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1.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-15, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365901

RESUMO

Cellphones have impacted on people's intimate sexual relationships. Using the framework of relationship formation, maintenance and ending, we explore how cellphones and attendant social media have impacted on relationships among a group of young women living in urban informal settlements in Durban, South Africa. We conducted in-depth repeat interviews with 15 women enrolled in the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures trial, as well as group discussions and light-touch participant observation. Our data show that cellphones and social media are central to women's sexual relationships and allow women greater control over relationships - particularly their formation. However, cellphones and social media also enable greater control and monitoring by partners. In this study, cellphones were central in establishing (or not) trust in relationships, as well as being gifts, sometimes given by men to demonstrate love, but often becoming a snare for women who then struggled to end relationships because the phones 'remained' the property of the man. We conclude that while cellphones have created new spaces and opportunities for women's agency, overall the wider social and material forces of women's existence were deeply constraining and were the main driver of patterns in women's relationships.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360216

RESUMO

Children who experience violence from a parent are more likely to experience and perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) later in life. Drawing on cross-sectional data among married women enrolled in the baseline of a randomized control trial in Afghanistan, we assess risk factors for women's use of violence against their children, focused on women's own adverse childhood experiences and experiences of IPV, poverty, poor mental health and gender attitudes. Analysis uses logistic regression and structural equation modelling (SEM). In total 744 married women reported on their use of violence against a child, with 71.8% (n = 534) reporting this in the past month. In regression models, their own experiences of witnessing their mother being physically abused, poverty during childhood, current food insecurity, their husband using corporal punishment on their child, current IPV experience, and other violence in the home were all associated with increased likelihood of women reporting corporal punishment. In the SEM, three pathways emerged linking women's childhood trauma and poverty to use of corporal punishment. One pathway was mediated by poor mental health, a second was mediated by wider use of violence in the home and a third from food insecurity mediated by having more gender inequitable attitudes. Addressing the culture of violence in the home is critical to reducing violence against children, as well as enabling treatment of parental mental health problems and generally addressing gender equity.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Violência
3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254503, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corporal punishment (CP) is still a common practice in schools globally. Although illegal, studies in South Africa report its continued use, but only a few have explored factors associated with school CP. Moreover, extant studies have not shown the interrelationships between explanatory factors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with learners' experiences, and to examine pathways to the learners' experiences of CP at school. METHOD: 3743 grade 8 learners (2118 girls and 1625 boys) from 24 selected public schools in Tshwane, South Africa, enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial evaluating a multi-component school-based intervention to prevent intimate partner violence, and completed self-administered questionnaires. We carried out descriptive analysis, simple linear and structural equation modelling to examine factors and pathways to the learners' experience of CP at school. RESULTS: About 52% of learners had experienced CP at school in the last 6 months. It was higher among boys compared to girls. Experience of CP at school amongst learners was associated with learner behavior, home environment, and school environment. Learners from households with low-socio economic status (SES) had an increased risk of CP experience at school. Amongst boys, low family SES status was associated with a negative home environment and had a direct negative impact on a learner's mental health, directly associated with misbehavior. CONCLUSION: CP in public schools in South Africa continues despite legislation prohibiting its use. While addressing learner behaviour is critical, evidence-based interventions addressing home and school environment are needed to change the culture among teachers of using corporal punishment to discipline adolescents and inculcate one that promotes positive discipline.

