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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999317

RESUMO

AIMS: Trial evidence indicates that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) may reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes and myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to expand this observation to routine care settings. METHODS: Prospective observational study including all patients with diabetes surviving an MI and registered in the nationwide SWEDEHEART registry during 2010-2017. Multivariable Cox regression analyses was used to estimate the association between GLP-1 RAs use and the study outcome, which was a composite of stroke, heart failure, reinfarction or cardiovascular death. Covariates included demographics, comorbidities, presentation at admission and use of secondary cardiovascular prevention therapies. RESULTS: Total 17,868 patients with diabetes were discharged alive after a first event of MI. Their median age was 71 years, 36% were women and their median eGFR was 75 ml/min/1.73m2. Of those, 365 (2%) were using GLP-1 RAs. During median 3 years of follow-up, 7005 patients experienced the primary composite outcome. Compared to standard of diabetes care, use of GLP-1 RAs was associated with a lower event risk (adjusted HR 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56-0.92), mainly attributed to a lower rate of reinfarction and stroke. Results were similar after propensity score matching or when compared to users of sulfonylurea. There was no suggestion of heterogeneity across subgroups of age, sex, chronic kidney disease and STEMI. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-1 RAs use, compared to standard of diabetes care, was associated with lower risk for major cardiovascular events in healthcare-managed survivors of an MI.

2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319898019, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between abdominal obesity and recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease after myocardial infarction remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and its association with recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients after a first myocardial infarction. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this register-based observational cohort, 22,882 patients were identified from the national Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) registry at a clinical revisit 4-10 weeks after their first myocardial infarction 2005-2014. Patients were followed for recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease defined as non-fatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, non-fatal or fatal ischaemic stroke. Univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals in quintiles of waist circumference as well as three categories of body mass index including normal weight, overweight and obesity. RESULTS: The majority of patients had abdominal obesity. During a median follow-up time of 3.8 years, 1232 men (7.3%) and 469 women (7.9%) experienced a recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease event. In the univariate analysis, risk was elevated in the fifth quintile (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.39) compared with the first. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, risk was elevated in the fourth and fifth quintiles (hazard ratio 1.21, confidence interval 1.03-1.43 and hazard ratio 1.25, confidence interval 1.04-1.50), respectively. Gender-stratified analyses showed similar associations in men, while U-shaped associations were observed in women and the body mass index analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal obesity was common in post-myocardial infarction patients and larger waist circumference was independently associated with recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, particularly in men. We recommend utilising waist circumference to identify patients at increased risk of recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease after myocardial infarction.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(1): 149-157, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350550

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) mortality between Sweden and the UK, adjusting for background population rates of expected death, case mix, and treatments. METHODS AND RESULTS: National data were collected from hospitals in Sweden [n = 73 hospitals, 180 368 patients, Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART)] and the UK [n = 247, 662 529 patients, Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP)] between 2003 and 2013. There were lower rates of revascularization [STEMI (43.8% vs. 74.9%); NSTEMI (27.5% vs. 43.6%)] and pharmacotherapies at time of hospital discharge including [aspirin (82.9% vs. 90.2%) and (79.9% vs. 88.0%), ß-blockers (73.4% vs. 86.4%) and (65.3% vs. 85.1%)] in the UK compared with Sweden, respectively. Standardized net probability of death (NPD) between admission and 1 month was higher in the UK for STEMI [8.0 (95% confidence interval 7.4-8.5) vs. 6.7 (6.5-6.9)] and NSTEMI [6.8 (6.4-7.2) vs. 4.9 (4.7-5.0)]. Between 6 months and 1 year and more than 1 year, NPD remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI [2.9 (2.5-3.3) vs. 2.3 (2.2-2.5)] and [21.4 (20.0-22.8) vs. 18.3 (17.6-19.0)], but was similar for STEMI [0.7 (0.4-1.0) vs. 0.9 (0.7-1.0)] and [8.4 (6.7-10.1) vs. 8.3 (7.5-9.1)]. CONCLUSION: Short-term mortality following STEMI and NSTEMI was higher in the UK compared with Sweden. Mid- and longer-term mortality remained higher in the UK for NSTEMI but was similar for STEMI. Differences in mortality may be due to differential use of guideline-indicated treatments.

