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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118356, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653582

RESUMO

The inorganic components of particulate matter (PM), especially transition metals, have been shown to contribute to PM toxicity. In this study, the spatial distribution of PM elements and their potential sources in the Greater Los Angeles area were studied. The mass concentration and detailed elemental composition of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particles were assessed at 46 locations, including urban traffic, urban community, urban background, and desert locations. Crustal enrichment factors (EFs), roadside enrichments (REs), and bivariate correlation analysis revealed that Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pd, Sb, Zn, and Zr were associated with traffic emissions in both PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, while Fe, Li, Mn, and Ti were affected by traffic emissions mostly in PM2.5. The concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mo, Sb, Zr (brake wear tracers), Pd (tailpipe tracer), and Zn (associated with tire wear) were higher at urban traffic sites than urban background locations by factors of 2.6-4.6. Both PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 elements showed large spatial variations, indicating the presence of diverse emission sources across sampling locations. Principal component analysis extracted four source factors that explained 88% of the variance in the PM2.5 elemental concentrations, and three sources that explained 86% of the variance in the PM2.5-10 elemental concentrations. Based on multiple linear regression analysis, the contribution of traffic emissions (27%) to PM2.5 was found to be higher than mineral dust (23%), marine aerosol (18%), and industrial emissions (8%). On the other hand, mineral dust was the dominant source of PM2.5-10 with 45% contribution, followed by marine aerosol (22%), and traffic emissions (19%). This study provides novel insight into the spatial variation of traffic-related elements in a large metropolitan area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Los Angeles , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise
2.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt C): 112344, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, several studies have reported that residential proximity to vegetation, or 'greenness', is associated with improved birth outcomes, including for term birth weight (TBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA). However, there remain several uncertainties about these possible benefits including the role of air pollution, and the extent to they are influenced socioeconomic status. METHODS: We addressed these gaps using a national population-based study of 2.2 million singleton live births in Canadian metropolitan areas between 1999 and 2008. Exposures to greenness, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were assigned to infants using the postal code of their mother's residence at the time of birth. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to characterize greenness, while estimates of ambient PM2.5 and NO2 were estimated using remote sensing, and a national land-use regression surface, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to describe associations between residential greenness and the birth outcomes. Stratified analyses explored whether these associations were modified by neighbourhood measures of socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Mothers who lived in greener areas had a lower risk of low TBW, PTB, and SGA babies. These associations persisted after adjustment for ambient NO2 and PM2.5. Specifically, in fully adjusted models, an interquartile range (IQR = 0.16) increase in the NDVI within a residential buffer of 250 m yielded odds ratios of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92, 0.94), 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.95), and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.95) for the outcomes of PTB, low TBW, and SGA, respectively. Similarly, an IQR increase in greenness was associated with a 16.3 g (95% CI: 15.3, 17.4) increase in TBW. We found inverse associations between greenness and the occurrence of adverse birth outcomes regardless of the socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood. INTERPRETATION: Our findings support the hypothesis that residential greenness contributes to healthier pregnancies, that these associations are independent from exposure to air pollution. , and that proximity to greenness benefits all mothers regardless of socioeconomic status.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective tracking of asthma medication use and exposure in real-time and space has not been feasible previously. Exposure assessments have typically been tied to residential locations, which ignore exposure within patterns of daily activities. METHODS: We investigated the associations of exposure to multiple air pollutants, derived from nearest air quality monitors, with space-time asthma rescue inhaler use captured by digital sensors, in Jefferson County, Kentucky. A generalized linear mixed model, capable of accounting for repeated measures, over-dispersion and excessive zeros, was used in our analysis. A secondary analysis was done through the random forest machine learning technique. RESULTS: The 1039 participants enrolled were 63.4% female, 77.3% adult (>18) and 46.8% White. Digital sensors monitored the time and location of over 286 980 asthma rescue medication uses and associated air pollution exposures over 193 697 patient-days, creating a rich spatiotemporal dataset of over 10 905 240 data elements. In the generalized linear mixed model, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant exposure was associated with a mean rescue medication use increase per person per day of 0.201 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.189-0.214], 0.153 (95% CI: 0.136-0.171), 0.131 (95% CI: 0.115-0.147) and 0.113 (95% CI: 0.097-0.129), for sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), respectively. Similar effect sizes were identified with the random forest model. Time-lagged exposure effects of 0-3 days were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Daily exposure to multiple pollutants was associated with increases in daily asthma rescue medication use for same day and lagged exposures up to 3 days. Associations were consistent when evaluated with the random forest modelling approach.