4.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1953243, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, female sex workers (FSWs) are perceived to play a pivotal role in the country's HIV epidemic. Understanding their health status and risk factors for adverse health outcomes is foundational for developing evidence-based health care for this population. OBJECTIVE: Describe the methodology used to successfully implement a community-led study of social and employment circumstances, HIV and associated factors amongst FSWs in South Africa. METHOD: A community-centric, cross-sectional, survey of 3,005 adult FSWs was conducted (January-July 2019) on 12 Sex Work (SW) programme sites across nine provinces of South Africa. Sites had existing SW networks and support programmes providing peer education and HIV services. FSWs were involved in the study design, questionnaire development, and data collection. Questions included: demographic, sexual behaviour, HIV testing and treatment/PrEP history, and violence exposure. HIV rapid testing, viral load, CD4 count, HIV recency, and HIV drug resistance genotypic testing were undertaken. Partner organisations provided follow-up services. RESULTS: HIV Prevalence was 61.96%, the median length of selling sex was 6 years, and inconsistent condom use was reported by 81.6% of participants, 88.4% reported childhood trauma, 46.2% reported physical or sexual abuse by an intimate partner and 57.4% by a client. More than half of participants had depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (52.7% and 54.1%, respectively). CONCLUSION: This is the first national survey of HIV prevalence amongst FSWs in programmes in South Africa. The data highlight the vulnerability of this population to HIV, violence and mental ill health, suggesting the need for urgent law reform. Based on the unique methodology and the successful implementation alongside study partners, the outcomes will inform tailored interventions. Our rapid rate of enrolment, low rate of screening failure and low proportion of missing data showed the feasibility and importance of community-centric research with marginalised, highly vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Profissionais do Sexo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e049282, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To test associations between men's past year alcohol use and patterns of drinking, and their perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) and non-partner sexual violence (NPSV). To test the associations between women's reports of partner alcohol use and their experience of IPV, in three countries in Africa. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from men and women participating in four IPV prevention studies across Africa and Asia. SETTING: Data from five data sets generated by four violence against women and girls prevention studies in three countries in sub-Saharan Africa, South Africa, Ghana and Rwanda. PARTICIPANTS: 8104 men 18+ years old and 5613 women 18+ years old from a mix of volunteer and randomly selected samples. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Studies employed comparable measures of past year alcohol use, harmful alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scale) and items from modified WHO Women's Health and Domestic Violence to measure physical IPV and NPSV perpetration among men and IPV experience among women. FINDINGS: Overall harmful alcohol use among men was associated with a substantially increased odds of perpetrating physical IPV (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.45 (95% CI 2.56 to 4.64)) and NPSV (aOR=2.64 (95% CI 1.85 to 3.76)) compared with non-drinkers. Women who had seen their partner occasionally drunk (aOR=2.68 (95% CI 2.13 to 3.36)) or frequently drunk (aOR=5.94 (95% CI 4.19 to 8.41)) in the past 12 months had an increased odds of experiencing physical IPV. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol use is associated with increased IPV and NPSV perpetration for men and (physical) IPV experience for women. Reported frequency of IPV and NPSV increase with increasing levels and frequency of alcohol use. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol may also lead to reductions in IPV and NPSV perpetration and experience.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adolescente , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Ruanda , Parceiros Sexuais , África do Sul
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170058

RESUMO

Rape stigma, both external and self-stigmatization (self-blame), is associated with adverse health outcomes. Understanding its origins and resilience factors is critical for reducing and preventing it. We describe the prevalence of rape stigma, the characteristics of women experiencing it and the pathways to experiencing greater stigma. The Rape Impact Cohort Evaluation study enrolled 852 women aged 16-40 years who had been raped from post-rape care centres in Durban, South Africa. We present a descriptive analysis of the baseline data, a multinomial logistic regression model of factors associated with different levels of stigma and a structural equation model (SEM). Most women reported stigmatizing thoughts or experiences, with self-stigmatizing thoughts being more prevalent than external stigmatization. The multinomial model showed that experiences of childhood or other trauma, emotional intimate partner violence (IPV), having less gender equitable attitudes and food insecurity were significantly associated with medium or high versus low levels of stigma. Internal and external stigma were significantly associated with each other. Women who had been previously raped reported less stigma. The SEM showed a direct path between food insecurity and rape stigma, with poorer women experiencing more stigma. Indirect paths were mediated by more traditional gender attitudes and childhood trauma experience and other trauma exposure. Our findings confirm the intersectionality of rape stigma, with its structural drivers of food insecurity and gender inequality, as well as its strong association with prior trauma exposure. Rape survivors may benefit from gender-empowering psychological support that addresses blame and shame.

