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2.
Int Psychogeriatr ; : 1-9, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32583762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ultimate goal of artificial intelligence (AI) is to develop technologies that are best able to serve humanity. This will require advancements that go beyond the basic components of general intelligence. The term "intelligence" does not best represent the technological needs of advancing society, because it is "wisdom", rather than intelligence, that is associated with greater well-being, happiness, health, and perhaps even longevity of the individual and the society. Thus, the future need in technology is for artificial wisdom (AW). METHODS: We examine the constructs of human intelligence and human wisdom in terms of their basic components, neurobiology, and relationship to aging, based on published empirical literature. We review the development of AI as inspired and driven by the model of human intelligence, and consider possible governing principles for AW that would enable humans to develop computers which can operationally utilize wise principles and result in wise acts. We review relevant examples of current efforts to develop such wise technologies. RESULTS: AW systems will be based on developmental models of the neurobiology of human wisdom. These AW systems need to be able to a) learn from experience and self-correct; b) exhibit compassionate, unbiased, and ethical behaviors; and c) discern human emotions and help the human users to regulate their emotions and make wise decisions. CONCLUSIONS: A close collaboration among computer scientists, neuroscientists, mental health experts, and ethicists is necessary for developing AW technologies, which will emulate the qualities of wise humans and thus serve the greatest benefit to humanity. Just as human intelligence and AI have helped further the understanding and usefulness of each other, human wisdom and AW can aid in promoting each other's growth.

3.
AIDS Care ; : 1-6, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590909

RESUMO

For people living with HIV (PLWH) and sexual minorities (SM), the intersection of identities can compound experiences like stigma and discrimination resulting in poor emotional health. We investigated the separate and interactive associations of HIV serostatus and sexual identity with emotional health. Our dataset included 371 participants. Emotional health was assessed by the NIH Toolbox emotion battery which yields negative affect, social satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Regressions were conducted for each composite, with HIV serostatus, sexual identity, and their interaction as independent variables along with covariates. The HIV serostatus x SM identity interaction was statistically significant in the regression of Negative Affect (p = .01): heterosexuals living with HIV had worse Negative Affect compared to heterosexual HIV-persons (p = .01). The interaction terms were for social satisfaction and psychological well-being were not significant. However, among PLWH, sexual minorities reported better Social Satisfaction (p = .03) and marginally better psychological well-being (p = .07) compared to heterosexuals.

4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(5)2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380778

RESUMO

Background: Nonagenarians and centenarians (NCs) are an extremely fragile population, particularly in regard to their physical and cognitive function. The aim of this study was to define the neurocognitive profiles among 29 NCs and their 49 younger cohabitants aged 50-75 years from The Cilento Initiative on Aging Outcomes (CIAO) Pilot study in the South of Italy that had provided initial hypotheses regarding positive psychological traits related to exceptional longevity. Methods: During the home visits, lifestyle information with specific questionnaires, functional autonomy and the neuropsychological Mini Mental Scale Examination (MMSE), and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) scale were obtained by qualified study personnel. The total blood oxidative capacity was also determined by testing the reactive derivative of oxygen metabolites (d-ROM) and by the Biological Antioxidant Potential (BAP). In all individuals, the APOE genotype determination was also performed. Results: All the subjects in both groups showed high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet. None of the NCs had severe cognitive impairment, and a very low incidence of dementia was found. The data obtained on the Activities ed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (ADL-IADL) scale showed that the majority of NCs (16/29) were autonomous in daily life activities. The comparative assessment of NCs and cohabitants showed no significant differences in the laboratory assessment of oxidative stress and APOE genotype. Conclusion: In the Cilento Region of Southern Italy, NCs seemed to have good cognitive status when compared to younger cohabitants aging 50-65 years without significant differences in oxidative stress markers or APOE genotype. These results might be related to optimal adherence to the Mediterranean diet, although other lifestyle factors and positive personality traits may also contribute to their healthy aging. Further studies on a larger population should be performed to confirm the results of this pilot study.