4.
Coron Artery Dis ; 31(1): 49-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the transition from bare-metal stents (BMS) to newer generation drug-eluting stents (n-DES) in clinical practice may have reduced the risk also in patients with kidney dysfunction. METHODS: Observational study in the national SWEDEHEART registry, that compared the 1-year risk of in-stent restenosis (RS) and stent thrombosis (ST) in all percutaneous coronary intervention treated patients(n = 92 994) during 2007-2013. RESULTS: N-DES patients were younger than BMS, but had more often diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, previous revascularization and were more often treated with potent platelet inhibition. N-DES versus BMS, was associated with lower 1-year risk of RS in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 with a cumulative probability of 2.1% versus 5.3%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.30, 95% CI (0.27-0.34) and with eGFR 30-60: 3.0% versus 4.9%; hazard ratio 0.46 (0.36-0.60) but not in patients with eGFR <30: 8.1% versus 6.0%; hazard ratio 1.32 (0.71-2.45) (pinteraction = 0.009) as well as lower risk of ST for eGFR >60 and eGFR 30-60: 0.5% versus 0.9%; hazard ratio 0.52 (0.40-0.68) and 0.6% versus 1.3%; hazard ratio 0.54 (0.54-0.72) but not for eGFR <30; 2.1% versus 1.1%; hazard ratio 1.49 (0.56-3.98) (pinteraction = 0.027). CONCLUSION: N-DES is associated with lower 1-year risk of in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis in patients with normal or moderately reduced kidney function but not in patients with severe kidney dysfunction, where stenting is associated with worse outcomes regardless of stent type.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838113

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental oxygen in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) on the composite of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure related to baseline oxygen saturation. A secondary objective was to investigate outcomes in patients developing hypoxemia. BACKGROUND: In the DETO2X-AMI (Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial, 6,629 normoxemic patients with suspected MI were randomized to oxygen at 6 l/min for 6 to 12 hours or ambient air. METHODS: The study population of 5,010 patients with confirmed MI was divided by baseline oxygen saturation into a low-normal (90% to 94%) and a high-normal (95% to 100%) cohort. Outcomes are reported within 1 year. To increase power, all follow-up time (between 1 and 4 years) was included post hoc, and interaction analyses were performed with oxygen saturation as a continuous covariate. RESULTS: The composite endpoint of all-cause death, rehospitalization with MI, or heart failure occurred significantly more often in patients in the low-normal cohort (17.3%) compared with those in the high-normal cohort (9.5%) (p < 0.001), and most often in patients developing hypoxemia (23.6%). Oxygen therapy compared with ambient air was not associated with improved outcomes regardless of baseline oxygen saturation (interaction p values: composite endpoint, p = 0.79; all-cause death, p = 0.33; rehospitalization with MI, p = 0.86; hospitalization for heart failure, p = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of oxygen saturation at baseline, we found no clinically relevant beneficial effect of routine oxygen therapy in normoxemic patients with MI regarding cardiovascular outcomes. Low-normal baseline oxygen saturation or development of hypoxemia was identified as an independent marker of poor prognosis. (An Efficacy and Outcome Study of Supplemental Oxygen Treatment in Patients With Suspected Myocardial Infarction; NCT01787110).

