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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1911970, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539079

RESUMO

Importance: Chinese women have the highest rate of lung cancer among female never-smokers in the world, and the etiology is poorly understood. Objective: To assess the association between metabolomics and lung cancer risk among never-smoking women. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested case-control study included 275 never-smoking female patients with lung cancer and 289 never-smoking cancer-free control participants from the prospective Shanghai Women's Health Study recruited from December 28, 1996, to May 23, 2000. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used for the collection of dietary information. Metabolomic analysis was conducted from November 13, 2015, to January 6, 2016. Data analysis was conducted from January 6, 2016, to November 29, 2018. Exposures: Untargeted ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic profiles were characterized using prediagnosis urine samples. A total of 39 416 metabolites were measured. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident lung cancer. Results: Among the 564 women, those who developed lung cancer (275 participants; median [interquartile range] age, 61.0 [52-65] years) and those who did not develop lung cancer (289 participants; median [interquartile range] age, 62.0 [53-66] years) at follow-up (median [interquartile range] follow-up, 10.9 [9.0-11.7] years) were similar in terms of their secondhand smoke exposure, history of respiratory diseases, and body mass index. A peak metabolite, identified as 5-methyl-2-furoic acid, was significantly associated with lower lung cancer risk (odds ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.46-0.72]; P < .001; false discovery rate = 0.039). Furthermore, this peak was weakly correlated with self-reported dietary soy intake (ρ = 0.21; P < .001). Increasing tertiles of this metabolite were associated with lower lung cancer risk (in comparison with first tertile, odds ratio for second tertile, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.34-0.80]; and odds ratio for third tertile, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.30-0.70]), and the association was consistent across different histological subtypes and follow-up times. Additionally, metabolic pathway analysis found several systemic biological alterations that were associated with lung cancer risk, including 1-carbon metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Conclusions and Relevance: This prospective study of the untargeted urinary metabolome and lung cancer among never-smoking women in China provides support for the hypothesis that soy-based metabolites are associated with lower lung cancer risk in never-smoking women and suggests that biological processes linked to air pollution may be associated with higher lung cancer risk in this population.

2.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(9): 97001, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer rates among never-smoking women in Xuanwei and Fuyuan in China are among the highest in the world and have been attributed to the domestic use of smoky (bituminous) coal for heating and cooking. However, the key components of coal that drive lung cancer risk have not been identified. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the relationship between lifelong exposure to the constituents of smoky coal (and other fuel types) and lung cancer. METHODS: Using a population-based case-control study of lung cancer among 1,015 never-smoking female cases and 485 controls, we examined the association between exposure to 43 household air pollutants and lung cancer. Pollutant predictions were derived from a comprehensive exposure assessment study, which included methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have never been directly evaluated in an epidemiological study of any cancer. Hierarchical clustering and penalized regression were applied in order to address high colinearity in exposure variables. RESULTS: The strongest association with lung cancer was for a cluster of 25 PAHs [odds ratio (OR): 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67, 2.87 per 1 standard deviation (SD) change], within which 5-methylchrysene (5-MC), a mutagenic and carcinogenic PAH, had the highest individual observed OR (5.42; 95% CI: 0.94, 27.5). A positive association with nitrogen dioxide ([Formula: see text]) was also observed (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.49). By contrast, neither benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) nor fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) were associated with lung cancer in the multipollutant models. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between lung cancer and household air pollution (HAP) constituents estimated over the entire life course. Given the global ubiquity of coal use domestically for indoor cooking and heating and commercially for electric power generation, our study suggests that more extensive monitoring of coal combustion products, including methylated PAHs, may be warranted to more accurately assess health risks and develop prevention strategies from this exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4913.

