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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126869, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399216

RESUMO

In this paper, photocatalysts based on TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) and TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) sensitized by Cu(II) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-4-yl) porphyrin (CuTEPyP) were synthesized and their structures were characterized by various analytical methods. The photocatalytic activities of both composites were then investigated through degradation of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in aqueous solutions under visible light irradiation. It was found that CuTEPyP/TNTAs could eliminate 95% 4-NP within 4 h, which was considerably higher than the yield obtained with CuTEPyP/TNTs (56%) under the same conditions. Compared to CuTEPyP/TNTs, the improved photocatalytic activity of CuTEPyP/TNTAs can be ascribed to increased light absorption, high separation rate of photo-generated charge pairs, and efficient charge transfer. A plausible photocatalytic degradation mechanism involving hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radical anions and singlet oxygen species was also proposed. This work presents an efficient paradigm for eliminating 4-NP under visible light irradiation.

2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 559, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sucrose (Suc) hydrolysis is directly associated with plants tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses. Invertase (INV) enzymes irreversibly catalyze Suc degradation to produce glucose (Glc) and fructose (Frc). However, genome-wide identification and function of individual members of the INV gene family in Poncirus trifoliata or its Citrus relatives in response to abiotic stresses are not fully understood. RESULTS: In this report, fourteen non-redundant PtrINV family members were identified in P. trifoliata including seven alkaline/neutral INV genes (PtrA/NINV1-7), two vacuolar INV genes (PtrVINV1-2), and five cell wall INV isoforms (PtrCWINV1-5). A comprehensive analysis based on the biochemical characteristics, the chromosomal location, the exon-intron structures and the evolutionary relationships demonstrated the conservation and the divergence of PtrINVs. In addition, expression analysis of INV genes during several abiotic stresses in various tissues indicated the central role of A/NINV7 among INV family members in response to abiotic stresses. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that high accumulation of Suc, Glc, Frc and total sugar contents were directly correlated with the elevated activities of soluble INV enzymes in the cold-tolerant P. trifoliata, C. ichangensis and C. sinensis, demonstrating the potential role of soluble INV enzymes for the cold tolerance of Citrus. CONCLUSIONS: This work offered a framework for understanding the physiological role of INV genes and laid a foundation for future functional studies of these genes in response to abiotic stresses.

3.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(15): 4396-4408, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803506

RESUMO

Rationale: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by the dysfunction of "post-mitotic" podocytes. The reentry of podocytes in the cell cycle will ultimately result in cell death. Mitotic arrest deficient 2-like protein 2 (MAD2B), an inhibitor of anaphase-promoting complex (APC)/cyclosome, precisely controls the metaphase to anaphase transition and ordered cell cycle progression. However, the role of MAD2B in FSGS podocyte injury remains unknown. Methods: To explore MAD2B function in podocyte cell cycle reentry, we used conditional mutant mice lacking MAD2B selectively in podocytes in ADR-induced FSGS murine model. Additionally, KU-55933, a specific inhibitor of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) was utilized in vivo and in vitro to explore the role of ATM in regulating MAD2B. Results: The expression of MAD2B in podocytes was dramatically increased in patients with FSGS and ADR-treated mice along with podocyte cell cycle reentry. Podocyte-specific knockout of MAD2B effectively attenuated proteinuria, podocyte injury, and prevented the aberrant cell cycle reentry. By bioinformatics analysis we revealed that ATM kinase is a key upstream regulator of MAD2B. Furthermore, inhibition of ATM kinase abolished MAD2B-driven cell cycle reentry and alleviated podocyte impairment in FSGS murine model. In vitro studies by site-directed mutagenesis and immunoprecipitation we revealed ATM phosphorylated MAD2B and consequently hampered the ubiquitination of MAD2B in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Conclusions: ATM kinase-MAD2B axis importantly contributes to the cell cycle reentry of podocytes, which is a novel pathogenic mechanism of FSGS, and may shed light on the development of its therapeutic approaches.