6.
J Hypertens ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764589

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although the causality of the obesity--hypertension association is established, the potential for prevention is not. We hypothesized that weight gain between early adulthood and mid-life is associated with higher mid-life blood pressure. METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis using a large contemporaneous population-based mid-life cohort of men and women aged 50-64 years. Recalled body weight at age 20 years was self-reported, and mid-life body weight and office blood pressures were measured in accordance with a detailed protocol. RESULTS: On average, men had gained 14.9 (95% CI 14.6-15.2) kg of weight, and women 14.6 (95% CI 14.4-14.9) kg, between age 20 years and the mid-life examination, corresponding to 0.40 (95% CI 0.39-0.41) kg/year for men and women. Both weight at age 20 years and weight at the mid-life examination were associated with mid-life blood pressures. On average, a 10 kg weight increase between age 20 years and mid-life was associated with 2.2 (95% CI 0.9-3.5) mmHg higher systolic and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5) mmHg higher diastolic mid-life blood pressure in men, and 3.2 (2.5-4.0) mmHg higher systolic and 2.4 (1.9-2.9) mmHg higher diastolic mid-life blood pressure in women. Mid-life weight was more closely associated than weight at age 20 years with mid-life blood pressure. For a given mid-life weight, blood pressure was higher in persons with higher weight gain from age 20 years. CONCLUSION: In sum, weight gain between early adulthood and mid-life was associated with higher mid-life blood pressure. The magnitude of the association indicates a potentially great public health impact of strategies to prevent weight gain throughout adulthood.

7.
Heart ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732655

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: International studies report a decline in mortality following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The extent to which the observed improvements in STEMI survival are explained by temporal changes in patient characteristics and utilisation of treatments is unknown. METHODS: Cohort study using national registry data from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project between first January 2004 and 30th June 2013. 232 353 survivors of hospitalisation with STEMI as recorded in 247 hospitals in England and Wales. Flexible parametric survival modelling and causal mediation analysis were used to estimate the relative contribution of temporal changes in treatments and patient characteristics on improved STEMI survival. RESULTS: Over the study period, unadjusted survival at 6 months and 1 year improved by 0.9% and 1.0% on average per year (HR: 0.991, 95% CI: 0.988 to 0.994 and HR: 0.990, 95% CI: 0.987 to 0.993, respectively). The uptake of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (HR: 1.025, 95% CI: 1.021 to 1.028) and increased prescription of P2Y12 inhibitors (HR: 1.035, 95% CI: 1.031 to 1.039) were significantly associated with improvements in 1-year survival. Primary PCI explained 16.8% (95% CI: 10.8% to 31.6%) and 13.2% (9.2% to 21.9%) of the temporal survival improvements at 6 months and 1 year, respectively, whereas P2Y12 inhibitor prescription explained 5.3% (3.6% to 8.8%) of the temporal improvements at 6 months but not at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: For STEMI in England and Wales, improvements in survival between 2004 and 2013 were significantly explained by the uptake of primary PCI and increased use of P2Y12 inhibitors at 6 months and primary PCI only at 1 year. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03749694.

8.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(10): 1575-1583, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558270

RESUMO

There are no studies of long-term worsening renal function (WRF) in heart failure (HF) with different ejection fraction (EF) groups. The aim was to compare incidence of, associations with and prognostic impact of WRF in HF with preserved (HFpEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), and reduced EF (HFrEF). The Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF) was merged with the Stockholm Creatinine Measurement (SCREAM) registry 2006 to 2010. The associations between EF and WRF (≥25% decrease in eGFR) and the associations between WRF25-49% and WRF≥50% within year one and subsequent all-cause mortality were all assessed with multiadjusted Cox regression. Of 7,154 patients, 41.6% of HFpEF versus 34.5% and 35.4% of HFmrEF and HFrEF patients developed WRF≥25% during year one. The WRF risk was higher in HFpEF (reference) than in HFmrEF, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.890 (0.794 to 0.997) and HFrEF 0.870 (0.784 to 0.965). WRF within year one was strongly associated with subsequent long-term mortality in all EF groups, yielding adjusted HRs with WRF25-49% and WRF≥50%: HFpEF, 1.101 (0.913 to 1.328) and 2.096 (1.652 to 2.659), in HFmrEF 1.654 (1.353 to 2.022) and 2.375 (1.807 to 3.122) and in HFrEF 1.212 (1.060 to 1.386) and 1.694 (1.412 to 2.033). In conclusion, the long-term WRF risk was high in HF and highest in HFpEF. WRF was strongly associated with mortality in all EF groups, although in HFpEF only with the most severe WRF.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1618-1636, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537272

