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1.
Genes Immun ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203088

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid synthesis is a complex, multistep process that starts with cholesterol being delivered to the inner membrane of mitochondria by StAR and StAR-related proteins. Here its side chain is cleaved by CYP11A1 producing pregnenolone. Pregnenolone is converted to cortisol by the enzymes 3-ßHSD, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, and CYP11B1. Glucocorticoids play a critical role in the regulation of the immune system and exert their action through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Although corticosteroids are primarily produced in the adrenal gland, they can also be produced in a number of extra-adrenal tissue including the immune system, skin, brain, and intestine. Glucocorticoid production is regulated by ACTH, CRH, and cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNFα. The bioavailability of cortisol is also dependent on its interconversion to cortisone, which is inactive, by 11ßHSD1/2. Local and systemic glucocorticoid biosynthesis can be stimulated by ultraviolet B, explaining its immunosuppressive activity. In this review, we want to emphasize that dysregulation of extra-adrenal glucocorticoid production can play a key role in a variety of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus erythematosus (LE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and skin inflammatory disorders such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis (AD). Further research on local glucocorticoid production and its bioavailability may open doors into new therapies for autoimmune diseases.

2.
J Vis Exp ; (155)2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009654

RESUMO

In vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has transformed the ability to study human development on both biological and molecular levels and provided cells for use in regenerative applications. Standard approaches for hESC culture using colony type culture to maintain undifferentiated hESCs and embryoid body (EB) and rosette formation for differentiation into different germ layers are inefficient and time-consuming. Presented here is a single-cell culture method using hESCs instead of a colony-type culture. This method allows maintenance of the characteristic features of undifferentiated hESCs, including expression of hESC markers at levels comparable to colony type hESCs. In addition, the protocol presents an efficient method for neural progenitor cell (NPC) generation from single-cell type hESCs that produces NPCs within 1 week. These cells highly express several NPC marker genes and can differentiate into various neural cell types, including dopaminergic neurons and astrocytes. This single-cell culture system for hESCs will be useful in investigating the molecular mechanisms of these processes, studies of certain diseases, and drug discovery screens.

3.
Am J Pathol ; 190(1): 176-189, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676329

RESUMO

Nephronophthisis (NPHP), the leading genetic cause of end-stage renal failure in children and young adults, is a group of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by kidney-cyst degeneration and fibrosis for which no therapy is currently available. To date, mutations in >25 genes have been identified as causes of this disease that, in several cases, result in chronic DNA damage in kidney tubular cells. Among such mutations, those in the transcription factor-encoding GLIS2 cause NPHP type 7. Loss of function of mouse Glis2 causes senescence of kidney tubular cells. Senescent cells secrete proinflammatory molecules that induce progressive organ damage through several pathways, among which NF-κB signaling is prevalent. Herein, we show that the NF-κB signaling is active in Glis2 knockout kidney epithelial cells and that genetic inactivation of the toll-like receptor (TLR)/IL-1 receptor or pharmacologic elimination of senescent cells (senolytic therapy) reduces tubule damage, fibrosis, and apoptosis in the Glis2 mouse model of NPHP. Notably, in Glis2, Tlr2 double knockouts, senescence was also reduced and proliferation was increased, suggesting that loss of TLR2 activity improves the regenerative potential of tubular cells in Glis2 knockout kidneys. Our results further suggest that a combination of TLR/IL-1 receptor inhibition and senolytic therapy may delay the progression of kidney disease in NPHP type 7 and other forms of this disease.

4.
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol ; 60: 371-390, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386594

RESUMO

Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates multiple proinflammatory genes and plays a critical role in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Various endogenous and synthetic RORγ (inverse) agonists have been identified that regulate RORγ transcriptional activity, including many cholesterol intermediates and oxysterols. Changes in cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism can therefore have a significant impact on the generation of oxysterol RORγ ligands and, consequently, can control RORγt activity and inflammation. These observations contribute to a growing literature that connects cholesterol metabolism to the regulation of immune responses and autoimmune disease. Loss of RORγ function in knockout mice and in mice treated with RORγ inverse agonists results in reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-17A/F, and increased resistance to autoimmune disease in several experimental rodent models. Thus, RORγt inverse agonists might provide an attractive therapeutic approach to treat a variety of autoimmune diseases.