4.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(22)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34832229

RESUMO

In the current study, an acrylic polymer binder applicable to road signs was successfully developed by mixing various acrylic, acrylate-type, and photoinitiator-based monomer species at different acrylate series/silicone acrylate ratios. An amorphous acrylic monomer was used, and the distance between the polymers was increased to improve transparency. The binder was designed with the purpose of reducing the yellowing phenomenon due to resonance by excluding the aromatic ring structure, which is the main cause of yellowing. The optical properties of the binder were determined according to the content of n-butyl methacrylate/methyl methacrylate and the composition of the crosslinking agent in the formulation. Allyl glycidyl ether and dilauroyl peroxide were used to improve the yellowing problem of benzoyl peroxide, an aromatic photoinitiator. Adding a silicone-based trivalent acrylic monomer, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA), was also found to have a significant effect on the transparency, shear properties, and water resistance of the binder. When 15 wt% TMSPMA was added, the best water repellency and mechanical properties were exhibited. The surface morphology of the improved binder and the peeling part were confirmed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The acrylic polymer developed in this study can be applied in the coating and adhesive industries.

5.
J Pers Med ; 11(11)2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34834503

RESUMO

One of the pathophysiologies of post-stroke spasticity (PSS) is the imbalance of the reticulospinal tract (RST) caused by injury to the corticoreticular pathway (CRP) after stroke. We investigated the relationship between injuries of the CRP and PSS using MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The subjects were divided into spasticity and control groups. We measured the ipsilesional fractional anisotropy (iFA) and contralesional fractional anisotropy (cFA) values on the reticular formation (RF) of the CRP were on the DTI images. We carried out a retrospective analysis of 70 patients with ischemic stroke. The cFA values of CRP in the spasticity group were lower than those in the control group (p = 0.04). In the sub-ROI analysis of CRP, the iFA values of pontine RF were lower than the cFA values in both groups (p < 0.05). The cFA values of medullary RF in the spasticity group were lower than the iFA values within groups, and also lower than the cFA values in the control group (p < 0.05). This results showed the CRP injury and that imbalance of RST caused by CRP injury was associated with PSS. DTI analysis of CRP could provide imaging evidence for the pathophysiology of PSS.

6.
Pain Res Manag ; 2021: 7849623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733377

RESUMO

Objective: Serratus anterior plane block (SAPB) provides effective thoracic analgesia. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of SAPB for postoperative analgesia after breast surgery. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for eligible randomised controlled trials. The primary outcomes involved the administration of intraoperative and postoperative opioids. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used for rating the quality of evidence for making recommendations. Results: Overall, 13 studies comprising 826 patients met the inclusion criteria (412 in the SAPB group and 414 in the control group). Patients treated with SAPB exhibited a significantly lower postoperative opioid consumption (mean difference, -38.51 mg of oral morphine equivalent; 95% confidence interval (CI), -60.97 to -16.05; P < 0.01; I 2 = 100%), whereas no difference was observed in the intraoperative opioid consumption (mean difference, -9.85 mg of oral morphine equivalent; 95% CI, -19.52 to -0.18; P=0.05; I 2 = 94%). In addition, SAPB significantly decreased the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (risk ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.19-0.55; P < 0.05;I 2 = 38%) and reduced pain scores during the postoperative period (1 h: standardised mean difference (SMD), -1.23; 95% CI, -2.00 to -0.45; I 2 = 92%; 2 h: SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.00 to -0.41; I 2 = 48%; 4 h: SMD, -1.52; 95% CI, -2.77 to -0.27; I 2 = 95%; 6 h: SMD, -0.80; 95% CI, -1.51 to -0.08; I 2 = 81%; 8 h: SMD, -1.12; 95% CI, -1.98 to -0.27; I 2 = 92%; 12 h: SMD, -0.78; 95% CI, -1.21 to -0.35; I 2 = 83%; and 24 h: SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.20 to -0.23; I 2 = 87%; P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: SAPB was safe and effective after breast surgery to relieve postsurgical pain. However, additional well-developed trials are required to validate these findings.

7.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(11): 1127-1131, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the consistency between nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in pathogen detection in children with pneumonia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on the data of pathogens detected in 533 children with pneumonia from February 2017 to March 2020. The paired McNemar's test was used to compare the difference in pathogen detection between NPA and BALF groups. The Kappa coefficient was used to analyze the consistency in pathogen detection between the two groups. RESULTS: NPA had a sensitivity of 28%, a specificity of 74%, a positive predictive value of 14%, and a negative predictive value of 91% in detecting bacteria, and a Kappa coefficient of 0.013 suggested poor consistency between NPA and BALF. NPA had a sensitivity of 52%, a specificity of 81%, a positive predictive value of 24%, and a negative predictive value of 94% in detecting viruses, and a Kappa coefficient of 0.213 suggested poor consistency between NPA and BALF. NPA had a sensitivity of 78%, a specificity of 71%, a positive predictive value of 49%, and a negative predictive value of 90% in detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and a Kappa coefficient of 0.407 suggested moderate consistency between NPA and BALF. CONCLUSIONS: There is poor consistency between NPA and BALF in the detection of bacteria and viruses, and clinicians should be cautious in diagnosing lower respiratory tract infection based on bacteria or viruses detected in NPA. There is moderate consistency between NPA and BALF in the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, suggesting that it may be reliable to diagnose lower respiratory tract infection based on Mycoplasma pneumoniae detected in NPA, while comprehensive judgment in combination with clinical conditions is needed.