RESUMO

This focus seminar will take the reader through the history and pivotal trials that have formed the current state-of-the-art management for acute coronary syndromes. The identification of a ruptured plaque with thrombus formation and subsequent occlusion or downstream embolization in the coronary artery was the key to developing new and effective treatment strategies. The traditional wait-and-see approach with prolonged bedrest was replaced in the 1980s by immediate pharmacological reperfusion of the occluded coronary artery and long-term aspirin to prevent reinfarction. Mechanical reperfusion with percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting and more intense platelet inhibition with P2Y12 inhibitors further improved outcomes from early 2000s. Adjunctive treatment regimens, including anticoagulants, statins, and neurohormonal inhibition, were found to further reduce mortality and prevent new infarctions. Taken together, the use of new combined pharmacological and interventional treatment strategies has led to a remarkable decrease in 1-year mortality from around 22% in 1995 to around 11% by 2014.

10.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(9): e005879, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients on dialysis who have an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have an exceedingly poor prognosis, but it is unknown to what extent guideline-recommended interventions and treatments are used and to which benefit. We aimed to assess temporal changes in the use of treatments and survival rates in dialysis patients with an AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: All consecutive AMI cases from 1996 to 2013 enrolled in the SWEDEHEART registry (Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies) were included. The Swedish Renal Registry identified all chronic dialysis cases. Multivariable adjusted standardized 1-year mortality was estimated. An age-sex-calendar year-matched dialysis background population from the Swedish Renal Registry was used to obtain a standardized incidence ratio. All analyses were performed in 2-year blocks, where each individual could be included several times but in different time blocks; hence the term AMI cases and not patients is used. Of 289 699 cases with AMI, 1398 (0.5%) were on dialysis (73.6% hemodialysis; 26.4% peritoneal dialysis). Among dialysis cases, 29.4% were women, and 21.0% had ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Through 1996 to 2013, dialysis cases had similar age (median, 70 years [interquartile range, 62-77]; P for trend, 0.14), but the proportion with diabetes mellitus increased (36.0%-55.3%; P for trend, 0.005). Dialysis cases admitted with AMI were treated more invasively and received more discharge medications in the later years. From 1995 to 2013, in-hospital and 1-year mortality decreased from 25.4% to 9.4% and from 59.6% to 41.2%, respectively. The standardized in-hospital and 1-year mortality decreased from 25.7% to 9.4% and from 54.6% to 41.2%. Yet, compared with the matched dialysis population, the odds of death remained as high in 2012/2013 as in 1996/1997 (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.62-2.58 and odds ratio, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.52-2.60, respectively; P for trend, 0.34). CONCLUSIONS: Over the last 18 years, more patients on dialysis with AMI have been treated with evidence-based therapies. Overall, dialysis cases with AMI have an improved in-hospital and 1-year survival in the more recent years compared with earlier years. However, this appears largely to be because of improved survival in the general dialysis population.

