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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594223

RESUMO

Diffusion changes as determined by diffusion tensor imaging are potential indicators of microstructural lesions in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD), and AD dementia. Here we extended the scope of analysis toward subjective cognitive complaints as a pre-MCI at risk stage of AD. In a cohort of 271 participants of the prospective DELCODE study, including 93 healthy controls and 98 subjective cognitive decline (SCD), 45 MCI, and 35 AD dementia cases, we found reductions of fiber tract integrity in limbic and association fiber tracts in MCI and AD dementia compared with controls in a tract-based analysis (p < 0.05, family wise error corrected). In contrast, people with SCD showed spatially restricted white matter alterations only for the mode of anisotropy and only at an uncorrected level of significance. DTI parameters yielded a high cross-validated diagnostic accuracy of almost 80% for the clinical diagnosis of MCI and the discrimination of Aß positive MCI cases from Aß negative controls. In contrast, DTI parameters reached only random level accuracy for the discrimination between Aß positive SCD and control cases from Aß negative controls. These findings suggest that in prodromal stages of AD, such as in Aß positive MCI, multicenter DTI with prospectively harmonized acquisition parameters yields diagnostic accuracy meeting the criteria for a useful biomarker. In contrast, automated tract-based analysis of DTI parameters is not useful for the identification of preclinical AD, including Aß positive SCD and control cases.

2.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci ; 21(1): 27-34, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607778

RESUMO

Within aging societies, the number of individuals suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD) is constistently increasing. This is paralleled by intense research aimed at improving treatment options and potentially even fostering effective prevention. The discussion on relevant outcomes of such interventions is ongoing. Here, different types of currently applied outcomes in the treatment of AD at the dementia stage, but also at the pre-dementia stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and asymptomatic preclinical AD are discussed. Regulatory agencies require effects on the clinical measures of cognition and function. In novel disease-modifying therapy trials, biological markers are used as secondary and exploratory outcomes. Additional outcomes of great relevance for the individual patients are neuropsychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and goal attainment. In addition, costs and cost-benefit ratios are of interest for the reimbursement of interventions.

3.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(688): e786-e793, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical judgement is intrinsic to diagnostic strategies in general practice; however, empirical evidence for its validity is sparse. AIM: To ascertain whether a GP's global clinical judgement of future cognitive status has an added value for predicting a patient's likelihood of experiencing dementia. DESIGN AND SETTING: Multicentre prospective cohort study among patients in German general practice that took place from January 2003 to October 2016. METHOD: Patients without baseline dementia were assessed with neuropsychological interviews over 12 years; 138 GPs rated the future cognitive decline of their participating patients. Associations of baseline predictors with follow-up incident dementia were analysed with mixed-effects logistic and Cox regression. RESULTS: A total of 3201 patients were analysed over the study period (mean age = 79.6 years, 65.3% females, 6.7% incident dementia in 3 years, 22.1% incident dementia in 12 years). Descriptive analyses and comparison with other cohorts identified the participants as having frequent and long-lasting doctor-patient relationships and being well known to their GPs. The GP baseline rating of future cognitive decline had significant value for 3-year dementia prediction, independent of cognitive test scores and patient's memory complaints (GP ratings of very mild (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 1.28 to 3.04); mild (OR 3.00, 95% CI = 1.90 to 4.76); and moderate/severe decline (OR 5.66, 95% CI = 3.29 to 9.73)). GPs' baseline judgements were significantly associated with patients' 12-year dementia-free survival rates (Mantel-Cox log rank test P<0.001). CONCLUSION: In this sample of patients in familiar doctor-patient relationships, the GP's clinical judgement holds additional value for predicting dementia, complementing test performance and patients' self-reports. Existing and emerging primary care-based dementia risk models should consider the GP's judgement as one predictor. Results underline the importance of the GP-patient relationship.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520149