3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifetime use of bituminous ('smoky') coal is associated with nearly a 100-fold higher risk of lung cancer mortality compared with anthracite ('smokeless') coal use in rural Xuanwei, China, among women. Risk of mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke for these coal types has not been evaluated. METHODS: A cohort of 16 323 non-smoking women in Xuanwei, who were lifetime users of either smoky or smokeless coal, were followed up from 1976 to 2011. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate lifetime use of coal types and stoves in the home in relation to risk of IHD and stroke mortality. RESULTS: Among lifetime users of smokeless coal, higher average exposure intensity (≥4 tons/year vs <2.5 tons/year, HR = 7.9, 95% CI = 3.5-17.8; Ptrend =<0.0001) and cumulative exposure (>64 ton-years vs ≤28 ton-years, HR = 6.5, 95% CI = 1.5-28.3; Ptrend =0.003) during follow-up and over their lifetime was associated with increased IHD mortality, and ventilated stove use dramatically reduced this risk (HR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.5). Higher cumulative exposure to smoky coal during follow-up showed positive associations with IHD mortality, but the evidence for other metrics was less consistent compared with associations with smokeless coal use. CONCLUSIONS: Higher use of smokeless coal, which is burned throughout China and is generally regarded to be a cleaner fuel type, is associated with IHD mortality. Use of cleaner fuels or stove interventions may be effective in reducing the increasing burden of IHD in developing regions that currently rely on smokeless coal for cooking and heating.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351006

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a hormone produced in the oxyntic glands of the stomach. Previous work by our group has suggested that serum ghrelin concentrations are inversely associated with gastric and esophageal cancer risk. We measured ghrelin concentrations in the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial (NIT), and the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS). In NIT, we analyzed serum samples from 298 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases, 518 gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) cases, 258 gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA) cases and 770 subcohort controls (case-cohort). In SWHS, we measured ghrelin in plasma samples from 249 GNCA cases and 498 matched controls (nested case-control). Ghrelin was measured using radioimmunoassay. In NIT and SWHS, low ghrelin concentrations were associated with an increased risk of developing GNCA and GCA. The hazard ratio (HR Q1:Q4 ) for GNCA in NIT was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.89-2.05; p-trend = 0.02); the odds ratio in SWHS was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.02-2.70; p-trend = 0.06). Low ghrelin was associated with a twofold increase of GCA (HR Q1:Q4 = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.45-2.77; p-trend<0.001). In contrast, a lower risk of ESCC (NIT ESCC HR Q1:Q4 = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.92; p-trend = 0.02) was found in NIT. Low baseline ghrelin concentrations were associated with an increased risk for GNCA and GCA in the NIT and the SWHS. In contrast, low ghrelin concentrations at baseline were associated with a reduced risk of developing ESCC in the NIT. Ghrelin may be an early marker of future cancer risk for developing upper gastrointestinal cancer in regions of high incidence.

5.
Genomics ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306748

RESUMO

We investigated whether genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) influences lung adenocarcinoma development among never-smokers using TB genome-wide association study (GWAS) results within the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia. Pathway analysis with the adaptive rank truncated product method was used to assess the association between a TB-related gene-set and lung adenocarcinoma using GWAS data from 5512 lung adenocarcinoma cases and 6277 controls. The gene-set consisted of 31 genes containing known/suggestive associations with genetic variants from previous TB-GWAS. Subsequently, we followed-up with Mendelian Randomization to evaluate the association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma using three genome-wide significant variants from previous TB-GWAS in East Asians. The TB-related gene-set was associated with lung adenocarcinoma (p = 0.016). Additionally, the Mendelian Randomization showed an association between TB and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.66, p = 0.027). Our findings support TB as a causal risk factor for lung cancer development among never-smoking Asian women.

6.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(8): 1077-1085, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE), a suspected lymphomagen, and serum levels of miRNAs in a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of TCE-exposed workers and comparable unexposed controls in China. METHODS: Serum levels of 40 miRNAs were compared in 74 workers exposed to TCE (median: 12 ppm) and 90 unexposed control workers. Linear regression models were used to test for differences in serum miRNA levels between exposed and unexposed workers and to evaluate exposure-response relationships across TCE exposure categories using a three-level ordinal variable [i.e., unexposed, < 12 ppm, the median value among workers exposed to TCE) and ≥ 12 ppm)]. Models were adjusted for sex, age, current smoking, current alcohol use, and recent infection. RESULTS: Seven miRNAs showed significant differences between exposed and unexposed workers at FDR (false discovery rate) < 0.20. miR-150-5p and let-7b-5p also showed significant inverse exposure-response associations with TCE exposure (Ptrend= 0.002 and 0.03, respectively). The % differences in serum levels of miR-150-5p relative to unexposed controls were - 13% and - 20% among workers exposed to < 12 ppm and ≥ 12 ppm TCE, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: miR-150-5p is involved in B cell receptor pathways and let-7b-5p plays a role in the innate immune response processes that are potentially important in the etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to directly test the association between serum levels of these miRNAs and risk of NHL in prospective studies.