7.
Addiction ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although men's alcohol misuse and less gender-equitable attitudes have been identified as risks for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), less is known about how men's gender-equitable attitudes and drinking act together to increase risk of IPV. This study aimed to assess the independent relationships of lower gender-equitable attitudes and drinking to perpetration of IPV and their interaction among men in seven countries. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the United Nations Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence (UNMCS) and Nabilan Study databases consisting of (1) unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression to measure the association of perpetration of IPV with gender-equitable men (GEM) scale score and regular heavy episodic drinking (RHED) and (2) meta-analyses of prevalence and effect estimates adjusted for country-level sites and countries. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9148 ever-partnered 18-49-year-old men surveyed in 2011-15 from 18 sites in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka and Timor Leste. MEASUREMENTS: The outcome variable is reported perpetration of physical or sexual IPV in the previous year. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES: GEM scale scores; RHED, defined as six or more drinks in one session at least monthly (compared with other drinkers and abstainers). FINDINGS: Pooled past-year prevalence of perpetration of IPV was 13% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 9-16%]. GEM scores and RHED were independently associated with perpetration of IPV overall and in most sites. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for perpetration of IPV with less equitable GEM scores were 1.07 (95% CI = 1.04, 1.09) and with RHED were 3.42 (95% CI = 2.43, 4.81). A significant interaction between GEM score and RHED (P = 0.001) indicated that RHED increased the relationship of less gender-equitable attitudes and perpetration of IPV. CONCLUSION: Both gender-inequitable attitudes and drinking appear to be associated with perpetration of intimate partner violence by men, with regular heavy episodic drinking increasing the likelihood of intimate partner violence among men with less equitable gender attitudes.

8.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1868960, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475473

RESUMO

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and workplace violence (WPV) against women are widespread globally, and we set out to establish whether an intervention on gender-transformative programming delivered to Bangladeshi garment factory workers could reduce women's experience of IPV and WPV. We developed and tested an intervention, HERrespect and encountered considerable obstacles. Objective: To describe the challenges in program implementation and evaluation in the factories and the serious implications that arose for the study outcomes. Methods: HERrespect is a participatory intervention with mostly parallel group sessions for female and male workers and the management staff, designed to be delivered weekly in three hourly sessions, and supported by some factory-wide and limited community information campaigns. It was evaluated in a quasi-experimental study conducted in eight garment factories in and around Dhaka city, with a cohort of 800 women workers and 395 management staff who were followed for 24 months. Results: The study was conducted in the ready-made garment industry with substantial power imbalances between buyers, factory management and workers. The factories were contacted through the buyers, and some factories had agreed to participate half-heartedly. Many did not make enough time available for optimal implementation. Thus, the sessions were shortened and spread out. The factories did not make all the group members available for sessions. Whilst agreeing to participate, some management undermined the research by warning workers against disclosing information that may harm the business, resulting in the endline data being unreliable. Conclusions: Future research on IPV prevention in this sector is advised to: (1) Gain genuine management buy-in prior to starting activities; (2) implement an optimally intensive programme for the workers and management; (3) engage men from the female workers' communities. WPV prevention will require a change in the structural violence of the just-in-time regime which contributes largely to WPV.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Violência no Trabalho , Bangladesh , Vestuário , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais
9.
AIDS ; 35(4): 633-642, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of HIV acquisition in women postrape compared with a cohort of women who had not been raped. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. METHODS: The Rape Impact Cohort Evaluation study based in Durban, South Africa, enrolled women aged 16-40 years from postrape care services, and a control group of women from Primary Healthcare services. Women who were HIV negative at baseline (441 in the rape-exposed group and 578 in the control group) were followed for 12-36 months with assessments every 3 months in the first year and every 6 months thereafter. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for baseline and time varying covariates were used to investigate the effect of rape exposure on HIV incidence over follow-up. RESULTS: Eighty-six women acquired HIV during 1605.5 total person-years of follow-up, with an incident rate of 6.6 per 100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.8-9.1] among the rape exposed group and 4.7 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 3.5-6.2) among control group. After controlling for confounders (age, previous trauma, social support, perceived stress, multiple partners and transactional sex with a casual partner), women exposed to rape had a 60% increased risk of acquiring HIV [adjusted hazard ratio: 1.59 (95% CI: 1.01-2.48)] compared with those not exposed. Survival analysis showed difference in HIV incident occurred after month 9. CONCLUSION: Rape is a long-term risk factor for HIV acquisition. Rape survivors need both immediate and long-term HIV prevention and care.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Estupro , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Glob Health Action ; 14(1): 1857084, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357165