RESUMO

There is a need for interventions supporting patients with mental health conditions in coping with stigma and discrimination. A psycho-educational group therapy module to promote stigma coping and empowerment (STEM) was developed and tested for efficacy in patients with schizophrenia or depression. 30 clinical centers participated in a cluster-randomized clinical trial, representing a broad spectrum of mental health care settings: in-patient (acute treatment, rehabilitation), out-patient, and day-hospitals. As randomized, patients in the intervention group clusters/centers received an illness-specific eight sessions standard psychoeducational group therapy plus three specific sessions on stigma coping and empowerment ('STEM'). In the control group clusters the same standard psychoeducational group therapy was extended to 11 sessions followed by one booster session in both conditions. In total, N = 462 patients were included in the analysis (N = 117 with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, ICD-10 F2x; N = 345 with depression, ICD-10 F31.3-F31.5, F32-F34, and F43.2). Clinical and stigma-related measures were assessed before and directly after treatment, as well as after 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months (M12). Primary outcome was improvement in quality of life (QoL) assessed with the WHO-QOL-BREF between pre-assessment and M12 analyzed by mixed models and adjusted for pre-treatment differences. Overall, QoL and secondary outcome measures (symptoms, functioning, compliance, internalized stigma, self-esteem, empowerment) improved significantly, but there was no significant difference between intervention and control group. The short STEM module has proven its practicability as an add-on in different settings in routine mental health care. The overall increase in empowerment in both, schizophrenia and depression, indicates patients' treatment benefit. However, factors contributing to improvement need to be explored.The study has been registered in the following trial registers. ClinicalTrials.gov: https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/ Registration number: NCT01655368. DRKS: https://www.drks.de/drks_web/ Registration number: DRKS00004217.

5.
Nervenarzt ; 90(9): 881-883, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493046
6.
Nat Rev Neurol ; 15(11): 623-624, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506592
7.
J Neurosci ; 39(44): 8788-8797, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541019

RESUMO

Mnemonic discrimination, the ability to distinguish similar events in memory, relies on subregions in the human medial temporal lobes (MTLs). Tau pathology is frequently found within the MTL of older adults and therefore likely to affect mnemonic discrimination, even in healthy older individuals. The MTL subregions that are known to be affected early by tau pathology, the perirhinal-transentorhinal region (area 35) and the anterior-lateral entorhinal cortex (alEC), have recently been implicated in the mnemonic discrimination of objects rather than scenes. Here we used an object-scene mnemonic discrimination task in combination with fMRI recordings and analyzed the relationship between subregional MTL activity, memory performance, and levels of total and phosphorylated tau as well as Aß42/40 ratio in CSF. We show that activity in alEC was associated with mnemonic discrimination of similar objects but not scenes in male and female cognitively unimpaired older adults. Importantly, CSF tau levels were associated with increased fMRI activity in the hippocampus, and both increased hippocampal activity as well as tau levels were associated with mnemonic discrimination of objects, but again not scenes. This suggests that dysfunction of the alEC-hippocampus object mnemonic discrimination network might be a marker for tau-related cognitive decline.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Subregions in the human medial temporal lobe are critically involved in episodic memory and, at the same time, affected by tau pathology. Impaired object mnemonic discrimination performance as well as aberrant activity within the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry have been reported in earlier studies involving older individuals, but it has thus far remained elusive whether and how tau pathology is implicated in this specific impairment. Using task-related fMRI in combination with measures of tau pathology in CSF, we show that measures of tau pathology are associated with increased hippocampal activity and reduced mnemonic discrimination of similar objects but not scenes. This suggests that object mnemonic discrimination tasks could be promising markers for tau-related cognitive decline.

8.
Nervenarzt ; 90(9): 921-925, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, approximately 1.6 million people are currently suffering from dementia. The prevalence of the disease is expected to double by 2060. To date there is no treatment that can prevent the onset of dementia. For this reason, the development of prevention strategies for cognitive decline and dementia is crucial. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of studies on dementia prevention by treatment of arterial hypertension. Overview of current multidomain interventional studies on dementia prevention. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Narrative review. RESULTS: Whereas in three previous randomized controlled trials on antihypertensive treatment a reduction of dementia risk could not be found, the recent SPRINT-MIND study demonstrated a reduced risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and in the trend for dementia by intensified hypotensive treatment. Multidomain interventional studies suggest preventive effects, particularly in specific risk groups and also highlight the challenge of adherence to lifestyle modifications. CONCLUSION: The treatment of modifiable risk factors can have a preventive effects on cognitive decline and dementia. More research is needed to identify subgroups with the greatest likelihood of benefits.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Demência/complicações , Demência/prevenção & controle , Alemanha , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 66, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) has been proposed as a pre-MCI at-risk condition of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current research is focusing on a refined assessment of specific SCD features associated with increased risk for AD, as proposed in the SCD-plus criteria. We developed a structured interview (SCD-I) for the assessment of these features and tested their relationship with AD biomarkers. METHODS: We analyzed data of 205 cognitively normal participants of the DELCODE study (mean age = 68.9 years; 52% female) with available CSF AD biomarkers (Aß-42, p-Tau181, Aß-42/Tau ratio, total Tau). For each of five cognitive domains (including memory, language, attention, planning, others), a study physician asked participants about the following SCD-plus features: the presence of subjective decline, associated worries, onset of SCD, feeling of worse performance than others of the same age group, and informant confirmation. We compared AD biomarkers of subjects endorsing each of these questions with those who did not, controlling for age. SCD was also quantified by two summary scores: the number of fulfilled SCD-plus features, and the number of domains with experienced decline. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were used to test whether these SCD scores predicted abnormality in AD biomarkers. RESULTS: Lower Aß-42 levels were associated with a reported decline in memory and language abilities, and with the following SCD-plus features: onset of subjective decline within 5 years, confirmation of cognitive decline by an informant, and decline-related worries. Furthermore, both quantitative SCD scores were associated with lower Aß42 and lower Aß42/Tau ratio, but not with total Tau or p-Tau181. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support the usefulness of a criterion-based interview approach to assess and quantify SCD in the context of AD and validate the current SCD-plus features as predictors of AD pathology. While some features seem to be more closely associated with AD biomarkers than others, aggregated scores over several SCD-plus features or SCD domains may be the best predictors of AD pathology.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464095