7.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 82(6): 411-421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084278

RESUMO

The study aim was to investigate whether household bituminous ("smoky") coal use and personal exposure to combustion emissions were associated with immunologic/inflammatory marker levels. A cross-sectional study of healthy never-smoking women from rural Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China was conducted, which included 80 smoky coal and 14 anthracite ("smokeless") coal users. Personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was assessed using portable devices, while 67 circulating plasma immunologic/inflammatory markers were measured using multiplex bead-based assays. Multivariable linear regression models were employed to estimate associations between smoky coal versus smokeless coal use, indoor air pollutants, and immunologic/inflammatory markers. Six markers were altered among smoky coal users compared to smokeless coal, including significantly decreased interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (CXCL11/I-TAC), and increased serum amyloid P component (SAP). CXCL11/I-TAC was previously found to be reduced in workers exposed to high levels of diesel engine exhaust, which exhibits similar constituents as coal combustion emissions. Further, there was evidence that elevated PM2.5 and BaP exposure was associated with significantly diminished levels of the serum amyloid A (SAA); however, the false discovery rates (FDRs) were >0.2 after accounting for multiple comparisons. Inflammatory processes may thus mediate the carcinogenic effects attributed to smoky coal emissions.

8.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001807

RESUMO

Specific organochlorines (OCs) have been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with varying degrees of evidence. These associations have not been evaluated in Asia, where the high exposure and historical environmental contamination of certain OC pesticides (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane [DDT], hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH]) are different from Western populations. We evaluated NHL risk and prediagnostic blood levels of OC pesticides/metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in a case-control study of 167 NHL cases and 167 controls nested within three prospective cohorts in Shanghai and Singapore. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze lipid-adjusted OC levels and NHL risk. Median levels of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), the primary DDT metabolite, and ß-HCH were up to 12 and 65 times higher, respectively, in samples from the Asian cohorts compared to several cohorts in the United States and Norway. An increased risk of NHL was observed among those with higher ß-HCH levels both overall (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.8, 95%CI = 1.0-3.2; ptrend = 0.049) and after excluding cases diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection (3rd vs. 1st tertile OR = 2.0, 95%CI = 1.1-3.9; ptrend = 0.03), and the association was highly consistent across the three cohorts. No significant associations were observed for other OCs, including p,p'-DDE. Our findings provide support for an association between ß-HCH blood levels and NHL risk. This is a concern because substantial quantities of persistent, toxic residues of HCH are present in the environment worldwide. Although there is some evidence that DDT is associated with NHL, our findings for p,p'-DDE do not support an association.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30511435

RESUMO

Coal types vary around the world because of geochemical differences in their source deposits; however, the influence of coal emissions from different deposits on human health remains unexplored. To address this issue, we conducted the first study of the relationship between coal use from various deposits and lung cancer risk in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, counties in China where lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world among female never-smokers due to use of bituminous ("smoky") coal for heating and cooking. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 1031 lung cancer cases and 493 controls among never-smoking women in Xuanwei and Fuyuan. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between coal use from various deposits across the lifecourse and lung cancer risk. There was substantial heterogeneity in risks by coal deposit (p=7.8E-05). Compared to non-smoky coal users, risks by smoky coal deposit ranged from OR=7.49 (95% CI: 3.43-16.38) to OR=33.40 (95% CI: 13.07-85.34). Further, women born into homes that used smoky coal and subsequently changed to non-smoky coal had a higher risk (OR=10.83 (95% CI: 4.61-25.46)) than women born into homes that used non-smoky coal and changed to smoky coal (OR=4.74 (95% CI: 2.03-11.04, pdifference =0.04)). Our study demonstrates that various sources of coal have considerably different impact on lung cancer in this population and suggests that early-life exposure to carcinogenic emissions may exert substantial influence on health risks later in life. These factors should be considered when evaluating the health risks posed by exposure to coal combustion emissions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520970