4.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(10): e709-e717, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to greenspace is associated with improved childhood development, but the pathways behind this relationship are insufficiently understood. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between lifetime residential exposure to greenspace and early childhood development and evaluate the extent to which this association is mediated by reductions in traffic-related air pollution and noise. METHODS: This population-based birth cohort study comprised singleton births in Metro Vancouver, BC, Canada, between April 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2005. Children and mothers had to be registered with the mandatory provincial health insurance programme, Medical Services Plan, and have lived within the study area from the child's birth to the time of outcome assessment. Early childhood development was assessed via teacher ratings on the Early Development Instrument (EDI), and we used the total EDI score as the primary outcome variable. We estimated greenspace using percentage vegetation derived from spectral unmixing of annual Landsat satellite image composites. Lifetime residential exposure to greenspace was estimated as the mean of annual percentage vegetation values within 250 m of participants' residential postal codes. Multilevel modelling, adjusted for eight covariates, was used to investigate associations between greenspace exposure and EDI scores. We estimated the mediation effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2·5), and noise levels using causal mediation analyses. FINDINGS: Of the 37 745 children born in Metro Vancouver between April 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2005, 27 372 were included in our final study sample. In the adjusted model, 1 IQR increase in percentage vegetation was associated with a 0·16 (95% CI 0·04-0·28; p=0·0073) increase in total EDI score, indicating small improvements in early childhood development. We estimated that 97·1% (95% CI 43·0-396·0), 29·5% (12·0-117·0), and 35·2% (17·9-139·0) of the association was mediated through reductions in NO2, PM2·5, and noise, respectively. INTERPRETATION: Increased exposure to residential greenspace might improve childhood development by reducing the adverse developmental effects of traffic-related exposures, especially NO2 air pollution. Our study supports the implementation of healthy urban planning and green infrastructure interventions. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

5.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(9): 1435-1443, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468284

RESUMO

Poor air quality affects the health and wellbeing of large populations around the globe. Although source controls are the most effective approaches for improving air quality and reducing health risks, individuals can also take actions to reduce their personal exposure by staying indoors, reducing physical activity, altering modes of transportation, filtering indoor air, and using respirators and other types of face masks. A synthesis of available evidence on the efficacy, effectiveness, and potential adverse effects or unintended consequences of personal interventions for air pollution is needed by clinicians to assist patients and the public in making informed decisions about use of these interventions. To address this need, the American Thoracic Society convened a workshop in May of 2018 to bring together a multidisciplinary group of international experts to review the current state of knowledge about personal interventions for air pollution and important considerations when helping patients and the general public to make decisions about how best to protect themselves. From these discussions, recommendations were made regarding when, where, how, and for whom to consider personal interventions. In addition to the efficacy and safety of the various interventions, the committee considered evidence regarding the identification of patients at greatest risk, the reliability of air quality indices, the communication challenges, and the ethical and equity considerations that arise when discussing personal interventions to reduce exposure and risk from outdoor air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transportes , Estados Unidos
6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(9): 97004, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is a leading contributor to the global burden of morbidity and mortality. Ozone (O3) exposure has previously been linked to diabetes. OBJECTIVE: We studied the impact of O3 exposure on incident diabetes risk in elderly Mexican Americans and investigated whether outdoor physical activity modifies the association. METHODS: We selected 1,090 Mexican American participants from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging conducted from 1998 to 2007. Ambient O3 exposure levels were modeled with a land-use regression built with saturation monitoring data collected at 49 sites across the Sacramento metropolitan area. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we estimated the risk of developing incident diabetes based on average O3 exposure modeled for 5-y prior to incident diabetes diagnosis or last follow-up. Further, we estimated outdoor leisure-time physical activity at baseline and investigated whether higher vs. lower levels modified the association between O3 exposure and diabetes. RESULTS: In total, 186 incident diabetes cases were identified during 10-y follow-up. Higher levels of physical activity were negatively associated with incident diabetes [hazard ratio (HR)=0.64 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.95)]. The estimated HRs for incident diabetes was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.28) per 10-ppb increment of 5-y average O3 exposure; also, this association was stronger among those physically active outdoors [HR=1.52 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.90)], and close to null for those reporting lower levels of outdoor activity [HR=1.04 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.20), pinteraction=0.01]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ambient O3 exposure contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes, particularly among those with higher levels of leisure-time outdoor physical activity. Policies and strategies are needed to reduce O3 exposure to guarantee that the health benefits of physical activity are not diminished by higher levels of O3 pollution in susceptible populations such as older Hispanics. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8620.

