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1.
Biotechnol Lett ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048128

RESUMO

Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (HucMSC-Ex) are a promising tool for the repair of acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by cisplatin and ischemia/reperfusion. However, the roles of hucMSC-Ex in sepsis-associated AKI repair and its mechanism are largely unknown. Hence, we constructed a sepsis model through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), testing the benefits of hucMSC-Ex in the sepsis in terms of survival rate, serum renal markers levels, morphological changes and apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry staining and immunofluorescence assay were used to investigate the role of NF-κB activity in the repair of sepsis-associated AKI with hucMSC-Ex. HK-2 cells were transfected with microRNA-146b (miR-146b) mimics and inhibitors, respectively, and the regulatory effect of miR-146b on NF-κB activity was studied. We found that hucMSC-Ex treatment significantly decreased the serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels, ameliorated the morphological damage and inhibited renal tubular cells apoptosis. More importantly, the survival rate at 72 h was 28% in CLP group and 45% in hucMSC-Ex group, respectively. Treatment with hucMSC-Ex improved survival in mice with sepsis. These effects of hucMSC-Ex were mediated by the inhibition of NF-κB activity and the lessening of pro-inflammatory response. Furthermore, hucMSC-Ex significantly increased miR-146b expression in kidney tissues. Conversely, interleukin (IL)-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1) level, which is the target gene of miR-146b, clearly decreased in hucMSC-Ex group. In brief, this study showed that treatment with hucMSC-Ex decreased IRAK1 expression through the up-regulation of miR-146b level, led to the inhibition of NF-κB activity, and eventually alleviated sepsis-associated AKI and improved survival in mice with sepsis. HucMSC-Ex may be a novel therapeutic agent for the reduction of sepsis-associated AKI.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19015, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049797

RESUMO

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) can co-exist with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), a phenomenon known as AIHA-associated NHL (AIHA/NHL). However, few studies have reported AIHA/NHL incidence or its clinical characteristics. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 20 AIHA/NHL patients treated at our hospital from 2009 to 2018. AIHA/NHL was presented by only 0.91% of the NHL and 9.8% of the AIHA patients. In addition, AIHA occurred most frequently with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) (7.31%), followed by marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBL) (6.25%), B-cell lymphoma-unclassified (BCL-U) (4.25%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocyte lymphoma (CLL/SLL) (2.50%), and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) (2.30%). In addition to the CLL/SLL patients with impaired bone marrow, 66.7% of the AIHA/NHL patients had lymphoma bone marrow infiltration (LBMI), of which 4 patients presented LBMI in bone marrow smears (BMS) but not in bone marrow biopsy (BMB) and 6 were positive for BMB but not BMS. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of AIHA/NHL patients were 70%, 30% and 20%, respectively, and they responded poorly to chemotherapy. In conclusion, AIHA can co-exist with various NHLs and the defining clinical characteristic of AIHA/NHL is the high incidence of LBMI. However, both BMS and BMB should be performed to avoid missed diagnosis.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 714: 136811, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018970

RESUMO

To test the relationship not yet explored before among earthquake and related environmental factors, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the genetic variation of LDLR rs5925 was selected and PTSD was examined by PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCLC) in adolescents with different genotypes of LDLR rs5925 longitudinally at 6, 12 and 18 months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The C allele carriers were observed to have higher PTSD prevalence than the TT homozygotes in the male subjects, and higher PTSD prevalence and PCL-C scores in the female subjects only at 6 months. When compared to that at 12 months, decreased PTSD prevalence was observed at 18 months only in the female C allele carriers, but not in the female TT homozygotes or the male subjects. The potential risk factors of PTSD and predictors of PCL-C scores were different during the follow-up. LDLR rs5925 was one of the predictors for PCL-C scores at 6 and 12 months, and one of the potential factors for PTSD prevalence at 6 months. These results suggest that interactions may occur between earthquakes and other related environmental factors, which could affect the relationship of LDLR rs5925 with PTSD and be considered for individualized treatment.