Assuntos
Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Pneumonia , Infecções Respiratórias , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Criança , Humanos , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791022

RESUMO

Maternal childhood adversity and trauma may elicit biological changes that impact the next generation through epigenetic responses measured in DNA methylation (DNAm). These epigenetic associations could be modified by the early postnatal environment through protective factors such as early childhood home visiting (HV) programs that aim to mitigate deleterious intergenerational impacts of adversity. In a cohort of 53 mother-child pairs recruited 2015-2016 in the Pregnancy and Infant Development Study (Cincinnati, Ohio), we examined the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and neonatal DNAm in the SCG5 gene important in neuroendocrine function. We examined prenatal HV as an effect modifier. Mothers completed the ACE measure prenatally and infant buccal samples were collected at 1-month post-partum. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between maternal ACEs and neonatal DNAm expressed as M-values averaged across 4 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine dinucleotide sites. Higher maternal ACEs (>3) was associated with a 5.79 percentage point lower offspring DNAm (95% confidence interval: -10.44, -1.14), and the association was modified by the number of HVs received during pregnancy. In a population of at-risk mother-child dyads, preliminary evidence suggests that maternal ACEs have a relationship with offspring SCG5 DNAm that differs by the amount of prenatal HV.

9.
Cell Tissue Res ; 386(3): 661-677, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599689

RESUMO

Determining the source of primary cells is conductive to enriching sufficient cells with immortal potential thereby improving the success rate of establishing cell lines. However, most of the existing insect cell lines are established by mixing and fragmentation of explants. At present, the origin of cell lines can only be determined according to the cultured tissues, so it is impossible to determine which cell types they come from. In this study, a new cell line designated IOZCAS-Myse-1 was generated from pupal ovaries of the migratory pest Mythimna separata by explant tissues to derive adherent cultures. This paper mainly shows the further descriptive information on the origin of primary cells in the process of ovarian tissue isolation and culture. Phospho-histone H3 antibody-labeled cells with mitotic activity showed that the rapidly developing somatic cells in vivo gradually stopped proliferation when cultured ex vivo. The primary cells dissociated outside the tissue originated from the lumen cells, rather than the germ cells or the follicular epithelium cells. The results suggest that the newly established cell line IOZCAS-Myse-1 had two possible sources. One is the mutation of lumen cells in the vitellarium, and the other is the stem cells with differentiation potential in the germarium of the ovarioles. Moreover, the newly established cell line is sensitive to the infection of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, responds to 20-hydroxyecdysone and has weak encapsulation ability. Therefore, the new cell line can be a useful platform for replication of viral insecticides, screening of hormone-based insecticides and immunology research.

10.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(11): 980, 2021 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34675184

RESUMO

Pathological myocardial hypertrophy is regulated by multiple pathways. However, its underlying pathogenesis has not been fully explored. The goal of this work was to elucidate the function of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 4 (GALNT4) in myocardial hypertrophy and its underlying mechanism of action. We illustrated that GALNT4 was upregulated in the models of hypertrophy. Two cardiac hypertrophy models were established through partial transection of the aorta in GALNT4-knockout (GALNT4-KO) mice and adeno-associated virus 9-GALNT4 (AAV9-GALNT4) mice. The GALNT4-KO mice demonstrated accelerated cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction, and fibrosis, whereas the opposite phenotype was observed in AAV9-GALNT4 mice. Similarly, GALNT4 overexpression mitigated the degree of phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro whereas GALNT4 knockdown aggravated the hypertrophy. In terms of mechanism, GALNT4 deficiency increased the phosphorylation and activation of ASK1 and its downstream targets (JNK and p38), whereas GALNT4 overexpression inhibited activation of the ASK1 pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GALNT4 can directly bind to ASK1 inhibiting its N-terminally mediated dimerization and the subsequent phosphorylation of ASK1. Finally, an ASK1 inhibitor (iASK1) was able to reverse the effects of GALNT4 in vitro. In summary, GALNT4 may serve as a new regulatory factor and therapeutic target by blocking the activation of the ASK1 signaling cascade.

