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1.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451680

RESUMO

Weigela subsessilis is used in folk medicine to treat pain and allergic syndromes in Korea. However, the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of W. subsessilis callus extract remain unexplored. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the W. subsessilis callus of pharmacological activity. Therefore, we first established in vitro calluses of W.subsessilis via plant tissue culture methods. We then evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of W. subsessilis callus extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The W. subsessilis callus extract showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. These effects were regulated via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling through LPS-induced translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. W. subsessilis callus extract also showed antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in Propionibacterium acnes-treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells. These results indicate that W. subsessilis callus extract has antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, suggesting its possible application in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(12)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287317

RESUMO

Toona sinensis has been traditionally used to treat dysentery, enteritis, flatulence, and itchiness. However, the existence of anti-inflammatory effects of T. sinensis on Propionibacterium acnes-induced skin disease is unknown. In vitro cultures of plant cells and tissues produced under controlled conditions offer a continuous production platform for plant natural products including pigments and anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we determine the anti-inflammatory activities of an extract of in vitro grown adventitious shoots of T. sinensis on P. acnes, the etiologic agent of skin inflammation. The extract of T. sinensis showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also had antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory effects on P. acnes-treated HaCaT cells. In addition, these effects were regulated by suppression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. These results suggesting the potential application of adventitious shoots of T. sinensis grown with an in vitro proliferation system as a medicine for treating P. acnes-induced inflammatory skin disease.

3.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-3, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419489

RESUMO

To enhance the skin whitening effect, tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis needs to be suppressed in the skin. To achieve this goal, we examined the extract of Thymus quinquecostatus flowers, and identified a functional ingredient, galuteolin. Galuteolin effectively inhibited melanin biosynthesis in B16/F10 cells, partially suppressing tyrosinase activity. Therefore, this study suggests that galuteolin can be used as a cosmetic ingredient for skin whitening.

4.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 40, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guettarda speciosa is mainly found in tropical areas in Asia. Although G. speciosa is traditionally used to treat some of the inflammatory disorders, the experimental evidence supporting the anti-inflammatory effect of G. speciosa is limited. Here, we sought to obtain evidence that G. speciosa has anti-inflammatory activity using an acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model and to explore possible underlying mechanisms for the activity. METHODS: The methanol extract of G. speciosa Linn. (MGS) was fingerprinted by HPLC. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT and flow cytometer. As for an ALI mouse model, C57BL/6 mice received an intratracheal (i.t.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effects of MGS on lung inflammation in the ALI mice were assessed by differential cell counting and FACS of inflammatory cells and hematoxylin and eosin staining of lung tissue. Proteins were analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting, and gene expression was by real-time qPCR. Neutrophil elastase activity was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: MGS did not cause metabolic disarray or produce reactive oxygen species that could induce cytotoxicity. Similar to ALI patients, C57BL/6 mice that received an i.t. LPS developed a high level of neutrophils, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflicted tissue damage in the lung, which was suppressed by i.t. MGS administered at 2 h after LPS. Mechanistically, MGS activated Nrf2, which was related to MGS interrupting the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of Nrf2. MGS suppressed the nuclear localization of NF-κB induced by LPS, suggesting the inhibition of NF-κB activity. Furthermore, MGS inhibited the enzymatic activity of neutrophil elastase. CONCLUSION: MGS could suppress lung inflammation in an ALI mouse model, the effect of which could be attributed to multiple mechanisms, including the activation of Nrf2 and the suppression of NF-κB and neutrophil elastase enzymatic activity by MGS.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Elastase de Leucócito/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metanol , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Rubiaceae/química
5.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614689

RESUMO

Chronic and extensive exposure of ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation causes human skin sunburn, inflammation, or photoaging, which is associated with downregulated collagen synthesis. This study investigated the effects of fermented blackberry (Rubus fruticosus B., FBB) by Lactobacillus plantarum JBMI F5 (LP) on UVB-induced photoaging in human foreskin fibroblast (Hs68) as well as in SKH-1 hairless mice. FBB pretreatment inhibited UVB-mediated type-1 procollagen degradation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-2 protein expression, and suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in Hs68. In addition, FBB administration diminished the wrinkle formation in dorsal skin and epidermal thickening in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. Moreover, UVB-induced Type-1 procollagen reduction and antioxidant enzyme inactivation were reversed by FBB administration. These results suggest that FBB may have antiphotoaging effects on UVB-induced wrinkle formation by maintaining the extracellular matrix density in the dermis, which occurs via regulation of reactive oxygen species and related MAPK and NF-κB signaling. Therefore, FBB can be a potential candidate for protecting skin aging against UV irradiation.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rubus/química , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Fermentação , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Prepúcio do Pênis/citologia , Frutas/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Extratos Vegetais/química , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação
6.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 105-111, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30757935