5.
Trends Cancer ; 5(9): 547-557, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474360

RESUMO

GLI-similar 1-3 (GLIS1-3), a subfamily of Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factors, function as key regulators of several biological processes important to oncogenesis, including control of cell proliferation, differentiation, self-renewal, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. This review provides a short overview of the critical roles genetic changes in GLIS1-3 play in the development of several malignancies. This includes intrachromosomal translocations involving GLIS2 and ETO2/CBFA2T3 in the development of pediatric non-Down's syndrome (DS), acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL), a malignancy with poor prognosis, and an association of interchromosomal translocations between GLIS3, GLIS1, and PAX8, and between GLIS3 and CLPTM1L with hyalinizing trabecular tumors (HTTs) and fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FHCC), respectively. Targeting upstream signaling pathways that regulate GLIS signaling may offer new therapeutic strategies in the management of cancer.

6.
Exp Dermatol ; 28(9): 1036-1043, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287590

RESUMO

We analysed the correlation between the expression of HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha), the nuclear receptors: VDR (vitamin D receptor), RORα (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha), and RORγ and CYP24A1 (cytochrome P450 family 24 subfamily A member 1) and CYP27B1 (cytochrome P450 family 27 subfamily B member 1), enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism. In primary and metastatic melanomas, VDR negatively correlated with nuclear HIF-1α expression (r = -.2273, P = .0302; r = -.5081, P = .0011). Furthermore, the highest HIF-1α expression was observed in pT3-pT4 VDR-negative melanomas. A comparative analysis of immunostained HIF-1α and CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 showed lack of correlation between these parameters both in primary tumors and melanoma metastases. In contrast, RORα expression correlated positively with nuclear HIF-1α expression in primary and metastatic lesions (r = .2438, P = .0175; r = .3662, P = .0166). Comparable levels of HIF-1α expression pattern was observed in localized and advanced melanomas. RORγ in primary melanomas correlated also positively with nuclear HIF-1α expression (r = .2743, P = .0129). HIF-1α expression was the lowest in localized RORγ-negative melanomas. In addition, HIF-1α expression correlated with RORγ-positive lymphocytes in melanoma metastases. We further found that in metastatic lymph nodes FoxP3 immunostaining correlated positively with HIF-1α and RORγ expression in melanoma cells (r = .3667; P = .0327; r = .4208, P = .0129). In summary, our study indicates that the expression of VDR, RORα and RORγ in melanomas is related to hypoxia and/or HIF1-α activity, which also affects FoxP3 expression in metastatic melanoma. Therefore, the hypoxia can affect tumor biology by changing nuclear receptors expression and molecular pathways regulated by nuclear receptors and immune responses.

7.
J Lipid Res ; 60(9): 1535-1546, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273032

RESUMO

Oxysterols previously were considered intermediates of bile acid and steroid hormone biosynthetic pathways. However, recent research has emphasized the roles of oxysterols in essential physiologic processes and in various diseases. Despite these discoveries, the metabolic pathways leading to the different oxysterols are still largely unknown and the biosynthetic origin of several oxysterols remains unidentified. Earlier studies demonstrated that the glucocorticoid metabolizing enzymes, 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11ß-HSD) types 1 and 2, interconvert 7-ketocholesterol (7kC) and 7ß-hydroxycholesterol (7ßOHC). We examined the role of 11ß-HSDs in the enzymatic control of the intracellular availability of 7ß,27-dihydroxycholesterol (7ß27OHC), a retinoid-related orphan receptor γ (RORγ) ligand. We used microsomal preparations of cells expressing recombinant 11ß-HSD1 and 11ß-HSD2 to assess whether 7ß27OHC and 7-keto,27-hydroxycholesterol (7k27OHC) are substrates of these enzymes. Binding of 7ß27OHC and 7k27OHC to 11ß-HSDs was studied by molecular modeling. To our knowledge, the stereospecific oxoreduction of 7k27OHC to 7ß27OHC by human 11ß-HSD1 and the reverse oxidation reaction of 7ß27OHC to 7k27OHC by human 11ß-HSD2 were demonstrated for the first time. Apparent enzyme affinities of 11ß-HSDs for these novel substrates were equal to or higher than those of the glucocorticoids. This is supported by the fact that 7k27OHC and 7ß27OHC are potent inhibitors of the 11ß-HSD1-dependent oxoreduction of cortisone and the 11ß-HSD2-dependent oxidation of cortisol, respectively. Furthermore, molecular docking calculations explained stereospecific enzyme activities. Finally, using an inducible RORγ reporter system, we showed that 11ß-HSD1 and 11ß-HSD2 controlled RORγ activity. These findings revealed a novel glucocorticoid-independent prereceptor regulation mechanism by 11ß-HSDs that warrants further investigation.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9142, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235702

