quantum dots. The use of hexagonal boron nitride tunnel barriers as contacts to the graphene quantum dots make our transistors reproducible and not dependent on the localised states, opening even larger flexibility when designing future devices.

20.
Small ; 15(2): e1802228, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387317

RESUMO

An oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst/support system is designed to have Pt nanoparticles nanoconfined in a nanodimensionally limited space. Holey crumpled reduced graphene oxide plates (hCR-rGO) are used as a carbon support for Pt loading. As expected from interparticular Pt-to-Pt distance of Pt-loaded hCR-rGO longer than that of Pt/C (Pt-loaded carbon black as a practical Pt catalyst), the durability of ORR electroactivity along cycles is improved by replacing the widely used carbon black with hCR-rGO. Unexpected morphological changes of Pt are electrochemically induced during repeated ORR processes. Spherical multifaceted Pt particles are evolved to {110}-dominant dendritic multipods. Nanoconfinement of a limited number of Pt within a nanodimensionally limited space is responsible for the morphological changes. The improved durability observed from Pt-loaded hCR-rGO originates from 1) dendritic pod structure of Pt exposing more active sites to reactants and 2) highly ORR-active Pt {110} planes dominant on the surface.

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