11.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504404

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the time trends of in-hospital and out-of-hospital bleeding parallel to the development of new treatments and ischaemic outcomes over the last 20 years in a nationwide myocardial infarction (MI) population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with acute MI (n = 371 431) enrolled in the SWEDEHEART registry from 1995 until May 2018 were selected and evaluated for in-hospital bleeding and out-of-hospital bleeding events at 1 year. In-hospital bleeding increased from 0.5% to a peak at 2% 2005/2006 and thereafter slightly decreased to a new plateau around 1.3% by the end of the study period. Out-of-hospital bleeding increased in a stepwise fashion from 2.5% to 3.5 % in the middle of the study period and to 4.8% at the end of the study period. The increase in both in-hospital and out-of-hospital bleeding was parallel to increasing use of invasive strategy and adjunctive antithrombotic treatment, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), and potent DAPT, while the decrease in in-hospital bleeding from 2007 to 2010 was parallel to implementation of bleeding avoidance strategies. In-hospital re-infarction decreased from 2.8% to 0.6% and out-of-hospital MI decreased from 12.6% to 7.1%. The composite out-of-hospital MI, cardiovascular death, and stroke decreased in a similar fashion from 18.4% to 9.1%. CONCLUSION: During the last 20 years, the introduction of invasive and more intense antithrombotic treatment has been associated with an increase in bleeding events but concomitant there has been a substantial greater reduction of ischaemic events including improved survival.

12.
Diabetes Care ; 42(11): 2032-2041, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of oxygen therapy in myocardial infarction (MI) patients with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the Determination of the Role of Oxygen in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial, 6,629 normoxemic patients with suspected MI were randomized to oxygen at 6 L/min for 6-12 h or ambient air. In this prespecified analysis involving 5,010 patients with confirmed MI, 934 had known diabetes. Oxidative stress may be of particular importance in diabetes, and the primary objective was to study the effect of supplemental oxygen on the composite of all-cause death and rehospitalization with MI or heart failure (HF) at 1 year in patients with and without diabetes. RESULTS: As expected, event rates were significantly higher in patients with diabetes compared with patients without diabetes (main composite end point: hazard ratio [HR] 1.60 [95% CI 1.32-1.93], P < 0.01). In patients with diabetes, the main composite end point occurred in 16.2% (72 of 445) allocated to oxygen as compared with 16.6% (81 of 489) allocated to ambient air (HR 0.93 [95% CI 0.67-1.27], P = 0.81). There was no statistically significant difference for the individual components of the composite end point or the rate of cardiovascular death up to 1 year. Likewise, corresponding end points in patients without diabetes were similar between the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Despite markedly higher event rates in patients with MI and diabetes, oxygen therapy did not significantly affect 1-year all-cause death, cardiovascular death, or rehospitalization with MI or HF, irrespective of underlying diabetes, in line with the results of the entire study.

13.
Thorax ; 74(10): 958-964, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434752

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Breathlessness is common in the population, especially in women and associated with adverse health outcomes. Obesity (body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2) is rapidly increasing globally and its impact on breathlessness is unclear. METHODS: This population-based study aimed primarily to evaluate the association of current BMI and self-reported change in BMI since age 20 with breathlessness (modified Research Council score ≥1) in the middle-aged population. Secondary aims were to evaluate factors that contribute to breathlessness in obesity, including the interaction with spirometric lung volume and sex. RESULTS: We included 13 437 individuals; mean age 57.5 years; 52.5% women; mean BMI 26.8 (SD 4.3); mean BMI increase since age 20 was 5.0 kg/m2; and 1283 (9.6%) reported breathlessness. Obesity was strongly associated with increased breathlessness, OR 3.54 (95% CI, 3.03 to 4.13) independent of age, sex, smoking, airflow obstruction, exercise level and the presence of comorbidities. The association between BMI and breathlessness was modified by lung volume; the increase in breathlessness prevalence with higher BMI was steeper for individuals with lower forced vital capacity (FVC). The higher breathlessness prevalence in obese women than men (27.4% vs 12.5%; p<0.001) was related to their lower FVC. Irrespective of current BMI and confounders, individuals who had increased in BMI since age 20 had more breathlessness. CONCLUSION: Breathlessness is independently associated with obesity and with weight gain in adult life, and the association is stronger for individuals with lower lung volumes.