5.
Pediatr Obes ; : e12615, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 gene (PNPLA3) I148M polymorphism on the risk and severity of paediatric and adolescent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the effect of this polymorphism not only on early-onset NAFLD risk and severity but also on metabolic syndromes susceptibility. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant datasets. The odds ratio of the dichotomic variables and the standardized mean difference of quantitative variables with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the strength of the associations. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies comprising 10 070 subjects were eligible. The summary effect showed that this polymorphism increased susceptibility to NAFLD development. Furthermore, it also indicated that nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was more frequently observed in G allele carriers among paediatric and adolescent NAFLD patients. Moreover, the meta-analysis suggested that the variant was significantly associated with elevated liver damage indexes, including serum alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase concentrations, and liver fat content. However, the summary estimates for insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, and adiposity showed no significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: The PNPLA3 I148M polymorphism is associated with elevated early-onset NAFLD risk, severity, and liver damage but not with related metabolic syndromes.

6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1100: 149-155, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987135

RESUMO

Paper-based analytical device (PAD) has received more and more attention in the field of point-of-care test (POCT) due to its low cost, portability and simple operation. Sensitivity and selectivity are two important aspects in clinical diagnostic analysis. However, low sensitivity of a PAD limits its wider application for POCT. Here we introduced a PAD that can clean and enrich the protein content from salty media with both electric field (E) and pH gradient (double E/pH gradients), with which 100-fold enrichment effect could be achieved within 70 s as demonstrated by fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) from artificial urine media. With post staining of the protein stacking band with bromophenol blue (BPB), selective colorimetric detection of human serum albumin (HSA) was achieved simply with smartphone camera in the clinically significant range of 10-300 mg‧L-1 (R2 = 0.99) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 4.9 mg‧L-1. Detection of microalbuminuria (MAU) of diabetic patients was demonstrated with this method without difference (ɑ = 0.01) to that by the clinical method (immunoturbidimetry). This work demonstrated the potential of this PAD method in online sample pretreatment and detection of target component from complex physiological samples.

7.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(3): 277-284, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of plasma homocysteine occur almost uniformly in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis and a common cause of ESRD in young adults. Here, we aimed to detect whether homocysteine was elevated and associated with clinical-pathologic manifestations of IgAN patients and tested its causal effects using a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. METHODS: For observational analysis, 108 IgAN patients, 30 lupus nephritis (LN) patients, 50 minimal change disease (MCD) patients, and 206 healthy controls were recruited from April 2014 to April 2015. Their plasma homocysteine was measured and clinical-pathologic manifestations were collected from medical records. For MR analysis, we further included 1686 IgAN patients. The missense variant methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (rs1801133) was selected as an instrument, which was genotyped by TaqMan allele discrimination assays. RESULTS: Majority of IgAN patients (93.52%, 101/108) showed elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (>10 µmol/L). Plasma homocysteine in IgAN patients was significantly higher than that in MCD patients (median: 18.32 vs. 11.15 µmol/L, Z = -5.29, P < 0.01) and in healthy controls (median: 18.32 vs. 10.00 µmol/L, Z = -8.76, P < 0.01), but comparable with those in LN patients (median: 18.32 L vs. 14.50 µmol/L, Z = -1.32, P = 0.19). Significant differences were observed in sub-groups of IgAN patients according to quartiles of plasma homocysteine for male ratio (22.22% vs. 51.85% vs. 70.37% vs. 70.37%, χ = 14.29, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (median: 77.00 vs. 100.00 vs. 129.00 vs. 150.00 µmol/L, χ = 34.06, P < 0.01), estimated glomerular filtration rate (median: 100.52 vs. 74.23 vs. 52.68 vs. 42.67 mL·min·1.73 m, χ = 21.75, P < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (median: 120.00 vs. 120.00 vs. 125.00 vs. 130.00 mmHg, χ = 2.97, P = 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (median 80.00 vs. 75.00 vs. 80.00 vs. 81.00 mmHg, χ = 11.47, P < 0.01), and pathologic tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (T) (T0/T1/T2: 62.96%/33.33%/3.70% vs. 29.63%/40.74%/29.63% vs. 24.00%/48.00%/28.00% vs. 14.81%/37.04%/48.15%, χ = 17.66, P < 0.01). The coefficient of each rs1801133-T allele on homocysteine levels after controlling age and sex was 7.12 (P < 0.01). MR estimates showed causal positive effects of homocysteine on serum creatine (ß = 0.76, P = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (ß = 0.26, P = 0.02), diastolic blood pressure (ß = 0.20, P = 0.01), and pathologic T lesion (ß = 0.01, P = 0.01) in IgAN. CONCLUSIONS: By observational and MR analyses, consistent results were observed for associations of plasma homocysteine with serum creatinine, blood pressures, and pathologic T lesion in IgAN patients.