7.
Hum Reprod ; 36(8): 2321-2330, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984861

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: To what extent are ambient concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 microns (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) associated with risk of self-reported physician-diagnosed uterine leiomyomata (UL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In this large prospective cohort study of Black women, ambient concentrations of O3, but not PM2.5 or NO2, were associated with increased risk of UL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: UL are benign tumors of the myometrium that are the leading cause of gynecologic inpatient care among reproductive-aged women. Black women are clinically diagnosed at two to three times the rate of white women and tend to exhibit earlier onset and more severe disease. Two epidemiologic studies have found positive associations between air pollution exposure and UL risk, but neither included large numbers of Black women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 21 998 premenopausal Black women residing in 56 US metropolitan areas from 1997 to 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIAL, SETTING, METHODS: Women reported incident UL diagnosis and method of confirmation (i.e. ultrasound, surgery) on biennial follow-up questionnaires. We modeled annual residential concentrations of PM2.5, NO2 and O3 throughout the study period. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for a one-interquartile range (IQR) increase in air pollutant concentrations, adjusting for confounders and co-pollutants. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: During 196 685 person-years of follow-up, 6238 participants (28.4%) reported physician-diagnosed UL confirmed by ultrasound or surgery. Although concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 were not appreciably associated with UL (HRs for a one-IQR increase: 1.01 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.10) and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.16), respectively), O3 concentrations were associated with increased UL risk (HR for a one-IQR increase: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.32). The association was stronger among women age <35 years (HR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.62) and parous women (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.48). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Our measurement of air pollution is subject to misclassification, as monitoring data are not equally spatially distributed and we did not account for time-activity patterns. Our outcome measure was based on self-report of a physician diagnosis, likely resulting in under-ascertainment of UL. Although we controlled for several individual- and neighborhood-level confounding variables, residual confounding remains a possibility. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Inequitable burden of air pollution exposure has important implications for racial health disparities, and may be related to disparities in UL. Our results emphasize the need for additional research focused on environmental causes of UL. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This research was funded by the National Cancer Institute (U01-CAA164974) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (R01-ES019573). L.A.W. is a fibroid consultant for AbbVie, Inc. and accepts in-kind donations from Swiss Precision Diagnostics, Sandstone Diagnostics, FertilityFriend.com and Kindara.com for primary data collection in Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO). M.J. declares consultancy fees from the Health Effects Institute (as a member of the review committee). The remaining authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Leiomioma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/epidemiologia , Leiomioma/etiologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113767, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have assessed the relationship between exposure to natural environments (NEs) and childhood mental health and development. In most cases, a positive association has been found, but results are inconsistent, and the strength of association is unclear. This inconsistency may reflect the heterogeneity in measurements used to assess NE. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to identify the most common NE metrics used in childhood mental health and development research. Our second aim is to identify the metrics that are most consistently associated with health and assess the relative strength of association depending on type of NE exposure measurement, in terms of metric used (i.e., measurement technique, such as remote sensing), but also rate (i.e., spatial and temporal exposure). METHODS: We used the PRISMA protocol to identify eligible studies, following a set of pre-defined inclusion criteria based on the PECOS strategy. A number of keywords were used for retrieving relevant articles from Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, and Web of Science databases between January 2000-November 2020. From these, we extracted data on type of NE measurement and relative association to a number of indicators of childhood mental health and development. We conducted a systematic assessment of quality and risk of bias in the included articles to evaluate the level of evidence. Case studies and qualitative studies were excluded. RESULTS: After screening of title (283 studies included), abstract, and full article, 45 studies were included in our review. A majority of which were conducted in North America and Europe (n = 36; 80%). The majority of studies used land use or land covers (LULC, n = 24; 35%) to determine exposures to NEs. Other metrics included the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), expert measures (e.g., surveys of data collection done by experts), surveys (e.g., self-reported assessments), and use of NE (e.g., measures of a participant's use of NE such as through GPS tracts or parent reports). Rate was most commonly determined by buffer zones around residential addresses or postal codes. The most consistent association to health outcomes was found for buffers of 100 m, 250 m, 500 m, and within polygons boundaries (e.g., census tracts). Six health categories, academic achievement, prevalence of doctor diagnosed disorders, emotional and behavioral functioning, well-being, social functioning, and cognitive skills, were created post hoc. We found sufficient evidence between NDVI (Landsat) and emotional and behavioral well-being. Additionally, we found limited evidence between LULC datasets and academic achievement; use of NE, parent/guardian reported greenness, and expert measures of greenness and emotional and behavioral functioning; and use of NE and social functioning. DISCUSSION: This review demonstrates that several NE measurements must be evaluated further before sufficient evidence for a potential association between distinct NE exposure metrics and childhood mental health and development can be established. Further, we suggest increased coordination between research efforts, for example, by replication of studies and comparing different NE measurements systematically, so that effect sizes can be confirmed for various health outcomes. Finally, we recommend implementing research designs that assess underlying pathways of nature-health relations and utilize measurement techniques that adequately assess exposure, access, use, and perception of NEs in order to contribute to a better understanding of health impacts of surrounding natural environments.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Saúde Mental , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
9.
Environ Res ; 199: 111302, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019894