14.
Am Heart J ; 216: 20-29, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent, low-grade inflammation likely participates in the pathophysiology of both atherosclerosis and kidney disease. Although high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) predicts future cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), it is unknown whether hsCRP levels predict adverse renal outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We studied all myocardial infarction (MI) survivors undergoing hsCRP testing >30 days after their MI during routine health care in Stockholm, Sweden (2006-2011), with available information on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). HsCRP tests measured during hospitalization/emergency room visits, followed by antibiotics or indicative of acute illness, were excluded, together with patients with ongoing/recent cancer, chronic infections, or immunosuppression. Inflammation was defined over a 3-month baseline window. Study outcomes were CKD progression (composite of doubling plasma creatinine, renal replacement therapy, or renal death) and acute kidney injury (AKI, acute creatinine peaks according to Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria). Multivariable Cox regression was used to adjust for age, sex, eGFR, hemoglobin, time since MI, comorbidities, undertaken procedures, and medications. RESULTS: A total of 12,905 patients (62% men, mean age 73 years and 3 years since MI) were included, of whom 35% had an eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean (SD) hsCRP was 3.0 (4.4) mg/L. Baseline hsCRP levels were increasingly higher across lower eGFR categories. During a median follow-up of 3.2 years, 1,019 CKD progressions and 1,481 AKI events were recorded. Patients with hsCRP ≥2 mg/L were at higher risk of both CKD progression (adjusted hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI 1.21-1.66) and AKI (1.29; 1.13-1.47) compared to those with hsCRP <2 mg/L. This association persisted across single CKD severity stages and after further hsCRP categorization into 4 groups (≤1, 1-3, 3-10, >10 mg/L). Results were robust across subgroups of patients and after exclusion of events occurring during the first 6-12 months. CONCLUSIONS: In post-MI patients undergoing routine health care, elevated hsCRP was associated with subsequent risk of AKI and progression of CKD, irrespective of baseline kidney function.

15.
Int J Cardiol ; 296: 1-7, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals post-myocardial infarction (MI) are debated, and the significance of achieved blood lipid levels for predicting a first recurrent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (rASCVD) event post-MI is unclear. METHODS: This was a cohort study on first-ever MI survivors aged ≤76 years attending 4-14 week revisits throughout Sweden 2005-2013. Personal-level data was collected from SWEDEHEART and linked national registries. Exposures were quintiles of LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs) at the revisit. Group level associations with rASCVD (nonfatal MI or coronary heart disease death or fatal or nonfatal ischemic stroke) were estimated in Cox regression models. Predictive capacity was estimated by differences in C-statistic, integrated discriminatory improvement, and net reclassification improvement when adding each blood lipid to a validated risk prediction model. RESULTS: 25,643 patients, 96.9% on statin therapy, were followed during a mean of 4.1 years. rASCVD occurred in 2173 patients (8.5%). For LDL-C and TC, moderate associations with rASCVD were observed only in the 5th vs. the lowest (referent) quintiles. For TGs and HDL-C increased risks were observed in quintiles 3-5 vs. the lowest. Minor predictive improvements were observed when lipid fractions were added to the risk model but the discrimination overall was poor (C-statistics <0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Our data question the importance of LDL-C levels achieved at first revisit post-MI for decisions on continued treatment intensity considering the weak association with rASCVD observed in this post-MI cohort.

16.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
18.
Heart ; 105(15): 1175-1181, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In patients with myocardial infarction (MI), risk factors for bleeding and ischaemic events tend to overlap, but the combined effects of these factors have scarcely been studied in contemporary real-world settings. We aimed to assess the combined associations of established risk factors using nationwide registries. METHODS: Using the Swedish Web-system for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-based care in Heart disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies registry, patients with invasively managed MI in 2006-2014 were included. Six factors were assessed in relation to cardiovascular death (CVD)/MI/stroke, and major bleeding: age ≥65, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, multivessel disease, prior bleeding and prior MI. RESULTS: We studied 100 879 patients, of whom 20 831 (20.6%) experienced CVD/MI/stroke and 5939 (5.9%) major bleeding, during 3.6 years median follow-up. In adjusted Cox models, all factors were associated with CVD/MI/stroke, and all but prior MI were associated with major bleeding. The majority (53.5%) had ≥2 risk factors. With each added risk factor, there was a marked but gradual increase in incidence of the CVD/MI/stroke. This was seen also for major bleeding, but to a lesser extent, largely driven by prior bleeding as the strongest risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients with MI had two or more established risk factors. Increasing number of risk factors was associated with higher rate of ischaemic events. When excluding patients with prior major bleeding, bleeding incidence rate increased only minimally with increasing number of risk factors. The high ischaemic risk in those with multiple risk factors highlights an unmet need for additional preventive measures.