RESUMO

In recent years, a significant number of studies have investigated the preventive role of vitamin D in a number of different neoplasms. In this study, we analyze various components of the vitamin D signaling pathways in the human uveal tract and uveal melanoma, including analysis of the expression of vitamin D receptors (VDR), the activating and inactivating hydroxylases, respectively, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and the retinoic acid-related orphan receptors (ROR) α (RORα) and γ (RORγ) in these tissues. We further analyzed the expression of VDR, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, and ROR in relation to melanin levels, clinical stage and prognosis. Our study indicated that the uveal melanoma melanin level inversely correlated with VDR expression. We further showed that vitamin D is metabolized in uveal melanoma. This is significant because until now there has been no paper published, that would describe presence of VDR, hydroxylases CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, and RORα and RORγ in the human uveal tract and uveal melanomas. The outcomes of our research can contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods in uveal tract disorders, especially in uveal melanoma. The presented associations between vitamin D signaling elements and uveal melanoma in comparison to uveal tract encourage future clinical research with larger patients' population.

9.
JCI Insight ; 52019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184998

RESUMO

Airway neutrophilia occurs in approximately 50% of patients with asthma and is associated with particularly severe disease. Unfortunately, this form of asthma is usually refractory to corticosteroid treatment, and there is an unmet need for new therapies. Pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation is associated with Th17 cells, whose differentiation is controlled by the nuclear receptor, RORγt. Here, we tested whether VTP-938, a selective inverse agonist of this receptor, can reduce disease parameters in animal models of neutrophilic asthma. When administered prior to allergic sensitization through the airway, the RORγt inverse agonist blunted allergen-specific Th17 cell development in lung-draining lymph nodes and attenuated allergen-induced production of IL-17. VTP-938 also reduced pulmonary production of IL-17 and airway neutrophilia when given during the allergen challenge of the model. Finally, in an environmentally relevant model of allergic responses to house dust extracts, VTP-938 suppressed production of IL-17 and neutrophilic inflammation, and also markedly diminished airway hyperresponsiveness. Together, these findings suggest that orally available inverse agonists of RORγt might provide an effective therapy to treat glucocorticoid-resistant neutrophilic asthma.

10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1966: 193-202, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041748

RESUMO

Here, we describe several assays to analyze the transcriptional activity of retinoic acid-related orphan receptors (RORs) and the effect of inverse agonists on their activity. One assay measures the effect of an inverse agonist on the transcriptional activation of a luciferase reporter by RORs in a Tet-On cell system. A mammalian two-hybrid assay analyzes the interaction of the ROR ligand binding domain with a coactivator peptide. Two additional assays examine the effect of an inverse agonist on the activation of a luciferase reporter under control of the promoter of the ROR target gene, IL17, and on ROR-mediated activation using a mammalian monohybrid assay.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Genes Reporter , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus/metabolismo , Receptores do Ácido Retinoico/agonistas , Tretinoína/metabolismo
11.
Stem Cells ; 37(2): 202-215, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30376208

RESUMO

Anterior-posterior (A-P) specification of the neural tube involves initial acquisition of anterior fate followed by the induction of posterior characteristics in the primitive anterior neuroectoderm. Several morphogens have been implicated in the regulation of A-P neural patterning; however, our understanding of the upstream regulators of these morphogens remains incomplete. Here, we show that the Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor GLI-Similar 3 (GLIS3) can direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into posterior neural progenitor cells in lieu of the default anterior pathway. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that this switch in cell fate is due to rapid activation of Wingless/Integrated (WNT) signaling pathway. Mechanistically, through genome-wide RNA-Seq, ChIP-Seq, and functional analyses, we show that GLIS3 binds to and directly regulates the transcription of several WNT genes, including the strong posteriorizing factor WNT3A, and that inhibition of WNT signaling is sufficient to abrogate GLIS3-induced posterior specification. Our findings suggest a potential role for GLIS3 in the regulation of A-P specification through direct transcriptional activation of WNT genes. Stem Cells 2018 Stem Cells 2019;37:202-215.