RESUMO

Background: There is international consensus that benzene exposure is causally related to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and more recent evidence of association with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, there are uncertainties about the exposure response, particularly risks by time since exposure and age at exposure. Methods: In a case-cohort study in 110 631 Chinese workers followed up during 1972-1999 we evaluated combined MDS/AML (n = 44) and chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 18). We estimated benzene exposures using hierarchical modeling of occupational factors calibrated with historical routine measurements, and evaluated exposure response for cumulative exposure and average intensity using Cox regression; P values were two-sided. Results: Increased MDS/AML risk with increasing cumulative exposure in our a priori defined time window (2 to <10 years) before the time at risk was suggested (Ptrend = 08). For first exposure (within the 2 to <10-year window) before age 30 years, the exposure response was stronger (P = .004) with rate ratios of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27 to 4.29), 5.58 (95% CI = 1.65 to 19.68), and 4.50 (95% CI = 1.22 to 16.68) for cumulative exposures of more than 0 to less than 40, 40 to less than 100, and at least 100 ppm-years, respectively, compared with no exposure. There was little evidence of exposure response after at least 10 years (Ptrend = .94), regardless of age at first exposure. Average intensity results were generally similar. The risk for chronic myeloid leukemia was increased in exposed vs unexposed workers, but appeared to increase and then decrease with increasing exposure. Conclusion: For myeloid neoplasms, the strongest effects were apparent for MDS/AML arising within 10 years of benzene exposure and for first exposure in the 2 to less than 10-year window before age 30 years.

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(6): 1887-1896, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169796

RESUMO

Background: Epidemiological evidence on the association between tea consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent. This study prospectively investigated whether green tea drinking affects the risk of T2D. Methods: This study included participants from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (N = 67 058) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (N = 52 315) without diabetes at study enrolment. Details of tea consumption, including types and amounts, were collected at the baseline and follow-up survey. Incident T2D was identified through follow-up surveys. Plasma level of caffeine metabolite was measured in a nested case-control study involving 592 diabetes case-control pairs. Cox regression analysis, with tea drinking as a time-dependent variable and covariates adjusted for by a propensity score, was applied to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for T2D risk. Logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the association between caffeine metabolites and T2D risk. Results: Current green tea drinkers had an increased risk of T2D compared with non-current drinkers [HR = 1.20 (95% CI = 1.14-1.27)], and a dose-response relationship was observed for duration of drinking tea and the amount of tea consumed [P for trend <0.001]. The increased risk associated with green tea drinking was observed in both women and men, across the entire period of follow-up, with HR (95% CI) of 1.08 (0.97-1.19) within 5 years of follow-up, 1.22 (1.12-1.32) during the period of 5-10 years of follow-up and 1.16 (1.03-1.30) after 10 years of follow-up. This association did not vary significantly by body mass index, waist-to-hip circumference ratio or smoking status. Plasma level of caffeine was also associated with increased diabetes risk (P = 0.03), confirming the results based on self-reported tea drinking. Conclusions: Green tea drinking was associated with an increased risk of T2D in Chinese adults. The mechanisms underlying the association need to be elucidated.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 143(3): 570-579, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574937