8.
Int J Mol Med ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922248

RESUMO

Early repolarization syndrome (ERS) is associated with genetic mutations, but the role of the glycerol­3­phosphate dehydrogenase 1­like (GPD1­L) mutation remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role and potential underlying mechanism of GPD1­L mutation P112L in the pathogenesis of ERS. Whole­genome sequencing was performed on samples from a family with ERS, and the gene sequencing results were analyzed using bioinformatics. 293 cells were transfected with wild­type (WT) or mutant­type (MT) GPD1­L and SCN5A plasmids. Successful transfection of GPD1­L in 293 cells was verified by western blotting. Whole­cell patch­clamp recording, confocal microscopic observation and western blotting were used to uncover the potential mechanism of GPD1­L P112L in ERS. The results of western blotting indicated that the expression of the GPD1­L protein was lower in the MT group compared with that in the WT group, but the mock group did not express the GPD1­L protein. The whole­cell patch­clamp recording results indicated that the activation current density of INa (at ­30 mV) was ~60% lower in the MT group compared with the WT group (P<0.01). The mutation caused the inactivation voltage to move in a negative direction by ~3 mV compared with that of the WT group. However, there were no significant between­group differences in the steady activation, steady inactivation, and steady recovery of INa. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that MT GPD1­L was less expressed near the cell membrane and more expressed in the cytoplasm compared with WT GPD1­L. Both WT and MT GPD1­L were highly expressed in the cytoplasm and in small amounts in the nucleus. In conclusion, the GPD1­L P112L mutation decreased INa activation and GPD1­L cell expression, including in the region near the cell membrane. These results suggest that GPD1­L P112L may be a pathogenic genetic mutation associated with ERS.

9.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922655

RESUMO

Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome is a very common subhealth status in Traditional Chinese Medicine. However, currently, there is no unified standard for diagnosing YDH syndrome. We applied the iTRAQ-2D LC-MS/MS method to explore the potential of serum protein profiles as biomarker for YDH syndrome. A total of 120 differentially expressed proteins (79 downregulated and 41 upregulated) were identified by the proteomic profiling. The results of KEGG pathway analysis showed that the functions of the differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades. The clinical data showed that YDH syndrome was closely related to inflammation and coagulation, compared with the healthy controls. The ELISA validation results indicated that the expression levels of ALB, CFI, and KLKB1 were downregulated in the YDH syndrome group (p < .05). Moreover, we established a decision tree model based on the combination of these three proteins and achieved a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 84.4%, and AUC of 0.891. The results indicated that the combination of ALB, CFI, and KLKB1 may serve as potential biomarkers for diagnosing YDH syndrome. Our study can provide a new method for YDH syndrome diagnosis, and may also provide an experimental basis to understand the molecular mechanism of YDH syndrome.

10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 92: 141-150, 2020 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment takes a long time, and a gold standard test to define TB cure is lacking. This may lead to early discharge of TB patients, resulting in an increased risk of disease transmission and drug resistance. Plasma lncRNAs might act as potential biomarkers to evaluate TB cure in an efficient and precise manner. METHODS: A lncRNA microarray assay was used to screen differentially expressed plasma lncRNAs in untreated TB and cured TB subjects. The expression levels of lncRNAs were verified by qPCR. Target genes of lncRNAs were predicted using a coding-non-coding gene co-expression network and mRNA-lncRNA-miRNA interaction network analysis. RESULTS: The expression levels of lncRNAs uc.48+ (p < 0.001) and NR_105053 (p = 0.03) were found to differ significantly between the untreated TB group and the cured TB group. The predicted target genes of uc.48+ were EP300, BAI1 and NR_105053 were TLR9, MYD88, BAI1, respectively. A predictive model for cured TB was established by the combination of uc.48+ and NR_105053 expression, with a sensitivity of 90.00% and specificity of 86.36%, and an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.945. CONCLUSIONS: lncRNAs uc.48+ and NR_105053 may serve as potential biomarkers to distinguish between untreated TB patients and cured TB subjects. This study provides an experimental basis to evaluate the effect of TB treatment and may also provide new clues to the pathological mechanisms of TB.