RESUMO

Background: Children with disabilities are more likely to experience violence or injury at school and at home, but there is little evidence from Central Asia. Objective: To describe the prevalence of disability and associations with peer violence perpetration and victimization, depression, corporal punishment, school performance and school attendance, among middle school children in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Method: This is a secondary analysis of data gathered in the course of evaluations of interventions to prevent peer violence conducted in Pakistan and Afghanistan as part of the 'What Works to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls Global Programme'. In Pakistan, the research was conducted in 40 schools, and disability was assessed at midline in 1516 interviews with Grade 7s. In Afghanistan, the data were from the baseline study conducted in 11 schools with 770 children. Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling was used to assess associations with disability. Results: In Afghanistan, the prevalence of disability was much higher for girls (22.1%) than boys (12.9%), while in Pakistan 6.0% of boys and girls reported a disability. Peer violence victimization was strongly associated with disability in Afghanistan and marginally associated in Pakistan. In Pakistan, perpetration of peer violence was associated with disability. In both countries, disability was significantly associated with higher depression scores. Food insecurity was strongly associated with disability in Afghanistan. Conclusion: Disability is highly prevalent in Afghanistan and Pakistan schools and this is associated with a greater risk of experiencing and perpetrating peer violence. It is important to ensure that all children can benefit from school-based prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Crianças com Deficiência , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 265: 113538, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257178

RESUMO

Working with men to prevent their perpetration of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence is increasingly recognised as effective. However, in any given context there are a multiplicity of masculinities, each of which has a different association with violence perpetration. There remains lack of clarity about whether such interventions impact all men and masculinities equally. We undertook a post-hoc analysis of men involved in the successful Stepping Stones and Creating Futures cluster randomized control trial in Durban, South Africa, to assess: i) whether there were different groups of men, ii) the factors associated with group allocation, and iii) whether the intervention had a differential impact on these groups in terms of violence perpetration. We used Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to identify masculinity classes, based on fit statistics and theoretical plausibility, and then used descriptive statistics (numbers, percentages, means) and p-values and multinomial models (95% confidence intervals, p-values) to assess factors associated with allocation to each class. To assess intervention impact by group, we used an intention-to-treat analysis, comparing men in each masculinity class, by intervention and control arm, using generalized estimating equations reporting unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aORs). In total 674 were recruited at baseline, and the LCA identified three classes of men: high violence (29% of men), medium violence (50% of men) and low violence (21% of men). Multinomial models showed those in more violent classes were more supportive of violence, had more adverse experiences, more depression and had worked more. By masculinity class, the impact of SS-CF showed reductions among the most violent men, with significant reductions in past year physical IPV (aOR0.59, p = 0.014), emotional IPV (aOR0.44, p = 0.044) and economic IPV (aOR0.35, p = 0.004), with non-significant reductions among other classes of men. This analysis suggests intensive group-based interventions can have significant impacts on the most violent men in communities.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Masculinidade , África do Sul , Violência/prevenção & controle
13.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1834769, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314989