RESUMO

Owing to their greater outdoor activity and ongoing lung development, children are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, the effects of PM2.5 components are poorly understood. This study aimed to use a longitudinal birth cohort of children with physician-diagnosed incident asthma to investigate the effect of PM2.5 components at birth on morbidity measured by health services utilization. Of 1277 Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire (T-CHEQ) participants, the study population included 362 children diagnosed with asthma who were followed for a mean of 13 years from birth until March 31, 2016, or loss-to-follow-up. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its components were assigned based on participants' postal codes at birth. Study outcomes included counts of asthma, asthma-related, and all-cause health services use. Poisson regression in single-, two-, and multi-pollutant models was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase of exposures. Covariates were included in all models to further adjust for potential confounding. The adjusted RR for sulfate (SO4) and all-cause hospitalizations was statistically significant with RR = 2.23 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-3.96) in a multi-pollutant model with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). In multi-pollutant models with oxidants, the adjusted RRs for SO4 of all-cause hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits were also statistically significant with RR = 2.31 (95% CI: 1.32-4.03) and RR = 1.39 (95% CI: 1.02-1.90), respectively. While unadjusted single-pollutant RRs for asthma-specific and asthma-related health services use with the SO4 component of PM2.5 were above one, none were statistically significant. This study found significant associations with exposure to SO4 in PM2.5 and all-cause acute care, chiefly for hospitalizations, in children with asthma.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(6): 3807-3818, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666410