11.
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108522, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902486

RESUMO

The porcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) becomes an important causative agent of swine disease since its discovery in 2016. PCV3 infection exhibits a wide range of clinical syndromes causing substantial economic losses in swine industry. Previous studies have reported the detection of numerous known viruses including circovirus in mosquitoes. However, the transmission of PCV3 in field-caught mosquitoes remains largely unknown. This study aims to detect PCV3 infection in mosquitoes and analyze its genomic characteristics. Here, we performed a PCR to detect the PCV3 in 269 mosquito samples collected from pig farms located in Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Yunnan provinces. The proportion of PCV3-positive mosquitoes was 32.0 % (86/269), ranging from 21.4%-42.5% at farm level, which may imply that mosquito serves as a route of transmission for PCV3. To determine the possible origin of PCV3 in mosquitoes, 80 pig serum samples were collected from the pig farms where mosquito sampling was also performed. The proportion of PCV3-positive farms ranged from 15.0%-30.0 % in which infection of positive pigs positively correlated with mosquitoes carrying the virus. Additionally, we sequenced the entire genome of 6 strains of PCV3 in mosquitoes and 2 strains of PCV3 in pigs. Sequence analysis indicated a 100 % nucleotide similarity between mosquito and pig viral isolates that were all collected from similar farms. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PCV3 could be divided into two clades, PCV3a and PCV3b, and the PCV3 strains isolated in mosquitoes were distributed on the two clades. Our results demonstrate that mosquitoes may serve as a potential transmission vector in the life-cycle of PCV3, revealing possible transmission routes of PCV3.

12.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome is a subhealth state of the individual, mainly manifested as oral ulcers, dry mouth, constipation, and other symptoms. Zhibai Dihuang granule (ZDG), as a classic traditional Chinese medicine, is effective in treating YDH syndrome. We screened the potential biomarkers for diagnosing YDH syndrome, and explored the mechanisms of the therapeutic effect of ZDG. METHODS: Plasma samples from the Pinghe (PH, healthy control) group, the Shanghuo (SH, YDH syndrome) group, and the ZDG treated group (therapeutic group) were analyzed by using metabolomics profiling. The data were analyzed by multivariate statistical and bioinformatics analyses. RESULTS: We screened four differential metabolites such as, decanoylcarnitine, dodecanoylcarnitine, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and Aspartate (Asp) Arginine (Arg) Proline (Pro) in the SH group and the PH group. The results showed that the combination of above four metabolites could serve as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of YDH syndrome. The metabolites decanoylcarnitine and glucose were found to be differentially expressed in the YDH syndrome group and tended to be normalized after ZDG treatment. CONCLUSION: The increased levels of four differential metabolites (decanoylcarnitine, dodecanoylcarnitine, PC, and Asp Arg Pro) revealed that individuals with YDH syndrome may have increased energy metabolism in the body, which could lead to disorders of fatty acids ß-oxidation and immune function. The levels of two differential metabolites including decanoylcarnitine and glucose returned to normal after ZDG treatment, indicating that ZDG could treat YDH syndrome by regulating glucose metabolism and fatty acids ß-oxidation. Our study provides a new method for the diagnosis of YDH syndrome, and may provide theoretical basis for novel therapeutic strategies of YDH syndrome.

13.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909895

RESUMO

Patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) tend to have a long course of anti-TB treatment and severe side effects. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has a synergistic effect in attenuation of MDR-TB. However, the lack of objective biological standards to classify and diagnose MDR-TB TCM syndromes could result in less effective TCM treatment. Therefore, in this study, we identified differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in serum of individuals with MDR-TB TCM syndromes by applying isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS) method and bioinformatics analysis. The functional analysis of DEPs was also performed. Additionally, DEPs among three different TCM syndromes of MDR-TB were validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to estimate the diagnostic ability of DEPs. A total of 71 DEPs were identified in the three different MDR-TB TCM syndrome groups such as the pulmonary Yin deficiency (PYD) syndrome group, the Hyperactivity of Fire due to Yin deficiency (HFYD) syndrome group, and the deficiency of Qi and Yin (DQY) syndrome group. The results showed that the expression level of transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was lower in the PYD syndrome group (p = .002), the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) was overexpressed in the HFYD syndrome group (p < .0001), and the C-C motif chemokine ligand 14 (CCL14) expression level was reduced in the DQY syndrome group (p = .004). Our study demonstrated that serum TGFBI, PCSK9, and CCL14 may serve as potential novel biomarkers for PYD syndrome, HFYD syndrome and DQY syndrome of MDR-TB, respectively. The study provides a biological basis for MDR-TB TCM syndromes classification and can be of great significance for the treatment of different TCM syndromes.