11.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 78(4): 240-244, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697279

RESUMO

Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. These mutations cause the accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the lysosomes. NPC has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, depending on the age of onset. A 15-day-old infant presented at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital with neonatal cholestasis and hepatosplenomegaly, with the onset of jaundice at 5 days of age. Despite supportive treatment, the patient was considered for a liver transplant because of progressive liver failure. Unfortunately, the patient died from gastrointestinal bleeding before undergoing the transplant. The neonatal cholestasis gene panel revealed two novel likely pathogenic variants in the NPC1 gene (c.1145C>G [p.Ser382*] and c.2231_2233del [p.Val744del]). The patient was diagnosed with NPC, and both parents were found to be carriers of each variant. In infants presenting with neonatal cholestasis, a gene panel can help diagnose NPC.


Assuntos
Colestase , Hepatopatias , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C , Criança , Colestase/diagnóstico , Colestase/genética , Colesterol , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mutação , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/diagnóstico , Doença de Niemann-Pick Tipo C/genética
12.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(5): G552-G575, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612070

RESUMO

Our understanding of human colonic motility, and autonomic reflexes that generate motor patterns, has increased markedly through high-resolution manometry. Details of the motor patterns are emerging related to frequency and propagation characteristics that allow linkage to interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) networks. In studies on colonic motor dysfunction requiring surgery, ICC are almost always abnormal or significantly reduced. However, there are still gaps in our knowledge about the role of ICC in the control of colonic motility and there is little understanding of a mechanistic link between ICC abnormalities and colonic motor dysfunction. This review will outline the various ICC networks in the human colon and their proven and likely associations with the enteric and extrinsic autonomic nervous systems. Based on our extensive knowledge of the role of ICC in the control of gastrointestinal motility of animal models and the human stomach and small intestine, we propose how ICC networks are underlying the motor patterns of the human colon. The role of ICC will be reviewed in the autonomic neural reflexes that evoke essential motor patterns for transit and defecation. Mechanisms underlying ICC injury, maintenance, and repair will be discussed. Hypotheses are formulated as to how ICC dysfunction can lead to motor abnormalities in slow transit constipation, chronic idiopathic pseudo-obstruction, Hirschsprung's disease, fecal incontinence, diverticular disease, and inflammatory conditions. Recent studies on ICC repair after injury hold promise for future therapies.

13.
Brain Res ; 1773: 147672, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606748

RESUMO

Wheat embryo globulin nutrient (WEGN), with wheat embryo globulin (WEG) as the main functional component, is a nutritional combination that specifically targets memory impairment. In this study, we explored the protective role of WEGN on Alzheimer's disease (AD)-triggered cognitive impairment, neuronal injury, oxidative stress, and acetylcholine system disorder. Specifically, we established an AD model via administration of d-galactose (d-gal) and Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) for 70 days, then on the 36th day, administered animals in the donepezil and WEGN (300, 600, and 900 mg/kg) groups with drugs by gavage for 35 days. Learning and memory ability of the treated rats was tested using the Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) test, while pathological changes and neuronal death in their hippocampus CA1 were detected via HE staining and Nissl staining. Moreover, we determined antioxidant enzymes by measuring levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum, cortex, and hippocampus, whereas changes in the acetylcholine system were determined by evaluating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, as well as choline acetylcholine (Ach) content. Results revealed that rats in the WEGN group exhibited significantly lower escape latency, as well as a significantly higher number of targeted crossings and longer residence times in the target quadrant, relative to those in the model group. Notably, rats in the WEGN group spent more time exploring new objects and exhibited lower damage to their hippocampus neuron, had improved learning and memory activity, as well as reversed histological alterations, relative to those in the model group. Meanwhile, biochemical examinations revealed that rats in the WEGN group had significantly lower MDA levels and AChE activities, but significantly higher GSH, SOD, and ChAT activities, as well as Ach content, relative to those in the model group. Overall, these findings indicate that WEGN exerts protective effects on cognitive impairment, neuronal damage, oxidative stress, and choline function in AD rats treated by d-gal/AlCl3.