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Eclipta prostrata L. (Asteraceae) (EP) has been widely used for the treatment of skin disease in Asian traditional medicine. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the potency of EP in promoting hair growth in vivo and in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6N mice were divided into four groups (n = 4) as follows: control (topical treatment of normal saline), topical 3% minoxidil to the dorsal skin of mice for 14 days, and low (1 mg/day) and high (10 mg/day) doses of EP orally administered once a day for 14 days. Dorsal hairs of C57BL/6N mice were depilated to synchronize anagen induction. Hair growth activity was evaluated by gross and microscopic observations. Sections of dorsal skin were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. We also treated the various concentrations of EP (5, 10 and 50 µg/mL) for 24 h on the human dermal papilla cells (HDPs) and examined the effects of EP on the expression of FGF-7 and mTOR signalling. RESULTS: EP enhanced the induction of anagen in the dorsal skin of mice, characterized by the appearance of inner root sheath along with hair shaft, the emergence of hair shaft through the epidermis. EP increased the expression of FGF-7, while decreased the level of FGF-5 in C57/BL6 mice. EP also increased the expression of FGF-7, activated the mTOR signalling in HDPs. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that EP has a potency to enhance the growth of hair follicle, promoting hair growth through regulation of FGF-7 and FGF-5.


Assuntos
Eclipta/química , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fator 7 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Cabelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cabelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Folículo Piloso/efeitos dos fármacos , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Minoxidil/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo
7.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 15, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asian traditional herbal remedies are typically a concoction of a major and several complementary herbs. While balancing out any adverse effect of the major herb, the complementary herbs could dilute the efficacy of the major herb, resulting in a suboptimal therapeutic effect of an herbal remedy. Here, we formulated Chung-Sang (CS) by collating five major herbs, which are used against inflammatory diseases, and tested whether an experimental formula composed of only major herbs is effective in suppressing inflammation without significant side effects. METHODS: The 50% ethanol extract of CS (eCS) was fingerprinted by HPLC. Cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells was determined by an MTT assay and a flow cytometer. Nuclear NF-κB and Nrf2 were analyzed by western blot. Ubiquitinated Nrf2 was similarly analyzed following immunoprecipitation of Nrf2. Acute lung inflammation and sepsis were induced in C57BL/6 mice. The effects of eCS on lung disease were measured by HE staining of lung sections, a differential cell counting of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, a myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay, a real-time qPCR, and Kaplan-Meier survival of mice. RESULTS: eCS neither elicited cytotoxicity nor reactive oxygen species. While not suppressing NF-κB, eCS activated Nrf2, reduced the ubiquitination of Nrf2, and consequently induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes. In an acute lung inflammation mouse model, an intratracheal (i.t.) eCS suppressed neutrophil infiltration, the expression of inflammatory cytokine genes, and MPO activity. In a sepsis mouse model, a single i.t. eCS was sufficient to significantly decrease mouse mortality. CONCLUSIONS: eCS could suppress severe lung inflammation in mice. This effect seemed to associate with eCS activating Nrf2. Our findings suggest that herbal remedies consisting of only major herbs are worth considering.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7
8.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(22): 3283-3286, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29726712

RESUMO

In this study, Auricularia auricula-judae (Bull.) extract (AAE) had potent antioxidant activity in vitro and promoted the biosynthesis of procollagen, a precursor of collagen in HaCaT cells. In addition, the expression of HAS-3 (hyaluronic acid synthase), which is a moisturizing factor, was increased in HaCaT cells in response to AAE. Therefore, this work suggests that AAE has the potential to exhibit antioxidant activity and promote procollagen biosynthesis in HaCaT cells.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Pró-Colágeno/biossíntese , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Basidiomycota , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Hialuronan Sintases/efeitos dos fármacos , Hialuronan Sintases/metabolismo , Pró-Colágeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/citologia , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/metabolismo
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 227: 97-104, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145174