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about women who have experienced a recent rape, and how they differ from women without this exposure. Identifying factors linked to rape is important for preventing rape and developing effective responses in countries like South Africa with high levels of sexual violence. OBJECTIVE: To describe the socio-demographic and health profile of women recently exposed to rape and to compare them with a non-rape-exposed group. METHODS: The Rape Impact Cohort Evaluation Study (RICE) enrolled 852 women age 16-40 years exposed to rape from post-rape care centres in Durban (South Africa) and a control group of 853 women of the same age range who have never been exposed to rape recruited from public health services. Descriptive analyses include logistic regression modelling of socio-demographic characteristics associated with recent rape exposure. RESULTS: Women with recent rape reported poorer health and more intimate partner violence than those who were not raped. They had a lower likelihood of having completed school (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.46 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.24-0.87) and dependence on a government grant as a main source of income (OR 0.61: 95%CI 0.49-0.77). They were more likely to live in informal housing (OR 1.88 95%CI: 1.43-2.46) or rural areas (OR 2.24: 95%CI 1.61-3.07) than formal housing areas - however they were also more likely to report full-time employment (OR 4.24: 95%CI 2.73-6.57). CONCLUSION: The study shows that structural factors, such as lower levels of education, poverty, and living in areas of poor infrastructure are associated with women's vulnerability to rape. It also shows possible protection from rape afforded by the national financial safety net. It highlights the importance of safe transportation in commuting to work. Preventing rape is critical for enabling women's full social and economic development, and structural interventions are key for reducing women's vulnerability.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estupro , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , África do Sul , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1836604, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer violence is common globally, but a little researched topic in low-and middle-income countries. This study presents the evaluation of a two-year randomized controlled trial of a structured play-based life-skills intervention implemented in schools in Hyderabad, Pakistan. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the intervention on school-based peer violence (victimization and perpetration) and depression among school children. METHODS: 40 single-sex public schools were randomized into two study arms (20 per arm 10 of each sex). A total of 1752 grade 6 students (929 from intervention and 823 from control schools) were enrolled in the trial. The two-year intervention was a biweekly structured game led by a coach followed by critical reflection and discussion for 30 minutes. Primary outcomes (exposure to peer violence exhibited through victimization and perpetration and depression) were evaluated using generalized linear-mixed models. RESULTS: Of the enrolled children (N = 1752) 91% provided data for analysis. There were significant decreases in self-reported peer violence victimization, perpetration and depression. For peer violence victimization, the reductions in the intervention and control arms were: 33.3% versus 27.8% for boys and 58.5% versus 21.3% for girls. For peer violence perpetration, the reductions were: 25.3% versus 11.1% for boys and 55.6% versus 27.6% for girls in the intervention and control arms, respectively. There were significant drops in mean depression scores (boys 7.2% versus 4.8% intervention and control and girls 9.5% versus 5.6% intervention and control). CONCLUSION: A well-designed and implemented play-based life-skills intervention delivered in public schools in Pakistan is able to effect a significant reduction in peer violence.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Violência , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência/prevenção & controle
15.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-14, 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222619

RESUMO

War and conflict impact on women's mental health and experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV), including in the occupied Palestinian Territories (oPT). Drawing on a cross-sectional population representative sample (n=534) collected in February 2017 in the oPT, we sought to (i) characterise the patterning of occupation-related events among women (18+) living in the oPT, (ii) to descriptively assess factors associated with this patterning, (iii) to assess the health impacts of occupation-related events by this patterning, specifically experience of IPV and poor mental health, and (iv) to assess the pathways through which occupation-related events are associated with IPV experience. Using Latent Class Analysis we identified three 'classes' of exposure to occupation-related events: 1 in 20 experienced multiple forms directed at themselves, their families and homes, 42.3% reported experiences against family members and their homes, and half reported relatively few direct experiences of occupation-related violence. Group membership was associated with increased past year IPV experience, and depressive symptoms. Using structural equation modelling we demonstrate that experiences of occupation-related events increased IPV experience via two mediated pathways; increased gender inequitable attitudes, and increased depressive symptoms and quarrelling with their husband. Preventing IPV requires addressing occupation-related events as well as transforming gender norms.