14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7721-7730, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34596721

RESUMO

The steadily increasing prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) worldwide and the lack of effective therapeutic agent attract novel therapeutic approach in recent years. In view of the close relationships between gut microbiota and AD, probiotics have been suggested as potential therapeutic options for AD in recent years. The present review discussed the research progresses concerning the effects of probiotics administration to combat AD. A total of 35 studies, including 26 animal model studies and 9 human studies, were included herein. Among the 26 animal model studies, 24 used mice model, and 2 used Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster AD models, respectively. As for probiotics, a total of 13 studies employed single-strain probiotic, and the rest studies used multi-strain probiotics (ranged from 2 to 9 probiotic strains), 4 used probiotic-fermented milk or probiotic-fermented soybean, 2 studies used engineered probiotic strain, and 4 studies focused on the combined effect of probiotics with AD drug memantine, selenium, or exercise. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species were the most frequently used probiotics in the included studies. Overall, currently available studies showed that probiotic administration conferred neuroprotective benefits and could attenuate cognitive deficits and modulate gut microbiota dysbiosis, which may be related to oxidative and inflammatory pathways. Several perspectives on future studies on this topic are proposed. Thus, probiotics seem to be an attractive approach to combat AD, which deserves to be further studied by well-designed large-scale clinical studies. KEY POINTS: •We discussed the recent progresses concerning the effects of probiotics administration to combat AD. •A total of 35 associated studies consisted of 26 animal model studies and 9 human studies were included. •Most studies found that probiotic administration conferred neuroprotective benefits and could attenuate cognitive deficits.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bifidobacterium , Drosophila melanogaster , Camundongos
15.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1127-34, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) on distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosal injury and expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) mice at different time points. METHODS: A total of 51 C57BL/6N mice were randomized into a 7-day control group (n=8), a 7-day model group (n=7), a 7-day moxibustion group (n=7), a 14-day control group (n=6), a 14-day model group (n=14) and a 14-day moxibustion group (n=9). In the model groups and the moxibustion groups, 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was given for 7-day free drinking to establish the UC model. Three days into modeling, moxibustion was applied at "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the 7-day moxibustion group and the 14-day moxibustion group, once a day, 10 min a time for 5 days and 12 days respectively. HE staining was used to observe the morphology of colonic tissue, the percentages of distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosal injury were calculated. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detected the expressions of positive nerve fibers of distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa. RESULTS: Mucosal injury can be observed in mice after modeling, displaying epithelial layer disappearance, abnormal crypt structure or crypt disappearance. Compared with the 7-day control group, colon length was shortened (P<0.001), percentages of overall, distal, middle colonic mucosal injury were increased (P<0.001), the expressions of positive nerve fibers of distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa were increased (P<0.001, P<0.05, P<0.01) in the 7-day model group. Compared with the 7-day model group, the expressions of positive nerve fibers of middle and distal colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa were decreased in the 7-day moxibustion group (P<0.05). Compared with the 14-day control group, the colon length was shortened (P<0.01), percentage of overall colonic mucosal injury was increased (P<0.001) in the 14-day model group. Compared with the 14-day model group, colon length was lengthened (P<0.05), percentage of overall colonic mucosal injury was decreased (P<0.05) in the 14-day moxibustion group. CONCLUSION: Moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) can reduce the expressions of positive nerve fibers of colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa, thus, improve the colonic mucosal injury.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Moxibustão , Animais , Calcitonina , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Mucosa Intestinal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibras Nervosas
16.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642458

RESUMO

Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus is the most studied form of synaptic plasticity. Temporal integration of synaptic inputs is essential in synaptic plasticity and is assumed to be achieved through Ca2+ signaling in neurons and astroglia. However, whether these two cell types play different roles in LTP remain unknown. Here, we found that through the integration of synaptic inputs, astrocyte inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptor type 2 (IP3R2)-dependent Ca2+ signaling was critical for late-phase LTP (L-LTP) but not early-phase LTP (E-LTP). Moreover, this process was mediated by astrocyte-derived brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In contrast, neuron-derived BDNF was critical for both E-LTP and L-LTP. Importantly, the dynamic differences in BDNF secretion play a role in modulating distinct forms of LTP. Moreover, astrocyte- and neuron-derived BDNF exhibited different roles in memory. These observations enriched our knowledge of LTP and memory at the cellular level and implied distinct roles of astrocytes and neurons in information integration.