RESUMO

Metal components in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from nontailpipe emissions may play an important role in underlying the adverse respiratory effects of PM2.5. We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) in PM2.5 and their combined impact on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human lungs, and the incidence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), COPD mortality, pneumonia mortality, and respiratory mortality. We conducted a population-based cohort study of ∼0.8 million adults in Toronto, Canada. Land-use regression models were used to estimate the concentrations of Fe, Cu, and ROS. Outcomes were ascertained using validated health administrative databases. We found positive associations between long-term exposure to Fe, Cu, and ROS and the risks of all five respiratory outcomes. The associations were more robust for COPD, pneumonia mortality, and respiratory mortality than for asthma incidence and COPD mortality. Stronger associations were observed for ROS than for either Fe or Cu. In two-pollutant models, adjustment for nitrogen dioxide somewhat attenuated the associations while adjustment for PM2.5 had little influence. Long-term exposure to Fe and Cu in PM2.5 and estimated ROS concentration in lung fluid was associated with increased incidence of respiratory diseases, suggesting the adverse respiratory effects of nontailpipe emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Respiratórias , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Cobre/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Ferro , Pulmão , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
12.
Environ Res ; 197: 110992, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity can be affected by both meteorological conditions and surrounding greenness, but few studies have evaluated the effects of these environmental factors on physical activity simultaneously. This multi-city comparative study aimed to assess the synergetic effects of apparent temperature and surrounding greenness on physical activity in four European cities. Specifically, we aimed to identify an interaction between surrounding greenness and apparent temperature in the effects on physical activity. METHODS: Data were collected from 352 adult residents of Barcelona (Spain), Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom), Doetinchem (The Netherlands), and Kaunas (Lithuania) as part of the PHENOTYPE study. Participants wore a smartphone for seven consecutive days between May-December 2013 and provided additional sociodemographic survey data. Hourly average physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET)) and surrounding greenness (NDVI) were derived from the Calfit mobile application collecting accelerometer and location data. Hourly apparent temperature was calculated from temperature and relative humidity, which were obtained from local meteorological stations along with other meteorological covariates (rainfall, windspeed, and sky darkness). We assessed the interaction effects of apparent temperature and surrounding greenness on hourly physical activity for each city using linear mixed models, while adjusting for meteorological, demographic, and time-related variables. RESULTS: We found significant interactions between apparent temperature and surrounding greenness on hourly physical activity in three of four cities, aside from the coastal city of Barcelona. Significant quadratic effects of apparent temperature were found in the highest level of surrounding greenness for Stoke-on-Trent and Doetinchem, with 4% decrease in median MET observed for a 10°C departure from optimal temperature (15.2°C and 14.6°C, respectively). Significant linear effects were found for higher levels of surrounding greenness in Kaunas, whereby an increase of 10°C was associated with ∼4% increase in median MET. CONCLUSION: Apparent temperature and surrounding greenness interacted in the effect on hourly physical activity across three of four European cities, with varying effect between cities. While quadratic effects of temperature suggest diminishing levels of physical activity in the highest greenness levels in cities of temperate climates, the variation in surrounding greenness between cities could be further explored, particularly by looking at indoor-outdoor locations. The study findings support the need for evidence-based physical activity promotion and urban design.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Cidades , Lituânia , Países Baixos , Fenótipo , Espanha , Temperatura , Reino Unido
13.
Annu Rev Public Health ; 42: 193-210, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348996

RESUMO

This review highlights the importance of air quality in the African urban development process. We address connections between air pollution and (a) rapid urbanization, (b) social problems, (c) health impacts, (d) climate change, (e) policies, and (f) new innovations. We acknowledge that air pollution levels in Africa can be extremely high and a serious health threat. The toxic content of the pollution could relate to region-specific sources such as low standards for vehicles and fuels, cooking with solid fuels, and burning household waste. We implore the pursuit of interdisciplinary research to create new approaches with relevant stakeholders. Moreover, successful air pollution research must regard conflicts, tensions, and synergies inherent to development processes in African municipalities, regions, and countries. This includes global relationships regarding climate change, trade, urban planning, and transportation. Incorporating aspects of local political situations (e.g., democracy) can also enhance greater political accountability and awareness about air pollution.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Saúde Pública , África , Humanos
14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(2): 589-601, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), but less is known about its specific components, such as metals originating from non-tailpipe emissions. We investigated the associations of long-term exposure to metal components [iron (Fe) and copper (Cu)] in PM2.5 with CVD incidence. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study in Toronto, Canada. Exposures to Fe and Cu in PM2.5 and their combined impact on the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung fluid were estimated using land use regression models. Incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF) and CVD death was ascertained using health administrative datasets. We used mixed-effects Cox regression models to examine the associations between the exposures and health outcomes. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted, including indirect adjustment for individual-level cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. smoking), and adjustment for PM2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). RESULTS: In single-pollutant models, we found positive associations between the three exposures and all three outcomes, with the strongest associations detected for the estimated ROS. The associations of AMI and CHF were sensitive to indirect adjustment, but remained robust for CVD death in all sensitivity analyses. In multi-pollutant models, the associations of the three exposures generally remained unaltered. Interestingly, adjustment for ROS did not substantially change the associations between PM2.5 and CVD, but attenuated the associations of NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to Fe and Cu in PM2.5 and their combined impact on ROS were consistently associated with increased CVD death.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cobre , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Incidência , Ferro , Pulmão , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(24): 2878-2894, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303078