16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(11)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208311

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health and human rights violation which impacts approximately one in three women worldwide. Some existing evidence suggests that women with disabilities are at higher risk of IPV, but is largely limited in geographical scope to the Global North, and comparison across settings has been hampered by inconsistent measurement of both IPV and disability. METHODS: Pooled analysis of baseline data from 8549 adult women participating in seven IPV prevention studies in five countries across Africa and Asia that used collaborative, comparative measurement strategies to assess both disability and IPV. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, women with disabilities were more likely to experience past 12-month physical IPV (adjusted OR (aOR)=1.79; 95% CI 1.49 to 2.17), sexual IPV (aOR=1.98; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.89), emotional IPV (aOR=1.84; 95% CI 1.49 to 2.27) and economic IPV (aOR=1.66; 95% CI 1.45 to 1.89), with an overall association between disability and past 12-month physical/sexual IPV of aOR=1.93 (95% CI 1.52 to 2.46). Compared to women without disability, women with moderate and severe disability showed a trend of increasing risk of IPV in the past 12 months for each of physical, sexual, emotional and economic IPV. Overall, both women with moderate disability (aOR=1.86, 95% CI 1.57 to 2.21) and women with severe disability (aOR=2.63; 95% CI 1.95 to 3.55) were significantly more likely to experience any form of IPV when compared with women without disability. CONCLUSION: Women with disabilities are at increased risk of past-year IPV compared to women without disabilities across a range of settings in the Global South, and the risk of IPV increases with increasing severity of disability. IPV prevention and response efforts in these settings must find ways to include and address the needs of women with disabilities, including increased outreach and improved accessibility of programmes.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Adulto , África , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle
17.
BMC Int Health Hum Rights ; 20(1): 27, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An evaluation was conducted of a three-year intervention focused on violence against women and girls (VAWG) and implemented in the conflict-affected north-east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a country with high rates of VAWG. The intervention addressed VAWG, and especially sexual violence, by specifically engaging with communities of faith and their leaders. METHODS: Two community surveys were conducted, one before and one after the intervention, in three health areas in Ituri Province in the DRC. At both baseline and endline, data was collected from male and female members of randomly selected households in 15 villages (five per health area) in which the intervention was being implemented. At baseline the sample comprised 751 respondents (387 women, 364 men) and at endline 1198 respondents (601 women, 597 men). Questionnaires were interviewer-administered, with sensitive questions related to experience or perpetration of violence self-completed by participants. RESULTS: The study showed significantly more equitable gender attitudes and less tolerance for IPV at endline. Positive attitude change was not limited to those actively engaged within faith communities, with a positive shift across the entire community in terms of gender attitudes, rape myths and rape stigma scores, regardless of level of faith engagement. There was a significant decline in all aspects of IPV in the communities who experienced the intervention. While the experience and perpetration of IPV reported at endline did not track with exposure to the intervention, it is plausible that in a context where social norm change was sought, the impact of the intervention on those exposed could have had an impact on the behaviour of the unexposed. CONCLUSION: This intervention was premised on the assumption that faith leaders and faith communities are a key entry point into an entire community, able to influence an entire community. Research has affirmed this assumption and engaging with faith leaders and faith communities can thus be a strategic intervention strategy. While we are confident of the link between the social norms change and faith engagement and project exposure, the link between IPV reduction and faith engagement and project exposure needs more research.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Religião , Delitos Sexuais , Adulto , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estupro , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Soc Sci Med ; 265: 113302, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890814