5.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401284

RESUMO

Importance: Wisdom is a neurobiological personality trait made up of specific components, including prosocial behaviors, emotional regulation, and spirituality. It is associated with greater well-being and happiness. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to enhance individual components of wisdom. Data Sources: MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published through December 31, 2018. Study Eligibility Criteria: Randomized clinical trials that sought to enhance a component of wisdom, used published measures to assess that component, were published in English, had a minimum sample size of 40 participants, and presented data that enabled computation of effect sizes were included in this meta-analysis. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Random-effect models were used to calculate pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) for each wisdom component and random-effects meta-regression to assess heterogeneity of studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Improvement in wisdom component using published measures. Results: Fifty-seven studies (N = 7096 participants) met review criteria: 29 for prosocial behaviors, 13 for emotional regulation, and 15 for spirituality. Study samples included people with psychiatric or physical illnesses and from the community. Of the studies, 27 (47%) reported significant improvement with medium to large effect sizes. Meta-analysis revealed significant pooled SMDs for prosocial behaviors (23 studies; pooled SMD, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.22-0.3]; P = .02), emotional regulation (12 studies; pooled SMD, 0.67 [95% CI, 0.21-1.12]; P = .004), and spirituality (12 studies; pooled SMD, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.41-1.60]; P = .001). Heterogeneity of studies was considerable for all wisdom components. Publication bias was present for prosocial behavior and emotional regulation studies; after adjusting for it, the pooled SMD for prosocial behavior remained significant (SMD, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.16-0.78]; P = .003). Meta-regression analysis found that effect sizes did not vary by wisdom component, although for trials on prosocial behaviors, large effect sizes were associated with older mean participant age (ß, 0.08 [SE, 0.04]), and the reverse was true for spirituality trials (ß, -0.13 [SE, 0.04]). For spirituality interventions, higher-quality trials had larger effect sizes (ß, 4.17 [SE, 1.07]), although the reverse was true for prosocial behavior trials (ß, -0.91 [SE 0.44]). Conclusions and Relevance: Interventions to enhance spirituality, emotional regulation, and prosocial behaviors are effective in a proportion of people with mental or physical illnesses and from the community. The modern behavioral epidemics of loneliness, suicide, and opioid abuse point to a growing need for wisdom-enhancing interventions to promote individual and societal well-being.

8.
J Behav Med ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072364

RESUMO

Many factors can influence perceptions of successful aging (SA), including social isolation and poor physical health. We hypothesized that social support attenuates the negative effect of plasma D-dimer, a correlate of HIV and aging, on SA. Participants included 230 adults (134 people with HIV; PWH, 96 HIV-), ages 36-65, segregated into age cohorts with up to 5 yearly visits. Multilevel modeling examined longitudinal within-person associations between D-dimer, social support, and SA. Social support moderated the relationship between D-dimer and SA and was significant among PWH and older individuals (ages 56-65), but not HIV- or younger cohorts. This association was significant only at extreme levels of social support, with significant decreases in social support potentiating the negative impact of D-dimer on SA and significant increases in social support facilitating increased SA. Despite declining health, high social support may improve SA in PWH and older adults, and low support may be especially problematic for older adults.

9.
Int Psychogeriatr ; 32(2): 173-182, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is associated with numerous stressors that negatively impact older adults' well-being. Resilience improves ability to cope with stressors and can be enhanced in older adults. Senior housing communities are promising settings to deliver positive psychiatry interventions due to rising resident populations and potential impact of delivering interventions directly in the community. However, few intervention studies have been conducted in these communities. We present a pragmatic stepped-wedge trial of a novel psychological group intervention intended to improve resilience among older adults in senior housing communities. DESIGN: A pragmatic modified stepped-wedge trial design. SETTING: Five senior housing communities in three states in the US. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-nine adults over age 60 years residing in independent living sector of senior housing communities. INTERVENTION: Raise Your Resilience, a manualized 1-month group intervention that incorporated savoring, gratitude, and engagement in value-based activities, administered by unlicensed residential staff trained by researchers. There was a 1-month control period and a 3-month post-intervention follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: Validated self-report measures of resilience, perceived stress, well-being, and wisdom collected at months 0 (baseline), 1 (pre-intervention), 2 (post-intervention), and 5 (follow-up). RESULTS: Treatment adherence and satisfaction were high. Compared to the control period, perceived stress and wisdom improved from pre-intervention to post-intervention, while resilience improved from pre-intervention to follow-up. Effect sizes were small in this sample, which had relatively high baseline resilience. Physical and mental well-being did not improve significantly, and no significant moderators of change in resilience were identified. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates feasibility of conducting pragmatic intervention trials in senior housing communities. The intervention resulted in significant improvement in several measures despite ceiling effects. The study included several features that suggest high potential for its implementation and dissemination across similar communities nationally. Future studies are warranted, particularly in samples with lower baseline resilience or in assisted living facilities.