17.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 312, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635104

RESUMO

The inherent heterogeneity of individual cells in cell populations plays significant roles in disease development and progression, which is critical for disease diagnosis and treatment. Substantial evidences show that the majority of traditional gene profiling methods mask the difference of individual cells. Single cell sequencing can provide data to characterize the inherent heterogeneity of individual cells, and reveal complex and rare cell populations. Different microfluidic technologies have emerged for single cell researches and become the frontiers and hot topics over the past decade. In this review article, we introduce the processes of single cell sequencing, and review the principles of microfluidics for single cell analysis. Also, we discuss the common high-throughput single cell sequencing technologies along with their advantages and disadvantages. Lastly, microfluidics applications in single cell sequencing technology for the diagnosis of cancers and immune system diseases are briefly illustrated.

18.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 452, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families have a markedly elevated risk for impaired cognitive and social-emotional development. Children in poverty experience have a high risk for developmental delays. Poverty engenders disproportionate exposure to psychological adversity which may contribute to impaired offspring development; however the effect may be mitigated by social support and other aspects of resilience. Our objective was to determine the association between maternal stress, adversity and social support and early infant neurobehavior and child behavior at two and three years. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal mother-infant cohort study nested within a regional home visiting program in Cincinnati, Ohio. Four home study visits were completed to collect measures of maternal stress, adversity and social support and infant and child behavior. A measure of infant neurobehavior ('high-arousal' infant) was derived from the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) at 1 month and externalizing and internalizing symptoms were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at 24 and 36 months. Linear and logistic regression identified associations between maternal risk/protective factors and infant and child behavioral measures. We used stratification and multiplicative interaction terms to examine potential interactions. RESULTS: We enrolled n = 55 pregnant mothers and follow 53 mother-offspring dyads at 1 month, 40 dyads at 24 months and 27 dyads at 36 months. Maternal adversity and protective factors were not associated with neurobehavior at one month. However, maternal depression and measures of distress in pregnancy were significantly associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms at 24 and 36 months. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study established the feasibility of conducting longitudinal research within a community intervention program. In addition, although there were no statistically significant associations between maternal psychosocial factors in pregnancy and infant neurobehavior, there were several associations at 24 months, primarily internalizing symptoms, which persisted through 36 months. Future work will replicate findings within a larger study as well as explore mediators and modifiers of these associations.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Mães , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão , Feminino , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Lactente , Projetos Piloto , Gravidez
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696057

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to develop a new automated method for kidney volume measurement in children using ultrasonography (US) with image pre-processing and hybrid learning and to formulate an equation to calculate the expected kidney volume. The volumes of 282 kidneys (141 subjects, <19 years old) with normal function and structure were measured using US. The volumes of 58 kidneys in 29 subjects who underwent US and computed tomography (CT) were determined by image segmentation and compared to those calculated by the conventional ellipsoidal method and CT using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). An expected kidney volume equation was developed using multivariate regression analysis. Manual image segmentation was automated using hybrid learning to calculate the kidney volume. The ICCs for volume determined by image segmentation and ellipsoidal method were significantly different, while that for volume calculated by hybrid learning was significantly higher than that for ellipsoidal method. Volume determined by image segmentation was significantly correlated with weight, body surface area, and height. Expected kidney volume was calculated as (2.22 × weight (kg) + 0.252 × height (cm) + 5.138). This method will be valuable in establishing an age-matched normal kidney growth chart through the accumulation and analysis of large-scale data.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638867

RESUMO

Heparin has been extensively studied as a safe medicine and biomolecule over the past few decades. Heparin derivatives, including low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWH) and heparin pentasaccharide, are effective anticoagulants currently used in clinical settings. They have also been studied as functional biomolecules or biomaterials for various therapeutic uses to treat diseases. Heparin, which has a similar molecular structure to heparan sulfate, can be used as a remarkable biomedicine due to its uniquely high safety and biocompatibility. In particular, it has recently drawn attention for use in drug-delivery systems, biomaterial-based tissue engineering, nanoformulations, and new drug-development systems through molecular formulas. A variety of new heparin-based biomolecules and conjugates have been developed in recent years and are currently being evaluated for use in clinical applications. This article reviews heparin derivatives recently studied in the field of drug development for the treatment of various diseases.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular , Engenharia Tecidual , Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/uso terapêutico , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/química , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Humanos
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