RESUMO

Incidence rates of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and distributions of certain viruses differ between East Asian and Western populations. There are limited data on associations between serologic markers of multiple viral infections in pre-diagnostic blood and NHL risk in East Asians. We conducted a nested case-control study of 214 NHL cases and 214 matched controls from three population-based prospective cohorts in Shanghai and Singapore. Antibodies against antigens from herpesviruses, Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) virus and polyomaviruses were measured in plasma or serum using fluorescent bead-based multiplex assays. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between antibody levels and NHL risk. An increased risk of NHL was observed for higher compared to lower EA-D (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.04, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.10-3.81; ptrend = 0.005) and ZEBRA (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 0.96-4.89; ptrend = 0.008) Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) antibodies, as well as for antibody seropositivity against the IE1A human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) antigen (OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.04-3.29). An increased NHL risk was also observed for higher compared to lower antibodies against the HBV-HBc and HBe antigens. An increased risk of NHL in relation to EBV and HBV infection in East Asians is consistent with findings in several studies of Western populations, suggesting similar viral risk factors for NHL in these diverse populations with distinct patterns of NHL. The association between HHV-6 antibodies and NHL has not previously been reported in a prospective study in this population and will require replication.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(3): 342-344, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263184

RESUMO

Background: Infection with Helicobacter pylori is the leading risk factor for noncardia gastric cancer, yet its influence on prognosis of gastric cancer is largely unknown. Thus, exploring the role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in survival could lead to a greater understanding of the high mortality associated with gastric cancer.Methods: Seropositivity to 15 H. pylori antigens was assessed using a multiplex assay in two prospective cohorts, the Shanghai Men's Health Study and the Shanghai Women's Health Study. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between prediagnostic H. pylori antigen levels and gastric cancer-specific survival.Results: Prediagnostic levels of H. pylori serum antibodies that were previously associated with gastric cancer incidence in this population were not associated with gastric cancer survival, whether assessed in a 6-antigen panel [HR = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.78-2.13 for men; HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.57-1.52 for women], focused on CagA+H. pylori (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.44-1.20 forwomen; HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 0.70-2.31 for men) or on the high-risk biomarkers of dual Omp and HP 0305 seropositivity (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.72-1.30 for women; HR = 1.37; 95% CI, 0.97-1.94 for men).Conclusions: Prediagnostic H. pylori antigen levels are not associated with gastric cancer survival in East Asian populations.Impact: Identification of additional factors associated with gastric cancer survival would further our understanding of the high mortality associated with this malignancy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(3); 342-4. ©2017 AACR.

14.
Carcinogenesis ; 38(10): 1004-1010, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28981818

RESUMO

There is a paucity of data on risk factors for lung cancer among never smokers. Here, we have carried out the first large study of circulating inflammation markers and lung cancer risk among female never smokers in Shanghai. A study of 248 lung cancer cases in female never smokers and 263 controls was nested within the Shanghai Women's Health Study (n = 75221), matched by dates of birth and blood collection (mean follow-up time = 7.5 years). Prediagnostic plasma levels of 65 inflammation markers were measured using a Luminex bead-based assay. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated with multivariable logistic regression. Nine of 61 evaluable markers were statistically significantly associated with lung cancer risk among never smoking Chinese women (P-trend across categories <0.05). Soluble interleukin-6 receptor [sIL-6R; highest versus lowest category OR = 2.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-4.02) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein 1; (OR = 1.62; 95% CI 0.94-2.80) were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, whereas interleukin (IL)-21 (OR = 0.53; 95%CI 0.31-0.93), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1/fractalkine (OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.30-0.96), soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (sVEGFR2, OR = 0.45; 95% CI 0.26-0.76), sVEGFR3 (OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.32-0.90), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.83), IL-10 (OR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.34-1.05) and C-reactive protein (OR = 0.63; 95% CI 0.37-1.06) were associated with a decreased risk. sIL-6R remained significantly associated with lung cancer risk >7.5 years prior to diagnosis. Markers involved in various aspects of the immune response were associated with subsequent lung cancer risk, implicating inflammation in the etiology of lung cancer among female never smokers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CX3CL1/sangue , Quimiocinas/sangue , China , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Interleucina-6/sangue , Medição de Risco
15.
Sleep Med ; 38: 135-141, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29031748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between sleep duration and the incidence of diabetes stratified by sleep-related factors among Chinese men. METHODS: This study included 34,825 men who provided information on sleep-related questions in the Shanghai Men's Health Study, a population-based cohort study conducted in Shanghai, China from 2002 to 2011. Participants were excluded who had a history of diabetes or who were diagnosed with diabetes within 2 years of recruitment. Cox regression was employed to evaluate the influence of sleep duration and its interaction with sleep-related factors on diabetes risk. RESULTS: A total of 1521 incident cases were documented during a median of 5.6 follow-up years. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.0 (0.9-1.1) and 1.2 (1.0-1.3) for men who slept <7 and ≥8 h per day, respectively, compared with those who slept 7 h per day (ptrend = 0.01). Stratified analyses revealed that the association between sleep duration and risk of diabetes was only statistically significant among current smokers and regular drinkers, never tea drinkers, men with a high body mass index, hypertension or comorbidity, and men who did not work nightshift or who snored. A statistically significant interaction between tea drinking and sleep duration was observed (pinteraction = 0.01). The above association patterns remained when daytime nappers were excluded from the analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggested that longer sleep duration, particularly among individuals already exhibiting factors linked to poor quality of sleep, was associated with diabetes. The association between sleep duration and diabetes may be modified by tea drinking, especially in older men or men with more sleep-related factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Homem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Carcinogenesis ; 38(9): 893-899, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911003