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The water extract of Forsythiae Fructus (WFF) is an herbal remedy that is prescribed to treat various inflammatory diseases in traditional Chinese medicine. Although the anti-inflammatory activity of WFF has been reported, the underlying mechanisms for the activity remain unclear. Here, we examined whether the anti-inflammatory activity of WFF is associated with Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory factor, and A20, an ubiquitin-regulator protein that inhibits signaling cascades of endotoxin or cytokines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water extract of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl was prepared and fingerprinted by HPLC. Cytotoxicity and intracellular ROS induced by WFF were determined by MTT and FACS analyses, respectively. Nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins were analyzed by immunoblot. Expression of mRNA was analyzed by a semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Expression of proteins or genes was quantitated by Image J. RESULTS: WFF activated Nrf2, inducing the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes, such as HO-1, NQO1, and GCLC in RAW 264.7 cells. On the other hand, WFF suppressed NF-κB induced by LPS or TNF-α, which was coincided with the expression of A20. Conversely, WFF failed to suppress NF-κB when A20 expression was silenced by siRNA. CONCLUSION: WFF activated Nrf2 and expressed A20. Given that Nrf2 suppresses inflammation and A20 broadly disrupts inflammatory signaling cascades, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of WFF is attributable to Nrf2 and A20.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Forsythia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteína 3 Induzida por Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
10.
Nutr Res Pract ; 12(1): 20-28, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. (PF) sprout is a plant of the labiate family. We have previously reported the protective effects of PF sprout extract on cytokine-induced ß-cell damage. However, the mechanism of action of the PF sprout extract in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has not been investigated. The present study was designed to study the effects of PF sprout extract and signaling mechanisms in the T2DM mice model using C57BL/KsJ-db/db (db/db) mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Male db/db mice were orally administered PF sprout extract (100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg of body weight) or rosiglitazone (RGZ, positive drug, 1 mg/kg of body weight) for 4 weeks. Signaling mechanisms were analyzed using liver tissues and HepG2 cells. RESULTS: The PF sprout extract (300 and 1,000 mg/kg) significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in db/db mice. PF sprout extract also significantly improved glucose intolerance and insulin sensitivity, decreased hepatic gluconeogenic protein expression, and ameliorated histological alterations of the pancreas and liver. Levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein expression also increased in the liver after treatment with the extract. In addition, an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK and decrease in the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase proteins in HepG2 cells were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results sugges that PF sprout displays beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes via modulation of the AMPK pathway and inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the liver.

11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 217: 89-97, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432855

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Although Spilanthes acmella has been used to relieve inflammation, fever, pain, or infection in traditional Asian medicine, experimental evidence supporting these functions is scarce. Here, we examined an anti-inflammatory function and a possible underlying mechanism of S. acmella Murray (SAM). MATERIALS AND METHOD: The methanol extract of SAM was fingerprinted by HPLC. C57BL/6 mice were administered with a single intratracheal (i.t.) LPS and 2 h later with a single i.t. SAM. The effect of SAM on lung inflammation was assessed by histology, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and MPO assay of lung tissue. The effects of SAM on a pro-inflammatory factor NF-κB and an anti-inflammatory factor Nrf2 were analyzed by immunoblotting of nuclear proteins and by semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of mRNA of the genes governed by these transcription factors. V5-Nrf2 was precipitated by an anti-V5 antibody and the ubiquitinated V5-Nrf2 was revealed by immunoblotting of HA-tagged ubiquitin. RESULTS: The i.t. SAM robustly diminished a neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by i.t. LPS treatment of mice. In RAW 264.7 cells, SAM suppressed the nuclear localization of NF-κB and the expression of NF-κB-dependent cytokine genes. SAM increased the level of Nrf2 in the nucleus and the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes while suppressing ubiquitination of Nrf2. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SAM can suppress a neutrophilic inflammation in mouse lungs, which is associated with suppressed NF-κB and activated Nrf2. Our results provide experimental evidence supporting the anti-inflammatory function of S. acmella.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Asteraceae , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanol/química , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Solventes/química , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas Medicinais , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia/patologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitinação
13.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 16(1): 416, 2016 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Douchi (fermented Glycine max Merr.) is produced from fermented soybeans, which is widely used in traditional herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated whether Douchi attenuates protein kinase C (PKC) and interleukin (IL)-4 response and cutaneous inflammation in Atopic dermatitis (AD)-like NC/Nga mice. METHODS: To induce AD-like skin lesions, D. farinae antigen was applied to the dorsal skin of 3-week-old NC/Nga mice. After inducing AD, Douchi extract was administered 20 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks to the Douchi-treated mice group. We identified the changes of skin barrier and Th2 differentiation through PKC and IL-4 by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Douchi treatment of NC/Nga mice significantly reduced clinical scores (p < 0.01) and histological features. The levels of PKC and IL-4 were significantly reduced in the Douchi-treated group (p < 0.01). The reduction of IL-4 and PKC led to decrease of inflammatory factors such as substance P, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) (all p < 0.01). Douchi also down-regulated Th1 markers (IL-12, TNF-α) as well as Th2 markers (IL-4, p-IκB) (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Douchi alleviates AD-like skin lesions through suppressing of PKC and IL-4. These results also lead to diminish levels of substance P, iNOS and MMP-9 in skin lesions. Therefore, Douchi may have potential applications for the prevention and treatment of AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/metabolismo , Glicina/química , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Animais , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Preparações de Plantas/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Pele/patologia
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 192: 486-495, 2016 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27660010