12.
EMBO J ; 38(2)2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523147

RESUMO

Proper temporal and spatial activation of stem cells relies on highly coordinated cell signaling. The primary cilium is the sensory organelle that is responsible for transmitting extracellular signals into a cell. Primary cilium size, architecture, and assembly-disassembly dynamics are under rigid cell cycle-dependent control. Using mouse incisor tooth epithelia as a model, we show that ciliary dynamics in stem cells require the proper functions of a cholesterol-binding membrane glycoprotein, Prominin-1 (Prom1/CD133), which controls sequential recruitment of ciliary membrane components, histone deacetylase, and transcription factors. Nuclear translocation of Prom1 and these molecules is particularly evident in transit amplifying cells, the immediate derivatives of stem cells. The absence of Prom1 impairs ciliary dynamics and abolishes the growth stimulation effects of sonic hedgehog (SHH) treatment, resulting in the disruption of stem cell quiescence maintenance and activation. We propose that Prom1 is a key regulator ensuring appropriate response of stem cells to extracellular signals, with important implications for development, regeneration, and diseases.


Assuntos
Antígeno AC133/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Incisivo/citologia , Antígeno AC133/genética , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Incisivo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Transporte Proteico , Transdução de Sinais , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
13.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 316(1): H186-H200, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387679

RESUMO

The nuclear receptor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-α (RORα) regulates numerous critical biological processes, including central nervous system development, lymphocyte differentiation, and lipid metabolism. RORα has been recently identified in the heart, but very little is known about its role in cardiac physiology. We sought to determine whether RORα regulates myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte survival in the context of angiotensin II (ANG II) stimulation. For in vivo characterization of the function of RORα in the context of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, we used the "staggerer" (RORαsg/sg) mouse, which harbors a germline mutation encoding a truncated and globally nonfunctional RORα. RORαsg/sg and wild-type littermate mice were infused with ANG II or vehicle for 14 days. For in vitro experiments, we overexpressed or silenced RORα in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) and human cardiac fibroblasts exposed to ANG II. RORαsg/sg mice developed exaggerated myocardial hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction after ANG II treatment. In vitro gain- and loss-of-function experiments were consistent with the discovery that RORα inhibits ANG II-induced pathological hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte death in vivo. RORα directly repressed IL-6 transcription. Loss of RORα function led to enhanced IL-6 expression, proinflammatory STAT3 activation (phopho-STAT3 Tyr705), and decreased mitochondrial number and function, oxidative stress, hypertrophy, and death of cardiomyocytes upon ANG II exposure. RORα was less abundant in failing compared with nonfailing human heart tissue. In conclusion, RORα protects against ANG II-mediated pathological hypertrophy and heart failure by suppressing the IL-6-STAT3 pathway and enhancing mitochondrial function. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Mice lacking retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-α (RORα) develop exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy after angiotensin II infusion. Loss of RORα leads to enhanced IL-6 expression and NF-κB nuclear translocation. RORα maintains mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress after angiotensin II. The abundance of RORα is reduced in failing mouse and human hearts.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Mutação com Perda de Função , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/toxicidade , Animais , Cardiomegalia/etiologia , Cardiomegalia/genética , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Contração Miocárdica , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/fisiologia , Membro 1 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(10)2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297679

RESUMO

A novel pathway of vitamin D activation by CYP11A has previously been elucidated. To define the mechanism of action of its major dihydroxy-products, we tested the divergence and overlap between the gene expression profiles of human epidermal keratinocytes treated with either CYP11A1-derived 20,23(OH)2D3 or classical 1,25(OH)2D3. Both secosteroids have significant chemical similarity with the only differences being the positions of the hydroxyl groups. mRNA was isolated and examined by microarray analysis using Illumina's HumanWG-6 chip/arrays and subsequent bioinformatics analyses. Marked differences in the up- and downregulated genes were observed between 1,25(OH)2D3- and 20,23(OH)2D3-treated cells. Hierarchical clustering identified both distinct, opposite and common (overlapping) gene expression patterns. CYP24A1 was a common gene strongly activated by both compounds, a finding confirmed by qPCR. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified VDR/RXR signaling as the top canonical pathway induced by 1,25(OH)2D3. In contrast, the top canonical pathway induced by 20,23(OH)2D3 was AhR, with VDR/RXR being the second nuclear receptor signaling pathway identified. QPCR analyses validated the former finding by revealing that 20,23(OH)2D3 stimulated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 gene expression, effects located downstream of AhR. Similar stimulation was observed with 20(OH)D3, the precursor to 20,23(OH)2D3, as well as with its downstream metabolite, 17,20,23(OH)3D3. Using a Human AhR Reporter Assay System we showed marked activation of AhR activity by 20,23(OH)2D3, with weaker stimulation by 20(OH)D3. Finally, molecular modeling using an AhR LBD model predicted vitamin D3 hydroxyderivatives to be good ligands for this receptor. Thus, our microarray, qPCR, functional studies and molecular modeling indicate that AhR is the major receptor target for 20,23(OH)2D3, opening an exciting area of investigation on the interaction of different vitamin D3-hydroxyderivatives with AhR and the subsequent downstream activation of signal transduction pathways in a cell-type-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Calcitriol/farmacologia , Di-Hidroxicolecalciferóis/farmacologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/química
15.
Heliyon ; 4(7): e00709, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094379