14.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909898

RESUMO

Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome is a common sub-health state of the human body in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to the lack of objective quantitative diagnostic indicators, patients with early-stage YDH syndrome cannot be treated in time and can develop a pathological (disease) state. Therefore, it is necessary to apply modern diagnostic techniques in order to identify the biological markers for the diagnosis of early-stage YDH syndrome. In the present study, we performed Solexa sequencing and non-targeted metabolomics analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to screen differentially expressed mRNAs and differential metabolites in individuals with early-stage YDH syndrome and healthy controls. Bioinformatics methods were used to perform enrichment analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs and differential metabolites for biological functions and signaling pathways. Furthermore, we found that differentially expressed mRNAs and differential metabolites were related to energy metabolism. Real-time PCR was used to validate the mRNA expression in the serum of subjects with early-stage YDH syndrome. We found that the mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 2 (MT-ND2) mRNA was differentially expressed in the serum of individuals with early-stage YDH syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the efficacy of the diagnostic model based on eight differential metabolites. We combined the three metabolites such as Glycine, Sphingomyelin, and Isocitrate to establish the diagnostic model with a sensitivity of 0.853 and a specificity of 0.800. The combination of the above three metabolites may serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of early-stage YDH syndrome. Our study reveals potential biomarker for the diagnosis of early-stage YDH syndrome and also provides a new method for the quantification and objectification of TCM syndromes.

15.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31909899

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a systematic medical method that has existed for more than 3,000 years. Unlike Western medicine, the disease diagnosis in TCM is carried out by inspection, auscultation, olfaction, interrogation, and palpation. The patient is then treated according to the disease and corresponding TCM syndrome. However, the development of Chinese medicine is stagnated, partially because it can be influenced by subjective factors, such as the experience and knowledge of TCM practitioners, and there is a lack of relevant biological research on TCM syndromes. Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome in TCM is characterized by a series of pathological changes caused by the insufficiency of Yin-fluid, inability to moisturize, and the failure to suppress Yang. In recent years, systems biology research on TCM syndromes has gradually become the focus of TCM research, including syndrome differentiation and functional research using systems biology methodologies such as proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics. This journal aims to publish a series of issues on the systems biology research of TCM syndromes that can provide biological indicators for the syndrome differentiation of YDH syndrome and can provide perspectives on the biological research of YDH syndrome.

16.
Environ Pollut ; 257: 113622, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761589

RESUMO

Samples of soil, air, and locally grown crops from around an old e-waste dismantling area (Fengjiang) and a new e-waste dismantling area (Binhai) in Taizhou were analyzed to investigate the behavior of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released during e-waste dismantling in the soil-crop-atmosphere system. The results indicated that PCB pollution is still widespread in the study area. The PCB concentrations were clearly higher in soil from FJ than in soil from BH, and the concentrations in the functional zones decreased strongly in the order industry park > residential area > farmland. Historical and current emissions during e-waste dismantling processes are probably the main sources of PCBs to soil because PCB production and use are banned. The long half-lives of PCBs have caused the target congener concentrations in soil not to decrease markedly over 10 years. The "halo effect" may have caused PCBs in soil in the heavily polluted FJ area to diffuse into the surrounding area. Soil-air exchange of PCBs in heavily contaminated FJ area may supply PCBs to air because the temperatures in Taizhou are often high. PCBs can accumulate in crops through various pathways. Less-chlorinated PCBs (mainly including Tri-PCBs) can enter crops by root uptake and translocated to the aerial tissues, and more-chlorinated PCBs (including Penta-PCBs and Hexa-PCBs) at high concentrations in soil can enter underground crop tissues through passive transport. More-chlorinated PCBs in underground tissues cannot be transferred to aboveground tissues of tall crops but may be transferred to aboveground tissues of short crops through the root-to-stem pathway and through soil dust being transferred to aboveground external surfaces.

17.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(2): 273-278, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748861

RESUMO

Zearalenone, a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium species, causes reproductive disorders and hyperestrogenic syndromes in animals and humans. The bacterial strain Bacillus velezensis ANSB01E, isolated from chicken cecal content, was capable of effectively degrading zearalenone in both liquid medium and mouldy corn. Moreover, Bacillus velezensis ANSB01E exhibited good antimicrobial activities against animal pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. Genome-based analysis revealed the presence of genes coding peroxiredoxin and alpha/beta hydrolase in Bacillus velezensis ANSB01E, which may be involved in zearalenone degradation. The study on the genome provides insights into the zearalenone degradation mechanisms and advances the potential application of Bacillus velezensis ANSB01E in food and feed industry.