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mahaenggamseok-tang (MHGST), an herbal formula in traditional Asian medicine, has been used to treat patients with various pulmonary diseases including common cold and influenza. However, the potential therapeutic effect of MHGST on acute lung injury (ALI), a leading cause of death worldwide, and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of MHGST remained less understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methanol extract of MHGST was prepared and fingerprinted by HPLC. For the induction of ALI, C57BL/6 mice (n=5/group) received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LPS. Referring to the dose for patients, two different amounts of MHGST were delivered in an aerosol to mouse lungs via trachea 2h after the i.p. LPS administration. Lung histology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the expression of inflammatory and Nrf2-dependent genes were analyzed to determine the effect of MHGST on lung inflammation. For mechanistic studies, western blotting and semi-quantitative RT-PCR were conducted using RAW 264.7 cells. RESULTS: When administered 2h after the onset of ALI, MHGST relieved lung pathology characteristic to ALI, with decreases of neutrophil infiltration and MPO activity. While suppressing the expression of inflammatory genes, MHGST increased the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes in ALI mouse lungs. Concordantly, MHGST activated Nrf2 activity while suppressing NF-κB in RAW 264.7 cells. CONCLUSION: MHGST suppressed neutrophilic lung inflammation, a hallmark of ALI, which was associated with the activation of anti-inflammatory Nrf2 and the suppression of pro-inflammatory NF-κB. Our results suggest that MHGST has a therapeutic potential against ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/prevenção & controle , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/metabolismo , Pneumonia/patologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 283630, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26357651

RESUMO

The antimicrobial killing activity toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a serious emerging global issue. In a continuing search for compounds with antibacterial activity against several microorganisms including S. aureus and MRSA, an n-hexane extract of Magnolia officinalis was found to contain magnolol. This compound exhibited potent activity against S. aureus, standard methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and MRSA as well as clinical MRSA isolates. When combined with oxacillin, the antibacterial activities of magnolol and honokiol against the MRSA strain were increased compared to single treatment without antibiotics at 10 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively. These activities of magnolol and honokiol were dose dependent. Also, magnolol showed synergistic effects with oxacillin against 13 clinical isolates of MRSA. It was determined that magnolol and honokiol had a synergistic effect with oxacillin against MRSA strain. Furthermore, the magnolol inhibited the expression of the resistant genes, mecA, mecI, femA, and femB, in mRNA. We concluded that the antibacterial activity of magnolol against MRSA strain is more related to the mecI's pathway and components of the cell wall than mecR1. Therefore, the results obtained in this study suggest that the combination of magnolol and antibiotics could lead to the development of new combination antibiotics against MRSA infection.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Hexanos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Int J Mol Med ; 35(5): 1237-45, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25761198

RESUMO

Geranium thunbergii Sieb. et Zucc. (GT; which belongs to the Geraniaceae family) has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asia for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including arthritis and diarrhea. However, the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of GT remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of GT in macrophages. The results revealed that GT significantly inhibited the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß, as shown by RT-PCR. However, the inhibitory effects of GT on LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation were associated with an enhanced nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity, but not with the suppression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity, as shown by western blot analysis. In addition, in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, GT did not exert any inhibitory effect on the LPS- and IFN-γ-induced inflammation. Taken together, our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of GT may be associated with the activation of Nrf2, an anti-inflammatory transcription factor.