19.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care ; : 2048872619848978, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) trial did not find any benefit of oxygen therapy compared to ambient air in normoxemic patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may both benefit and be harmed by supplemental oxygen. Thus we evaluated the effect of routine oxygen therapy compared to ambient air in normoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 6629 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction were randomly assigned in the DETO2X-AMI trial to oxygen or ambient air. In the oxygen group ( n=3311) and the ambient air group ( n=3318), 155 and 141 patients, respectively, had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (prevalence of 4.5%). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were older, had more comorbid conditions and experienced a twofold higher risk of death at one year (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 32/296 (10.8%) vs. non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 302/6333 (4.8%)). Oxygen therapy compared to ambient air was not associated with improved outcomes at 365 days (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: all-cause mortality hazard ratio (HR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.99, Pinteraction=0.96); cardiovascular death HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.32-2.04, Pinteraction=0.59); rehospitalisation with acute myocardial infarction or death HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.71-2.28, Pinteraction=0.46); hospitalisation for heart failure or death HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.61-1.91, Pinteraction=0.77]); there were no significant treatment-by-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients had twice the mortality rate compared to non-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, this prespecified subgroup analysis from the DETO2X-AMI trial on oxygen therapy versus ambient air in normoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction revealed no evidence for benefit of routine oxygen therapy consistent with the main trial's findings. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02290080.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(11): e012638, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140334

RESUMO

Background Beyond the controlled setting of trials, scarce information exists on the burden, predictors, and outcomes associated with elevated hs CRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) in "real-world" patients with myocardial infarction ( MI ). Methods and Results We included all-coming MI survivors undergoing hs CRP testing >30 days after an MI during routine health care in Stockholm, Sweden (2006-2011). hs CRP tests measured during hospitalization/emergency department visits, followed by antibiotics or indicative of acute illness, were excluded, together with patients with ongoing/recent cancer, chronic infections, or immunosuppression. Inflammation was defined over a 3-month baseline window and associated with subsequent death and major adverse cardiovascular events (composite of MI, ischemic stroke, or cardiovascular death). Included were 17 464 patients (63% men; mean age, 72.6 years) with a median hs CRP level of 2.2 (interquartile range, 1.0-6.0) mg/L and a median of 2.2 (interquartile range, 0.8-4.9) years since their MI . Most (66%) had hs CRP ≥2 mg/L, and 40% had hs CRP >3 mg/L. Lower hemoglobin, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and comorbidities (eg, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid diseases) were associated with higher odds of hs CRP ≥2 mg/L. Conversely, previous percutaneous coronary intervention, ongoing renin-angiotensin blockade, and statins were associated with lower hs CRP ≥2 mg/L odds. Patients with hs CRP ≥2 mg/L were at higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (n=3900; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.18-1.38) and death (n=4138; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.31-1.53). Results were robust across subgroups of patients and after exclusion of events occurring during the first 6 to 12 months. On a continuous scale, the association between hs CRP and outcomes was linear until hs CRP >5 mg/L, plateauing thereafter. Conclusions Most patients with MI exhibit elevated hs CRP levels. Besides identifying populations at high-inflammatory risk, this study extends the prognostic validity of this biomarker from trial evidence to real-world healthcare settings.

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