10.
Psychiatry Res ; 284: 112732, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978628

RESUMO

Preserving cognition and mental capacity is critical to aging with autonomy. Early detection of pathological cognitive decline facilitates the greatest impact of restorative or preventative treatments. Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare is the use of computational algorithms that mimic human cognitive functions to analyze complex medical data. AI technologies like machine learning (ML) support the integration of biological, psychological, and social factors when approaching diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of disease. This paper serves to acquaint clinicians and other stakeholders with the use, benefits, and limitations of AI for predicting, diagnosing, and classifying mild and major neurocognitive impairments, by providing a conceptual overview of this topic with emphasis on the features explored and AI techniques employed. We present studies that fell into six categories of features used for these purposes: (1) sociodemographics; (2) clinical and psychometric assessments; (3) neuroimaging and neurophysiology; (4) electronic health records and claims; (5) novel assessments (e.g., sensors for digital data); and (6) genomics/other omics. For each category we provide examples of AI approaches, including supervised and unsupervised ML, deep learning, and natural language processing. AI technology, still nascent in healthcare, has great potential to transform the way we diagnose and treat patients with neurocognitive disorders.

11.
Toxicol Pathol ; 48(3): 437-445, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896310

RESUMO

The handling-induced dark neuron is a histological artifact observed in brain samples handled before fixation with aldehydes. To explore associations between dark neurons and immunohistochemical alterations in mouse brains, we examined protein products encoded by Cav3 (neuronal perikarya/neurites), Rbbp4 (neuronal nuclei), Gfap (astroglia), and Aif1 (microglia) genes in adjacent tissue sections. Here, dark neurons were incidental findings from our prior project, studying the effects of age and high-fat diet on metabolic homeostasis in male C57BL/6N mice. Available were brains from 4 study groups: middle-aged/control diet, middle-aged/high-fat diet, old/control diet, and old/high-fat diet. Young/control diet mice were used as baseline. The hemibrains were immersion-fixed with paraformaldehyde and paraffin-embedded. In the hippocampal formation, we found negative correlations between dark neuron hyperbasophilia and immunoreactivity for CAV3, RBBP4, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using quantitative image analysis. There was no significant difference in dark neuron hyperbasophilia or immunoreactivity for any protein examined among all groups. In contrast, in the hippocampal fimbria, old age seemed to be associated with higher immunoreactivity for GFAP and allograft inflammatory factor-1. Our findings suggest that loss of immunohistochemical reactivity for CAV3, RBBP4, and GFAP in the hippocampal formation is an artifact associated with the occurrence of dark neurons. The unawareness of dark neurons may lead to misinterpretation of immunohistochemical reactivity alterations.

12.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-8, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918561

RESUMO

Objective: Older adults are at a high risk for loneliness, which impacts their health, well-being, and longevity. While related to social isolation, loneliness is a distinct, internally experienced, distressing feeling. The present qualitative study sought to identify characteristics of loneliness in older adults living independently within a senior housing community, which is typically designed to reduce social isolation.Method: Semi-structured qualitative interviews regarding the experience of loneliness, risk factors, and ways to combat it were conducted with 30 older adults, ages 65-92 years. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded using a grounded theory analytic approach based on coding, consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison.Results: Three main themes with multiple subthemes are described: (A) Risk and Protective factors for loneliness: age-associated losses, lack of social skills or abilities, and protective personality traits; (B) Experience of loneliness: Sadness and lack of meaning as well as Lack of motivation; and (C) Coping strategies to prevent or overcome loneliness: acceptance of aging, compassion, seeking companionship, and environment enables socialization.Discussion: Despite living within a communal setting designed to reduce social isolation, many older adults described feeling lonely in stark negative terms, attributing it to aging-associated losses or lack of social skills and abilities. However, interviewees also reported positive personal qualities and actions to prevent or cope with loneliness, several of which mirrored specific components of wisdom. The results support the reported inverse relationship between loneliness and wisdom and suggest a potential role for wisdom-enhancing interventions to reduce and prevent loneliness in older populations.

13.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 31(3): 290-300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789684

RESUMO

Little is known about the effects of aging-related conditions on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among people living with HIV (PLWH). The purpose of our study was to examine the independent effects of neurocognitive impairment (NCI) and frailty and the interactive effects with HIV serostatus on HRQOL. Our sample consisted of 121 adults (63 PLWH and 58 HIV-uninfected) participating in the Multi-Dimensional Successful Aging among HIV-Infected Adults study at the University of California, San Diego. HRQOL was measured with the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scale. We found that frailty was significantly associated with HRQOL (p < .001) in the overall sample, and this effect was significantly stronger for PLWH than HIV-uninfected adults. NCI was not significantly associated with HRQOL in our sample. Frailty may be a particularly important factor in HRQOL for PLWH, highlighting the need for prevention and intervention strategies to mitigate the risks for frailty.