RESUMO

Rare coding variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) gene have been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and homozygous TREM2 loss-of-function variants have been reported in families with monogenic frontotemporal-like dementia with/without bone abnormalities. In a whole-exome sequencing study of a family with probable AD-type dementia without pathogenic variants in known autosomal dominant dementia disease genes and negative for the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele, we identified an extremely rare TREM2 coding variant, that is, a glycine-to-tryptophan substitution at amino acid position 145 (NM_018965.3:c.433G>T/p.[Gly145Trp]). This alteration is found in only 1 of 251,150 control alleles in gnomAD. It was present in both severely affected as well as in another putatively affected and one 61 years old as yet unaffected family member suggesting incomplete penetrance and/or a variable age of onset. Gly145 maps to an intrinsically disordered region (IDR) of TREM2 between the immunoglobulin-like and transmembrane domain. Subsequent cellular studies showed that the variant led to IDR shortening and structural changes of the mutant protein resulting in an impairment of cellular responses upon receptor activation. Our results, suggest that a p.(Gly145Trp)-induced structural disturbance and functional impairment of TREM2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of an AD-like form of dementia.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283791

RESUMO

Late onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia for which about 30 susceptibility loci have been reported. The aim of the current study is to identify novel genes associated with Alzheimer's disease using the largest up-to-date reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, the most accurate imputation software and a novel gene-based analysis approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 million genotypes from 17,008 Alzheimer's cases and 37,154 controls. In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected three novel gene-wide significant loci PPARGC1A (p = 2.2 × 10-6), RORA (p = 7.4 × 10-7) and ZNF423 (p = 2.1 × 10-6). PPARGC1A and RORA are involved in circadian rhythm; circadian disturbances are one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. PPARGC1A is additionally linked to energy metabolism and the generation of amyloid beta plaques. RORA is involved in a variety of functions apart from circadian rhythm, such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. The ZNF423 gene resides in an Alzheimer's disease-specific protein network and is likely involved with centrosomes and DNA damage repair.

12.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(9): 1787-1795, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183635

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Using PET imaging in a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we investigated whether level of education, a proxy for resilience, mitigates the harmful impact of tau pathology on neuronal function. METHODS: We included 38 patients with mild-to-moderate AD (mean age 67 ± 7 years, mean MMSE score 24 ± 4, mean years of education 14 ± 4; 20 men, 18 women) in whom a [18F]AV-1451 scan (a measure of tau pathology) and an [18F]FDG scan (a measure of neuronal function) were available. The preprocessed PET scans were z-transformed using templates for [18F]AV-1451 and [18F]FDG from healthy controls, and subsequently thresholded at a z-score of ≥3.0, representing an one-tailed p value of 0.001. Next, three volumes were computed in each patient: the tau-specific volume (tau pathology without neuronal dysfunction), the FDG-specific volume (neuronal dysfunction without tau pathology), and the overlap volume (tau pathology and neuronal dysfunction). Mean z-scores and volumes were extracted and used as dependent variables in regression analysis with years of education as predictor, and age and MMSE score as covariates. RESULTS: Years of education were positively associated with tau-specific volume (ß = 0.362, p = 0.022), suggesting a lower impact of tau pathology on neuronal function in patients with higher levels of education. Concomitantly, level of education was positively related to tau burden in the overlap volume (ß = 0.303, p = 0.036) implying that with higher levels of education more tau pathology is necessary to induce neuronal dysfunction. CONCLUSION: In patients with higher levels of education, tau pathology is less paralleled by regional and remote neuronal dysfunction. The data suggest that early life-time factors such as level of education support resilience mechanisms, which ameliorate AD-related effects later in life.