RESUMO

Households in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China, possess hazardous levels of fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coal combustion. Previous studies found that increased exposure to PM2.5 and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP; a PAH) were associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), a marker of oxidative stress. We further evaluated these associations in a cross-sectional study of 148 healthy non-smoking women from Xuanwei and Fuyuan. Personal exposure to PM2.5 and BaP was measured using portable devices. MtDNAcn was measured using qPCR amplification of leukocyte DNA that was collected after air measurements. Linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between personal exposure to PM2.5 and BaP, and mtDNAcn adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI) and fuel type. We found inverse associations between exposure to PM2.5 and BaP, and mtDNAcn. Each incremental log-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a significant decrease in mtDNAcn of -10.3 copies per cell [95% confidence interval (95% CI): -18.6, -2.0; P = 0.02]. Additionally, each log-ng/m3 increase in BaP was associated with a significant decrease in mtDNAcn of -5.4 copies per cell (95% CI: -9.9, -0.8, P = 0.02). Age, BMI, fuel type and coal mine type were not significantly associated with mtDNAcn. Exposure to PM2.5 and BaP may alter mitochondrial dynamics in non-smoking Chinese women. MtDNAcn may be a potential mediator of indoor air pollution on chronic disease development.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Benzo(a)pireno/efeitos adversos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Exposição Ambiental , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA Mitocondrial/sangue , Demografia , Doença Ambiental/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo
17.
Ann Work Expo Health ; 61(1): 56-66, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395314

RESUMO

Objectives: To provide insight into the contributions of exposure measurements to job exposure matrices (JEMs), we examined the robustness of an association between occupational benzene exposure and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) to varying exposure assessment methods. Methods: NHL risk was examined in a prospective population-based cohort of 73087 women in Shanghai. A mixed-effects model that combined a benzene JEM with >60000 short-term, area benzene inspection measurements was used to derive two sets of measurement-based benzene estimates: 'job/industry-specific' estimates (our presumed best approach) were derived from the model's fixed effects (year, JEM intensity rating) and random effects (occupation, industry); 'calibrated JEM' estimates were derived using only the fixed effects. 'Uncalibrated JEM' (using the ordinal JEM ratings) and exposure duration estimates were also calculated. Cumulative exposure for each subject was calculated for each approach based on varying exposure definitions defined using the JEM's probability ratings. We examined the agreement between the cumulative metrics and evaluated changes in the benzene-NHL associations. Results: For our primary exposure definition, the job/industry-specific estimates were moderately to highly correlated with all other approaches (Pearson correlation 0.61-0.89; Spearman correlation > 0.99). All these metrics resulted in statistically significant exposure-response associations for NHL, with negligible gain in model fit from using measurement-based estimates. Using more sensitive or specific exposure definitions resulted in elevated but non-significant associations. Conclusions: The robust associations observed here with varying benzene assessment methods provide support for a benzene-NHL association. While incorporating exposure measurements did not improve model fit, the measurements allowed us to derive quantitative exposure-response curves.