18.
J Biomech ; 98: 109380, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630775

RESUMO

Young porcine brain is often used as a surrogate for studying the mechanical factors affecting traumatic brain injury in children. However, the mechanical properties of pediatric brain tissue derived from humans and piglets are very scarce, and this seriously detracts from the biofidelity of the developed finite element (FE) models of the pediatric head/brain. The present study addresses this issue by subjecting the cerebrum (white matter and gray matter), cerebellum, and brainstem specimens derived from 8-week-old piglets to tension and shear testing at strain rates of 0.01, 1, and 50/s. The experimental data are combined with the corresponding data derived from a previous study under compression to obtain comprehensive stress-strain curves of the pediatric porcine cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem tissue specimens. In general, the average stress level of the white matter is somewhat higher than that of the gray matter under the tension, shear and compression conditions, however, this difference does not reach a significant level. The stiffness of the cerebellum and the cerebrum does not differ significantly under tension and shear conditions, but the stiffness of the cerebellum is greater than that of the cerebrum under compression. The brainstem has significantly higher stiffness than the cerebrum and the cerebellum under all loading modes. In addition, the mechanical properties of brain tissue exhibit significant strain-rate dependences. With increasing strain rate from 0.01/s to 50/s, the average stress at a strain of 0.5 for all of the brain tissue increased by about 2.2 times under tension, about 2.4 times under shearing and about 2.2 times under compression. The variations in the stress as a function of the strain rate for brain tissue specimens were well characterized by exponential functions at strains of 0.25 and 0.5 under all three loading modes. The results of this study are useful for developing biofidelic FE models of the pediatric brain.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 385: 121521, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699484

RESUMO

Trichloroethylene (TCE), a widely used chlorinated solvent, is a common environmental pollutant. Current evidence shows that TCE could induce heart defects during embryonic development, but the underlining mechanism(s) remain unclear. Since activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) could induce oxidative stress, we hypothesized that AHR-mediated oxidative stress may play a role in the cardiac developmental toxicity of TCE. In this study, we found that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and AHR inhibitors, CH223191 (CH) and StemRegenin 1, significantly counteracted the TCE-induced heart malformations in zebrafish embryos. Moreover, both CH and NAC suppressed TCE-induced ROS and 8-OHdG (8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine). TCE did not affect ahr2 and cyp1a expression, but increased cyp1b1 expression, which was restored by CH supplementation. CH also attenuated the TCE-induced mRNA expression changes of Nrf2 signalling genes (nrf2b, gstp2, sod2, ho1, nqo1) and cardiac differentiation genes (gata4, hand2, c-fos, sox9b). In addition, the TCE enhanced SOD activity was attenuated by CH. Morpholino knockdown confirmed that AHR mediated the TCE-induced ROS and 8-OHdG generation in the heart of zebrafish embryos. In conclusion, our results suggest that AHR mediates TCE-induced oxidative stress, leading to DNA damage and heart malformations in zebrafish embryos.

20.
Cell Biol Int ; 44(2): 433-445, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31579960

RESUMO

Genistein is an isoflavone that has estrogen (E2 )-like activity and is beneficial for follicular development, but little is known regarding its function in oxidative stress (OS)-mediated granulosa cell (GC) injury. Here, we found that after exposure to H2 O2 , Genistein weakened the elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which were regarded as the biomarkers for OS, and rescued glutathione (GSH) content and GSH/GSSG ratio accompanying with a simultaneous increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level, whereas addition of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H89 impeded the effects of Genistein on the levels of ROS and MDA. Further analysis evidenced that Genistein enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH-peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in H2 O2 -treated GCs, but this enhancement was attenuated by H89. Under OS, Genistein improved cell viability and lessened the apoptotic rate of GCs along with a reduction in the activity of Casp3 and levels of Bax and Bad messenger RNA (mRNA), while H89 reversed the above effects. Moreover, Genistein treatment caused an obvious elevation in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) followed by a decline in the levels of intracellular mitochondrial superoxide, but H89 inhibited the regulation of Genistein on MMP and mitochondrial superoxide. Supplementation of Genistein promoted the secretion of E2 and increased the expression of Star and Cyp19a1 mRNA, whereas suppressed the level of progesterone (P4 ) accompanied with a decline in the level of Hsd3b1 mRNA expression. H89 blocked the regulation of Genistein on the secretion of E2 and P4 , and alleviated the ascending of Star and Cyp19a1 elicited by Genistein. Collectively, Genistein protects GCs from OS via cAMP-PKA signaling.

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