RESUMO

Fine particulate air pollution <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is a major environmental threat to global public health. Multiple national and international medical and governmental organizations have recognized PM2.5 as a risk factor for cardiopulmonary diseases. A growing body of evidence indicates that several personal-level approaches that reduce exposures to PM2.5 can lead to improvements in health endpoints. Novel and forward-thinking strategies including randomized clinical trials are important to validate key aspects (e.g., feasibility, efficacy, health benefits, risks, burden, costs) of the various protective interventions, in particular among real-world susceptible and vulnerable populations. This paper summarizes the discussions and conclusions from an expert workshop, Reducing the Cardiopulmonary Impact of Particulate Matter Air Pollution in High Risk Populations, held on May 29 to 30, 2019, and convened by the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Educação , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/etiologia
16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(8): 87001, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence for the association between traffic-related noise and the incidence of major cardiovascular events such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and congestive heart failure (CHF) is inconclusive, especially in North America. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the associations between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and the incidence of AMI and CHF. METHODS: Our study population comprised ∼1 million people 30-100 years of age who lived in Toronto, Canada, from 2001 to 2015 and were free of AMI (referred to as the AMI cohort) or CHF (the CHF cohort) at baseline. Outcomes were ascertained from health administrative databases using validated algorithms. Annual average noise levels were estimated as the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level over the 24-h period (LAeq24) and during nighttime (LAeqNight), respectively, using propagation modeling, and assigned to participants' annual six-digit postal code addresses during follow-up. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident AMI and CHF in relation to LAeq24 and LAeqNight using random-effects Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for individual- and census tract-level covariates, including traffic-related air pollutants [e.g., ultrafine particles (UFPs) and nitrogen dioxide]. RESULTS: During follow-up, there were 37,441 AMI incident cases and 95,138 CHF incident cases. Each interquartile range change in LAeq24 was associated with an increased risk of incident AMI (HR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.08) and CHF (HR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.09). Similarly, LAeqNight was associated with incident AMI (HR=1.07; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.08) and CHF (HR=1.06; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.07). These results were robust to various sensitivity analyses and remained elevated after controlling for long-term exposure to UFPs and nitrogen dioxide. We found near-linear relationships between noise and the incidence of AMI and CHF with no evidence of threshold values. CONCLUSION: In this large cohort study in Toronto, Canada, chronic exposure to road traffic noise was associated with elevated risks for AMI and CHF incidence. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5809.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia
17.
Environ Int ; 143: 105942, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659530