Assuntos
Benzeno/análise , Linfoma não Hodgkin/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional , Medição de Risco/métodos , Saúde da Mulher , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Indústrias/classificação , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Ocupações/classificação , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 10(6): 327-336, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377487

RESUMO

Sufficient sleep duration is crucial for maintaining normal physiological function and has been linked to cancer risk; however, its contribution to lung cancer mortality is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between average sleep duration in various age-periods across the adult lifecourse, and risk of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei, China. An ambidirectional cohort study was conducted in 42,422 farmers from Xuanwei, China. Participants or their surrogates were interviewed in 1992 to assess average sleep hours in the age periods of 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and ≥71 years, which were categorized as ≤7, 8 (reference), 9, and ≥10 hours/day. Vital status was followed until 2011. Sex-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer mortality in 1994-2011, adjusted for demographic, anthropometric, medical, and household characteristics. J-shaped relationships were found between average sleep duration and lung cancer mortality. The patterns were consistent across sex, age periods, and fuel usage. Compared with sleeping 8 hours/day on average, ≤7 hours/day was associated with significantly increased HRs ranging from 1.39 to 1.58 in ages ≥41 years in men, and 1.29 to 2.47 in ages ≥51 years in women. Furthermore, sleeping ≥10 hours/day was associated with significantly increased HRs ranging from 2.44 to 3.27 in ages ≥41 year in men, and 1.31 to 2.45 in ages ≤60 years in women. Greater and less than 8 hours/day of sleep in various age-periods may be associated with elevated risk of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei, China. Cancer Prev Res; 10(6); 327-35. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Combustíveis Fósseis/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(6): 440-448, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28069970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Foundry work is a risk factor for lung cancer; however, the association with welding is unclear, as smoking is common among metalworkers and may mask the relationship. We evaluated whether history of welding and foundry work, independently and jointly, and employment duration were associated with lung cancer risk in heavy smokers. METHODS: We analysed data from the National Lung Screening Trial, a prospective randomised trial of 53 454 heavy smokers (>30 pack-years) in the USA. Cox regression models were used to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs of medically/histologically confirmed incident lung cancer during the follow-up period (2002-2009) in relation to history and duration of welding and foundry work assessed via questionnaires, adjusted for screening arm, component study, sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status and pack-years, body mass index and personal/family medical history. RESULTS: There were 2034 incident lung cancer cases throughout the follow-up. Increasing years of employment in welding (p-trend =0.039) and foundry work (p-trend =0.005) were related to increased lung cancer risk among heavy smokers. Having ever been employed (≥1 yr) as either a welder or foundry worker alone was associated with non-significant increased risks of lung cancer (HR=1.12 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.37) and HR=1.09 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.39), respectively). Further, there was a joint-effect in that those who were ever employed in both occupations had significantly increased risks (HR=1.48 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.04)). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide further evidence that exposure to welding/metal fumes may be associated with elevated lung cancer risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00047385.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Metais/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Soldagem
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(2): 454-465, 2017 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28025329

RESUMO

To evaluate associations by EGFR mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma risk among never-smoking Asian women, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 loci previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genotyping in an additional 10,780 never-smoking cases and 10,938 never-smoking controls from Asia confirmed associations with eight known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two new signals were observed at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8), namely, rs7216064 (17q24.3, BPTF), for overall lung adenocarcinoma risk, and rs3817963 (6p21.3, BTNL2) which is specific to cases with EGFR mutations. In further sub-analyses by EGFR status, rs9387478 (ROS1/DCBLD1) and rs2179920 (HLA-DPB1) showed stronger estimated associations in EGFR-positive compared to EGFR-negative cases. Comparison of the overall associations with published results in Western populations revealed that the majority of these findings were distinct, underscoring the importance of distinct contributing factors for smoking and non-smoking lung cancer. Our results extend the catalogue of regions associated with lung adenocarcinoma in non-smoking Asian women and highlight the importance of how the germline could inform risk for specific tumour mutation patterns, which could have important translational implications.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Butirofilinas/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DP/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Caracteres Sexuais , Fumar/genética
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