Assuntos
Geranium/química , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interferon gama/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
17.
Life Sci ; 108(2): 94-103, 2014 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24880074

RESUMO

AIMS: We studied that a potent antifibrotic effect of decursin on in vivo liver damage model and the mechanism in inhibiting which transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1-induced human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. MAIN METHODS: Liver injury was induced in vivo by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) with or without decursin for 4weeks in mice. Human hepatic stellate cell line, an immortalized human HSC line, was used in in vitro assay system. The effects of decursin on HSC activation were measured by analyzing the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen I in liver tissue and human HSCs. KEY FINDINGS: Decursin treatment significantly reduced the ratio of liver/body weight, α-SMA activation, and type I collagen overexpression in CCl4 treated mice liver. The elevated serum levels, including ALT, AST, and ALP, were also decreased by decursin treatment. Treatment of decursin markedly proved the generation of reactive oxygen species, NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) protein (1, 2, and 4) upregulation, NOX activity, and superoxide anion production in HSCs by TGF-ß1. It also significantly reduced TGF-ß1-induced Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of Smad 4, and association of Smad 2/3-Smad 4 complex. Consistent with in vitro results, decursin treatment effectively blocked the levels of NOX protein, and Smad 2/3 phosphorylation in injured mice liver. SIGNIFICANCE: Decursin blocked CCl4-induced liver fibrosis and inhibited TGF-ß1-mediated HSC activation in vitro. These data demonstrated that decursin exhibited hepatoprotective effects on experimental fibrosis, potentially by inhibiting the TGF-ß1 induced NOX activation and Smad signaling.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Butiratos/farmacologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/administração & dosagem , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Molecules ; 19(6): 6941-51, 2014 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24871572

RESUMO

Perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) leaves have shown therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, allergies, bronchial asthma, and systemic damage due to free radicals. In the present study we analyzed the active constituents in perilla leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and isolated luteolin, a polyphenolic flavonoid. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties of luteolin. Luteolin inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1ß (IL-1 ß) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from human mast cells (HMC-1) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 in a dose-dependent manner. Luteolin also significantly reduced the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated by compound 48/80, a potent histamine liberator. Furthermore, the administration of luteolin markedly inhibited the scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by pruritogens, such as compound 48/80 or serotonin, in ICR mice. These results suggested that luteolin has potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammation and itch-related skin diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antipruriginosos/farmacologia , Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico , Luteolina/uso terapêutico , Perilla/química , Animais , Calcimicina/farmacologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Luteolina/farmacologia , Masculino , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , p-Metoxi-N-metilfenetilamina/farmacologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23662113

RESUMO

We isolated a single chemical compound from A. continentalis and identified it to be kaurenoic acid (KA) and investigated the influence of anticariogenic properties. Inhibitory effects of KA on cariogenic properties such as growth, acid production, biofilm formation, and the adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of KA on the genetic expression of virulence factors. KA significantly inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at 2-4 µ g/mL and 4 µ g/mL of KA, respectively. Furthermore, the adherence onto S-HAs was inhibited at 3-4 µ g/mL of KA and biofilm formation was significantly inhibited when treated with 3 µ g/mL KA and completely inhibited at 4 µ g/mL. Also, the inhibitory effect of KA on biofilm formation was confirmed by SEM. In confocal laser scanning microscopy, bacterial viability gradually decreased by KA in a dose dependent manner. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expressions of gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR were significantly decreased in S. mutans when it was treated with KA. These results suggest that KA from A. continentalis may be a useful agent for inhibiting the cariogenic properties of S. mutans.

20.
Arch Pharm Res ; 36(7): 912-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23512775

RESUMO

We evaluated the antioxidant properties of mulberry leaves extract (MLE) and flavonoids isolated from MLE. MLE was prepared by extraction with methanol. Flavonoids were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Oxidative hemolysis of normal human red blood cells (RBCs) was induced by the aqueous peroxyl radical [2,2'-Azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride, AAPH]. MLE contained three flavonoids in the order quercetin (QC) > kaempferol (KF) > astragalin (AG). Oxidative hemolysis of RBCs induced by AAPH was suppressed by MLE, AG, KF, and QC in a time- and dose-dependent manner. MLE and these three flavonoids prevented the depletion of cystosolic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in RBCs. AG had the greatest protective effect against AAPH-induced oxidative hemolysis and GSH depletion in RBCs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Radicais Livres/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Morus , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Hemólise/fisiologia , Humanos , Quempferóis/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta
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