RESUMO

Gli-similar 3 (Glis3) is Krüppel-like transcription factor associated with the transcriptional regulation of insulin. Mutations within the Glis3 locus have been implicated in a number of pathologies including diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. Despite its clinical significance, little is known about the proteins and posttranslational modifications that regulate Glis3 transcriptional activity. In this report, we demonstrate that the SUMO-pathway associated proteins, PIASy and Ubc9 are capable of regulating Glis3 transactivation function through a SUMO-dependent mechanism. We present evidence that SUMOylation of Glis3 by PIAS-family proteins occurs at two conserved lysine residues within the Glis3 N-terminus and modification of Glis3 by SUMO dramatically inhibited insulin transcription. Finally, we provide evidence that Glis3 SUMOylation increases under conditions of chronically elevated glucose and correlates with decreased insulin transcription. Collectively, these results indicate that SUMOylation may serve as a mechanism to regulate Glis3 activity in ß cells.

16.
J Vis Exp ; (136)2018 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29912187

RESUMO

Laser capture microdissection (LCM) has allowed gene expression analysis of single cells and enriched cell populations in tissue sections. LCM is a great tool for the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell differentiation and the development and progression of various diseases, including glaucoma. Glaucoma, which comprises a family of progressive optic neuropathies, is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Structural changes and damage within the trabecular meshwork (TM) can result in increased intraocular pressure (IOP), which is a major risk factor for developing glaucoma. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. The ability to perform gene expression analysis will be crucial in obtaining further insights into the function of these cells and its role in the regulation of IOP and glaucoma development. To achieve this, a reproducible method for isolating highly enriched TM from frozen sections of mouse eyes and a method for downstream gene expression analysis, such as RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq is needed. The method described herein is developed to isolate highly pure TM from mouse eyes for downstream digital PCR and microarray analysis. In addition, this technique can be easily adapted for the isolation of other highly enriched ocular cells and cell compartments that have been difficult to isolate from mouse eyes. The combination of LCM and RNA analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the cellular events underlying glaucoma.


Assuntos
Olho/fisiopatologia , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser/métodos , Malha Trabecular/cirurgia , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9662, 2018 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29941866

RESUMO

Fetal germ cell development is regulated by an elaborate combination of cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic signals. Here we identify a novel role for the Krüppel-like transcription factor Gli-Similar 3 (Glis3) in male germ cell development in the mouse embryos. Glis3 is expressed in male germ cells during the brief window of time prior to initiation of piRNA-dependent retrotransposon surveillance. Disruption of Glis3 function led to a widespread reduction in retrotransposon silencing factors, aberrant retrotransposon expression and pronounced germ cell loss. Experimental induction of precocious Glis3 expression in vivo before its normal expression resulted in premature expression of several piRNA pathway members, suggesting that GLIS3 is necessary for the activation of the retrotransposon silencing programs. Our findings reveal an unexpected role for GLIS3 in the development of male germ cells and point to a central role for GLIS3 in the control of retrotransposon silencing in the fetal germline.


Assuntos
Feto/citologia , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas Repressoras/deficiência , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/citologia , Transativadores/deficiência , Transativadores/genética , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo
18.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 75(19): 3473-3494, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29779043