RESUMO

Over the past decade, researchers and policy-makers have become increasingly interested in regulatory and policy interventions to reduce air pollution concentrations and improve human health. Studies have typically relied on relatively sparse environmental monitoring data that lack the spatial resolution to assess small-area improvements in air quality and health. Few studies have integrated multiple types of measures of an air pollutant into one single modeling framework that combines spatially- and temporally-rich monitoring data. In this paper, we investigated the differential effects of California emissions reduction plan on reducing air pollution between those living in the goods movement corridors (GMC) that are within 500 m of major highways that serve as truck routes to those farther away or adjacent to routes that prohibit trucks. A mixed effects Deletion/Substitution/Addition (D/S/A) machine learning algorithm was developed to model annual pollutant concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by taking repeated measures into consideration and by integrating multiple types of NO2 measurements, including those through government regulatory and research-oriented saturation monitoring into a single modeling framework. Difference-in-difference analysis was conducted to identify whether those living in GMC demonstrated statistically larger reductions in air pollution exposure. The mixed effects D/S/A machine learning modeling result indicated that GMC had 2 ppb greater reductions in NO2 concentrations from pre- to post-policy period than far away areas. The difference-in-difference analysis demonstrated that the subjects living in GMC experienced statistically significant greater reductions in NO2 exposure than those living in the far away areas. This study contributes to scientific knowledge by providing empirical evidence that improvements in air quality via the emissions reductions plan policies impacted traffic-related air pollutant concentrations and associated exposures most among low-income Californians with chronic conditions living in GMC. The identified differences in pollutant reductions across different location domains may be applicable to other states or other countries if similar policies are enacted.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Políticas , Coelhos
18.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(4): 1477-1491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with dementia. Additionally, epidemiologic evidence supports associations between air pollution and diabetes as well as diabetes and dementia. Thus, an indirect pathway between air pollution and dementia may exist through metabolic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether local traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) influences incident dementia and cognitive impairment, non-dementia (CIND) in a cohort of older Mexican Americans. We also assess how much of this estimated effect might be mediated through type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: In a 10-year, prospective study of Latinos (n = 1,564), we generated TRAP-NOx as a surrogate for pollution from local traffic sources at participants' residences during the year prior to enrollment. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling and mediation analysis to estimate the effects of TRAP-NOx on dementia and/or CIND and indirect pathways operating through T2DM. RESULTS: Higher TRAP-NOx was associated with incident dementia (HR = 1.55 for the highest versus lower tertiles, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.55). Higher TRAP-NOx was also associated with T2DM (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.27, 2.05); furthermore, T2DM was associated with dementia (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.42, 2.66). Mediation analysis indicated that 20% of the estimated effect of TRAP-NOx on dementia/CIND was mediated through T2DM. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that exposure to local traffic-related air pollution is associated with incident dementia. We also estimated that 20% of this effect is mediated through T2DM. Thus, ambient air pollution might affect brain health via direct damage as well as through indirect pathways related to diabetes and metabolic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Demência/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Phys Act Health ; 17(7): 715-722, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban trails are a useful resource to promote physical activity. This study identified features of urban trails that correlated with trail use. METHODS: Multiuse urban trails were selected in Chicago, Dallas, and Los Angeles. An audit of each trail was completed using the Systematic Pedestrian and Cyclist Environmental Scan for Trails instrument, identifying built environmental features. A self-report of trail use was obtained from trailside residents (N = 331) living within 1 mile of each trail. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regressions controlled for trail time from home and motivation for physical activity. RESULTS: Positive associations with the past month's hours on the trail were observed for the presence of distance signs, vegetation height, vegetation maintenance, and trail crowding, and a negative association was observed for the presence of crossings on the trail. Positive associations with dichotomous trail use were observed for the presence of distance signs, vegetation height, and vegetation maintenance, and a negative association was observed for the presence of crossings on the trail. CONCLUSIONS: These correlates should be confirmed in other studies and, if supported, should be considered in the promotion and design of urban trails.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Características de Residência , Chicago , Humanos , Los Angeles , Recreação , Autorrelato , Caminhada
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(11)2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471088

RESUMO

Air monitoring networks developed by communities have potential to reduce exposures and affect environmental health policy, yet there have been few performance evaluations of networks of these sensors in the field. We developed a network of over 40 air sensors in Imperial County, CA, which is delivering real-time data to local communities on levels of particulate matter. We report here on the performance of the Network to date by comparing the low-cost sensor readings to regulatory monitors for 4 years of operation (2015-2018) on a network-wide basis. Annual mean levels of PM10 did not differ statistically from regulatory annual means, but did for PM2.5 for two out of the 4 years. R2s from ordinary least square regression results ranged from 0.16 to 0.67 for PM10, and increased each year of operation. Sensor variability was higher among the Network monitors than the regulatory monitors. The Network identified a larger number of pollution episodes and identified under-reporting by the regulatory monitors. The participatory approach of the project resulted in increased engagement from local and state agencies and increased local knowledge about air quality, data interpretation, and health impacts. Community air monitoring networks have the potential to provide real-time reliable data to local populations.

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