13.
J Neurol ; 266(10): 2465-2474, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227891

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) can represent a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could aid an early diagnosis, yet only few monocentric DTI studies in SCD have been conducted, reporting heterogeneous results. We investigated microstructural changes in SCD in a larger, multicentric cohort. METHODS: 271 participants with SCD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and healthy controls (CON) were included, recruited prospectively at nine centers of the observational DELCODE study. DTI was acquired using identical protocols. Using voxel-based analyses, we investigated fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) and mode (MO) in the white matter (WM). Discrimination accuracy was determined by cross-validated elastic-net penalized regression. Center effects were explored using variance analyses. RESULTS: MO and FA were lower in SCD compared to CON in several anterior and posterior WM regions, including the anterior corona radiata, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum and splenium of the corpus callosum (p < 0.01, uncorrected). MD was higher in the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, cingulum and superior corona radiata (p < 0.01, uncorrected). The cross-validated accuracy for discriminating SCD from CON was 67% (p < 0.01). As expected, the AD and MCI groups had higher MD and lower FA and MO in extensive regions, including the corpus callosum and temporal brain regions. Within these regions, center accounted for 3-15% of the variance. CONCLUSIONS: DTI revealed subtle WM alterations in SCD that were intermediate between those in MCI and CON and may be useful to detect individuals with an increased risk for AD in clinical studies.

14.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 50, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is characterized by self-reported cognitive deficits without measurable cognitive impairment. It has been suggested that individuals with SCD exhibited brain structural alterations in widespread cortical thinning or gray matter loss in the medial temporal and frontotemporal regions. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is thought to be a genetic marker associated with risk of SCD. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may provide insight in detecting higher-risk elders for early Alzheimer's disease as well. Therefore, we aim to explore the characteristics of brain morphology in SCD and to determine whether it is influenced by APOE ε4 as well as neuropsychiatric symptoms in SCD. METHODS: A total of 138 cognitively normal older individuals from the SILCODE cohort underwent a clinical interview, neuropsychological assessments, a blood test, and MRI. A two-sample t-test was used to examine the cortex volume and bilateral cortical surface area alterations between SCD (n = 65) and controls (n = 73). A general linear model analysis was used to test for both main and interaction effects of clinical phenotype (SCD vs. controls) and APOE on global and regional cortex volume and bilateral cortical surface area and thickness. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine the effects of the APOE genotype on the relationships between morphometric features and neuropsychiatric symptoms in SCD. RESULTS: Compared with controls, individuals with SCD showed decreased total cortical volumes and cortical surface area. SCD APOE ε4 carriers showed additive reduction in the right cortical surface area. The evaluation scores of anxiety symptoms were negatively associated with the right cortical surface area in SCD APOE 4 non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with SCD had an altered cortical surface area, and APOE genotype and anxiety symptoms are modified factors on the cortical surface area decrease in SCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT03370744 ). Registered 15 March 2017.

15.
Alzheimers Dement ; 15(6): 828-839, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076376

RESUMO

In most, if not all health systems, dementia is underdiagnosed, and when diagnosis occurs, it is typically at a relatively late stage in the disease process despite mounting evidence showing that a timely diagnosis would result in numerous benefits for patients, families, and society. Moving toward earlier diagnoses in Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires a conscientious and collective effort to implement a global strategy addressing the multiple causes hindering patient engagement at different levels of society. This article describes the design of the Models of Patient Engagement for Alzheimer's Disease project, an ongoing EU-funded public-private multinational initiative that will compare four innovative patient engagement strategies across five European countries regarding their ability to identify individuals with prodromal AD and mild AD dementia, which are "hidden" in their communities and traditionally not found in the typical memory clinic setting. The strategies include an online AD citizen science platform, an open house initiative at the memory clinics, and patient engagement at primary care and diabetologist clinics.

16.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 11(1): 33, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have predictive value for progression to dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The pre-dementia stage takes far longer, and the interpretation of biomarker findings is particular relevant for individuals who present at a memory clinic, but are deemed cognitively normal. The objective of the current study is to construct biomarker-based prognostic models for personalized risk of clinical progression in cognitively normal individuals presenting at a memory clinic. METHODS: We included 481 individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. Prognostic models were developed by Cox regression with patient characteristics, MRI, and/or CSF biomarkers to predict clinical progression to MCI or dementia. We estimated 5- and 3-year individualized risks based on patient-specific values. External validation was performed on Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and an European dataset. RESULTS: Based on demographics only (Harrell's C = 0.70), 5- and 3-year progression risks varied from 6% [3-11] and 4% [2-8] (age 55, MMSE 30) to 38% [29-49] and 28% [21-37] (age 70, MMSE 27). Normal CSF biomarkers strongly decreased progression probabilities (Harrell's C = 0.82). By contrast, abnormal CSF markedly increased risk (5 years, 96% [56-100]; 3 years, 89% [44-99]). The CSF model could reclassify 58% of the individuals with an "intermediate" risk (35-65%) based on the demographic model. MRI measures were not retained in the models. CONCLUSION: The current study takes the first steps in a personalized approach for cognitively normal individuals by providing biomarker-based prognostic models.