RESUMO

This paper investigates the impact of the Stepping Stones Creating Futures (SSCF) intervention on young women in informal settlements in eThekwini, South Africa. Specifically, whether following participation in the intervention the young women experienced a reduction in intimate partner violence, strengthened agency and shifted gender relations. Where changes occurred, it examines how they occurred, and barriers and enablers to change. SSCF is a gender transformative and livelihoods strengthening intervention using participatory, reflective small groups. Qualitative research was undertaken with fifteen women participating in the SSCF randomised control trial between 2015 and 2018. The women were followed over 18 months, participating in in-depth interviews at baseline, 12- and 18-months post intervention. To supplement these, eight women were involved in Photovoice work at baseline and 18 months and seven were included in ongoing participant observation. Data were analysed inductively. Data revealed many women changed their behaviours following SSCF, including: having more power within relationships, improved communication and relationship skills, increased resistance to controlling partners, shifting relationship expectations, emergence of new femininities and improved livelihoods. Despite these important shifts many women did not report a reduction in IPV. Nonetheless we argue most of the women, following the intervention, became more agentic. Drawing on the notion of 'distributed agency' as developed by Campbell and Mannell (2016), we show that SSCF bolstered the women's distributed agency. Distributed agency recognizes small agentic acts that women take, acts which to them are significant, it further notes that agency is temporal, fluid, dynamic and context specific. Women do not 'either have agency or not', rather being agentic depends on time, context and the particular incident. These findings provide an important contribution to the limited application of distributed agency and femininities work in informal settlements and are critical for policy and intervention science to reduce IPV and support women's agency.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Relações Interpessoais , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Feminino , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoeficácia , África do Sul
19.
Cult Health Sex ; : 1-17, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896204

RESUMO

A critical component of evaluations of the effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programmes involves understanding pathways of change among individuals who participate in such programmes, and the intervention or contextual elements that support or hinder these. This paper draws on qualitative evaluations of four intimate partner violence prevention programmes in Ghana, Rwanda, South Africa and Tajikistan conducted as part of the What Works to Prevent Violence against Women and Girls Programme. Using a comparative case study approach, a secondary analysis was applied to thematically analysed data to explore how and why men and women change in response to different types of programmes across diverse contexts. Similar pathways of change were identified including the value of learning and applying relationship skills to support equitable, non-violent relationships; the importance of participatory approaches to challenge harmful gender norms and allow for group rapport; and the integration of economic empowerment activities to reduce drivers of intimate partner violence and conflict, and promote participants' self-confidence and status. These findings provide insights regarding intervention design and implementation factors pertinent to bring about changes in intimate partner violence.

20.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(7): 855-866, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556173

RESUMO

Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a global problem with profound consequences. Although there is a growing body of evidence on the effectiveness of VAWG prevention interventions, economic data are scarce. We carried out a cross-country study to examine the costs of VAWG prevention interventions in low- and middle-income countries. We collected primary cost data on six different pilot VAWG prevention interventions in six countries: Ghana, Kenya, Pakistan, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia. The interventions varied in their delivery platforms, target populations, settings and theories of change. We adopted a micro-costing methodology. We calculated total costs and a number of unit costs common across interventions (e.g. cost per beneficiary reached). We used the pilot-level cost data to model the expected total costs and unit costs of five interventions scaled up to the national level. Total costs of the pilots varied between ∼US $208 000 in a small group intervention in South Africa to US $2 788 000 in a couples and community-based intervention in Rwanda. Staff costs were the largest cost input across all interventions; consequently, total costs were sensitive to staff time use and salaries. The cost per beneficiary reached in the pilots ranged from ∼US $4 in a community-based intervention in Ghana to US $1324 for one-to-one counselling in Zambia. When scaled up to the national level, total costs ranged from US $32 million in Ghana to US $168 million in Pakistan. Cost per beneficiary reached at scale decreased for all interventions compared to the pilots, except for school-based interventions due to differences in student density per school between the pilot and the national average. The costs of delivering VAWG prevention vary greatly due to differences in the geographical reach, number of intervention components and the complexity of adapting the intervention to the country. Cost-effectiveness analyses are necessary to determine the value for money of interventions.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Violência , Adulto , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , Paquistão , Projetos Piloto , Ruanda , África do Sul , Violência/economia , Violência/prevenção & controle , Zâmbia
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