14.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 21(2): 89-98, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cilento region of southern Italy has a high prevalence of nonagenarians and centenarians. Few studies of the oldest old have included echocardiographic and/or electrocardiographic data, in a home-based setting. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this pilot study was to delineate the key lifestyle, medical, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic features of a sample of nonagenarians and centenarians and their younger cohabitants from Cilento, via a comprehensive, home-based cardiovascular assessment. The ultimate aim is to identify the cardiovascular profile and lifestyle factors associated with longevity. METHODS: Twenty-six nonagenarians and centenarians (mean age 94 ±â€Š3 years) and 48 younger cohabitants aged 50-75 years (mean 62 ±â€Š5) underwent a comprehensive cardiovascular evaluation in their homes. RESULTS: In contrast to their younger cohabitants, nonagenarians and centenarians did not smoke, had lower fasting glucose levels, and lower LDL cholesterol despite being half as likely to be taking statins, and showing similar adherence to a Mediterranean diet. Over half of nonagenarians and centenarians (15/26) remained autonomous with their activities of daily living. Prevalence of self-reported coronary artery disease and stroke among nonagenarians and centenarians was low (11.5%), though a significant number had atrial fibrillation (31%) or congestive heart failure (27%). Although 62% of nonagenarians and centenarians had at least moderate valvular disease on echocardiography, less than 25% of those affected reported dyspnea. CONCLUSION: Nonagenarians and centenarians in the Cilento region had a healthy metabolic profile and a low prevalence of clinical cardiovascular disease. Even among nonagenarians and centenarians with structural heart abnormalities, report of symptoms is low. Larger studies in the Cilento population may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular health in the oldest old.

15.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(3): 1143-1156, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative disorders and are associated with more rapid disease progression and increased mortality. It is unclear to what degree existing criteria are utilized in clinical research and practice. OBJECTIVE: To establish research criteria for the diagnosis of psychosis in AD. METHODS: The International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART) Neuropsychiatric Symptoms (NPS) Professional Interest Area (PIA) psychosis subgroup reviewed existing criteria for psychosis in AD and related dementias. Through a series of in person and on-line meetings, a priority checklist was devised to capture features necessary for current research and clinical needs. PubMed, Medline and other relevant databases were searched for relevant criteria. RESULTS: Consensus identified three sets of criteria suitable for review including those of Jeste and Finkel, Lyketsos, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 5th edition. It was concluded that existing criteria could be augmented by including a more specific differentiation between delusions and hallucinations, address overlap with related conditions (agitation in particular), adding the possibility of symptoms emerging in the preclinical and prodromal phases, and building on developing research in disease biomarkers. CONCLUSION: We propose criteria, developed to improve phenotypic classification of psychosis in AD, and advance the research agenda in the field to improve epidemiological, biomarker, and genetics research in the field. These criteria serve as a complement to the International Psychogeriatric Association criteria for psychosis in neurocognitive disorders.

16.
J Neurovirol ; 26(2): 168-180, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858484

RESUMO

Both HIV disease and frailty syndrome are risk factors for neurocognitive impairment. Longitudinal research among individuals of the general population suggests that frailty predicts future cognitive decline; however, there is limited evidence for these longitudinal relationships among people living with HIV (PLWH). The current study evaluated and compared rates of cognitive decline over 2 years among HIV serostatus and frailty status groups. Participants included 50 PLWH and 60 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) participants who were evaluated at baseline and 2-year follow-up visits. Baseline frailty status (non-frail, pre-frail, and frail) was determined using fried frailty phenotype criteria. Neurocognitive functioning was measured using practice-effect corrected scaled scores derived from a comprehensive neuropsychological battery covering seven cognitive domains. Repeated measures analysis was used to estimate rates of global and domain-specific cognitive change from baseline to 2-year follow-up among each of six HIV/frailty status groups. Among PLWH, the pre-frail group demonstrated consistent declines in global cognitive functioning (B = - 0.029, p = 0.034), processing speed (B = - 0.047, p = 0.031), and motor functioning (B = - 0.048, p = 0.038). Among HIV- participants, pre-frail individuals also declined in global cognitive functioning and processing speed (ps ≤ 0.05). HIV- non-frail participants also declined in the cognitive domains of learning, delayed recall, and motor functioning; however, these declines appeared to be driven by relatively higher baseline scores among this group. Notably, 38% of PLWH changed in frailty status from baseline to follow-up, and those with stable pre-frailty demonstrated higher likelihood for cognitive decline; change in depressive symptoms did not relate to change in frailty status. Current findings highlight pre-frailty as an important clinical syndrome that may be predictive of cognitive decline among PLWH. Interventions to prevent or reduce frailty among vulnerable PLWH are needed to maintain optimal cognitive health.