17.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 21, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders (MD), such as depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment, are highly prevalent in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Current guidelines on cardiovascular diseases recommend screening and appropriate treatment of MD; however, the degree of implementation of such recommendations in clinical practice is unknown. This study aims to analyze the quality of health care of patients with CHD and MD. Specifically, we aim to analyze (1) the quality of care, (2) trajectories of care, and (3) barriers regarding the detection and treatment of MD. Moreover, we want to identify potentials of changes in health care delivery towards more patient-centered care. The results of this study shall be the first step towards value-based care of people with CHD and comorbid mental disorders. METHODS: We aim to include the following participants: adult patients with CHD (n = 400), their relatives (n = 350) and physicians (n = 80). A particular focus will be on the vulnerable subgroups of patients with CHD and congestive heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction < 40%) and on the underrepresented group of women with CHD. We will apply a mixed-method approach with a quantitative and a qualitative part. Patient-related outcomes (e.g., health-related quality of life, needs, and preferences regarding health care, reasons for non-detection, and lack of treatment of MD) will be explored in a multi-perspective approach including patients, relatives, and physicians' perspectives. Furthermore, routine data from four statutory health insurance funds (SHI) will be analyzed regarding the frequency and treatment of MD in CHD patients. DISCUSSION: MenDis-CHD will provide important insights into the trajectories of health care, quality of health care, barriers, patient needs and preferences as well as expectations and satisfaction with health care in patients with CHD and MD. Potential implications of MenDis-CHD are to enable health care providers to redesign care pathways concerning the treatment of mental comorbidity in patients with CHD by proposing value-based changes in health care and by understanding the barriers to and facilitators of change towards patient-centered care. TRIALS REGISTRATION: German clinical trials register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien, DRKS) ieRegistration Number: DRKS00012434, date of registration: May 11th, 2017.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Alemanha , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações
18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899092

RESUMO

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNFVal66Met) is associated with worse impact of primary AD pathology (beta-amyloid, Aß) on neurodegeneration and cognitive decline, rendering BDNFVal66Met an important modulating factor of cognitive impairment in AD. However, the effect of BDNFVal66Met on functional networks that may underlie cognitive impairment in AD is poorly understood. Using a cross-validation approach, we first explored in subjects with autosomal dominant AD (ADAD) from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) the effect of BDNFVal66Met on resting-state fMRI assessed functional networks. In seed-based connectivity analysis of six major large-scale networks, we found a stronger decrease of hippocampus (seed) to medial-frontal connectivity in the BDNFVal66Met carriers compared to BDNFVal homozogytes. BDNFVal66Met was not associated with connectivity in any other networks. Next, we tested whether the finding of more pronounced decrease in hippocampal-medial-frontal connectivity in BDNFVal66Met could be also found in elderly subjects with sporadically occurring Aß, including a group with subjective cognitive decline (N = 149, FACEHBI study) and a group ranging from preclinical to AD dementia (N = 114, DELCODE study). In both of these independently recruited groups, BDNFVal66Met was associated with a stronger effect of more abnormal Aß-levels (assessed by biofluid-assay or amyloid-PET) on hippocampal-medial-frontal connectivity decreases, controlled for hippocampus volume and other confounds. Lower hippocampal-medial-frontal connectivity was associated with lower global cognitive performance in the DIAN and DELCODE studies. Together these results suggest that BDNFVal66Met is selectively associated with a higher vulnerability of hippocampus-frontal connectivity to primary AD pathology, resulting in greater AD-related cognitive impairment.

20.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 126(9): 1155-1161, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30788601

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. Due to demographic change in higher income countries and rising life expectancy in middle- and low-income countries, the prevalence of AD will increase significantly in the coming years. In the search for effective AD prevention, the role of stress in the development of AD has come into focus. There is increasing evidence that chronic exposure to stress is a risk factor for AD and may also adversely affect the course of the disease. In our review, we present the current literature on the association of specific personality traits and the risk of developing AD. We also report on findings on dementia risk in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Furthermore, we describe the role of anxiety symptoms in AD and give a brief overview over the biological mechanisms behind the association of stress and AD.

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