RESUMO

Krüppel-like zinc finger proteins form one of the largest families of transcription factors. They function as key regulators of embryonic development and a wide range of other physiological processes, and are implicated in a variety of pathologies. GLI-similar 1-3 (GLIS1-3) constitute a subfamily of Krüppel-like zinc finger proteins that act either as activators or repressors of gene transcription. GLIS3 plays a critical role in the regulation of multiple biological processes and is a key regulator of pancreatic ß cell generation and maturation, insulin gene expression, thyroid hormone biosynthesis, spermatogenesis, and the maintenance of normal kidney functions. Loss of GLIS3 function in humans and mice leads to the development of several pathologies, including neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism, polycystic kidney disease, and infertility. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in GLIS3 genes have been associated with increased risk of several diseases, including type 1 and type 2 diabetes, glaucoma, and neurological disorders. GLIS2 plays a critical role in the kidney and GLIS2 dysfunction leads to nephronophthisis, an end-stage, cystic renal disease. In addition, GLIS1-3 have regulatory functions in several stem/progenitor cell populations. GLIS1 and GLIS3 greatly enhance reprogramming efficiency of somatic cells into induced embryonic stem cells, while GLIS2 inhibits reprogramming. Recent studies have obtained substantial mechanistic insights into several physiological processes regulated by GLIS2 and GLIS3, while a little is still known about the physiological functions of GLIS1. The localization of some GLIS proteins to the primary cilium suggests that their activity may be regulated by a downstream primary cilium-associated signaling pathway. Insights into the upstream GLIS signaling pathway may provide opportunities for the development of new therapeutic strategies for diabetes, hypothyroidism, and other diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/fisiologia , Doença/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
19.
Curr Opin Toxicol ; 8: 66-80, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568812

RESUMO

Cholesterol and its metabolites are bioactive lipids that interact with and regulate the activity of various proteins and signaling pathways that are implicated in the control of a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Recent studies revealed that retinoic acid-related orphan receptors, RORα and γ, members of the ligand-dependent nuclear receptor superfamily, exhibit quite a wide binding specificity for a number of sterols. Several cholesterol intermediates and metabolites function as natural ligands of RORα and RORγ and act as agonists or inverse agonists. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis that alter the level or type of sterol metabolites in cells, can either enhance or inhibit ROR transcriptional activity that subsequently result in changes in the physiological processes regulated by RORs, including various immune responses and metabolic pathways. Consequently, this might negatively or positively impact pathologies, in which RORs are implicated, such as autoimmune disease, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, cancer, and several neurological disorders. Best studied are the links between cholesterol metabolism, RORγt activity, and their regulation of Th17 differentiation and autoimmune disease. The discovery that Th17-dependent inflammation is significantly attenuated in RORγ-deficient mice in several experimental autoimmune disease models, initiated a search for ROR modulators that led to the identification of a number of small molecular weight RORγ inverse agonists. The inverse agonists suppress Th17 differentiation and IL-17 production and protect against autoimmunity. Together, these studies suggest that RORγt may provide an attractive therapeutic target in the management of several (inflammatory) diseases.

20.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 177: 159-170, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676457

RESUMO

Melanoma represents a significant clinical problem affecting a large segment of the population with a relatively high incidence and mortality rate. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is an important etiological factor in malignant transformation of melanocytes and melanoma development. UVB, while being a full carcinogen in melanomagenesis, is also necessary for the cutaneous production of vitamin D3 (D3). Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) and novel CYP11A1-derived hydroxyderivatives of D3 show anti-melanoma activities and protective properties against damage induced by UVB. The former activities include inhibitory effects on proliferation, plating efficiency and anchorage-independent growth of cultured human and rodent melanomas in vitro, as well as the in vivo inhibition of tumor growth by 20(OH)D3 after injection of human melanoma cells into immunodeficient mice. The literature indicates that low levels of 25(OH)D3 are associated with more advanced melanomas and reduced patient survivals, while single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor or the D3 binding protein gene affect development or progression of melanoma, or disease outcome. An inverse correlation of VDR and CYP27B1 expression with melanoma progression has been found, with low or undetectable levels of these proteins being associated with poor disease outcomes. Unexpectedly, increased expression of CYP24A1 was associated with better melanoma prognosis. In addition, decreased expression of retinoic acid orphan receptors α and γ, which can also bind vitamin D3 hydroxyderivatives, showed positive association with melanoma progression and shorter disease-free and overall survival. Thus, inadequate levels of biologically active forms of D3 and disturbances in expression of the target receptors, or D3 activating or inactivating enzymes, can affect melanomagenesis and disease progression. We therefore propose that inclusion of vitamin D into melanoma management should be beneficial for patients, at least as an adjuvant approach. The presence of multiple hydroxyderivatives of D3 in skin that show anti-melanoma activity in experimental models and which may act on alternative receptors, will be a future consideration when planning which forms of vitamin D to use for melanoma therapy.


Assuntos
Melanoma/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Melanoma/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
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