18.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(1)2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of presence and search for meaning in life with age, physical and mental well-being, and cognitive functioning across the adult lifespan. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 1,042 adults in the Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE)-a multicohort study of adult community-dwelling residents of San Diego County, California-were analyzed. Presence of meaning ("Presence") and search for meaning in life ("Search") were assessed with the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. Physical and mental well-being were measured using the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-modified was employed to screen for overall cognitive function. Study data were collected from January 2013 to June 2014. RESULTS: Presence of meaning exhibited an inverted U-shaped relationship whereas Search showed a U-shaped relationship with age (with Presence peaking and Search reaching the lowest point around age 60). Statistical modeling using generalized estimating equations revealed that physical well-being (SF-36 physical composite score) correlated negatively with age (P < .001) and positively with Presence (P < .001), and there was an age group x Presence interaction (P = .018), such that the relationship was stronger in subjects over age 60. Mental well-being correlated positively with age (P < .001) and Presence (P < .001) and negatively with Search (P = .002). Cognitive function correlated inversely with age (P < .001) and with Search (P < .001). Significant covariates of Presence and Search had small effect sizes, except for a medium effect size for satisfaction with life and Presence in adults over age 60 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Presence and search for meaning in life are important for health and well-being, though the relationships differ in adults younger and older than 60 years. Better understanding of the longitudinal relationships of meaning of life with well-being is warranted to design interventions to increase meaning of life and improve health and functioning.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696212

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive performance among older persons, including those living with HIV (people living with HIV [PLWH]), exhibits significant heterogeneity, suggesting subpopulations with differing profiles of neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Metabolic factors are associated with NCI, but their relationships to cluster-derived NCI profiles are unknown. METHOD: Participants (144 PLWH and 102 HIV uninfected) aged 50+ years completed a neuropsychological battery assessing seven cognitive domains. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified NCI profiles separately by HIV serostatus and in a combined sample. Obtained classes were examined against the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and diagnoses of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Multinomial regression identified metabolic predictors of classification. RESULTS: LCA identified three latent classes in each participant sample: Class1Multidomain NCI (high probability of impairment across multiple domains), Class 2Learning & Recall NCI (high probability of impairment in learning and recall), and Class 3NC Unimpaired (low probability of NCI across all domains). Severity of NCI implied by classes corresponded with MoCA scores and HAND diagnoses. In analyses on the combined sample, compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, PLWH were more likely to be in Class1Multidomain NCI. Among PLWH, those with dyslipidemia and hypertension had greater odds of classification in Class 1Multidomain NCI while those with central obesity had higher odds of classification in Class 2Learning & Recall NCI; metabolic syndrome approached significance as a differential predictor. Regardless of HIV status, individuals with diabetes were more likely to be in Class 1Multidomain NCI. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic risk factors confer heightened risk of NCI in HIV infection. Interventions to reduce metabolic risk may improve neurocognitive outcomes among PLWH.

20.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 21(11): 116, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701320

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Artificial intelligence (AI) technology holds both great promise to transform mental healthcare and potential pitfalls. This article provides an overview of AI and current applications in healthcare, a review of recent original research on AI specific to mental health, and a discussion of how AI can supplement clinical practice while considering its current limitations, areas needing additional research, and ethical implications regarding AI technology. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 28 studies of AI and mental health that used electronic health records (EHRs), mood rating scales, brain imaging data, novel monitoring systems (e.g., smartphone, video), and social media platforms to predict, classify, or subgroup mental health illnesses including depression, schizophrenia or other psychiatric illnesses, and suicide ideation and attempts. Collectively, these studies revealed high accuracies and provided excellent examples of AI's potential in mental healthcare, but most should be considered early proof-of-concept works demonstrating the potential of using machine learning (ML) algorithms to address mental health questions, and which types of algorithms yield the best performance. As AI techniques continue to be refined and improved, it will be possible to help mental health practitioners re-define mental illnesses more objectively than currently done in the DSM-5, identify these illnesses at an earlier or prodromal stage when interventions may be more effective, and personalize treatments based on an individual's unique characteristics. However, caution is necessary in order to avoid over-interpreting preliminary results, and more work is required to bridge the gap between AI in mental health research and clinical care.

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