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1.
Bone ; 130: 115121, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and cardiovascular (CV) diseases are closely correlated. RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway and Wnt signalling pathway both implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the effect of denosumab or romosozumab therapy on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with primary osteoporosis. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane library, and EMBASE databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to June 4, 2019. Randomized clinical trials evaluating the effect of denosumab or romosozumab versus active comparators or placebo for at least 6 months in patients with primary osteoporosis or osteopenia were included. Two investigators independently extracted data for study characteristics, outcomes of interest, and risk of bias in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: 17 relevant studies (denosumab: n=11, 13615 participants; romosozumab: n=6, 12219 participants) were included. No associations between denosumab therapy and risk of a composite cardiovascular outcome (1.06 [95 % CI, 0.88-1.28], p=0.54), three-point major adverse cardiovascular event (3P MACE, 1.01 [95 % CI, 0.83-1.23], p=0.93), and four-point major adverse cardiovascular event (4P MACE, 0.99 [95 % CI, 0.83-1.18], p=0.89) were identified. Romosozumab therapy did not increase the risk of composite cardiovascular outcome (1.26 [95 % CI, 0.95-1.68], p=0.11), and 3P MACE (1.41 [95 % CI, 0.99-2.02], p=0.06), while increased the risk of 4P MACE (1.39 [95 % CI, 1.01-1.90], p=0.04) among elderly men and postmenopausal woman with osteoporosis over a period of 12-36 months. Denosumab or romosozumab did not increase or reduce specific cardiovascular outcomes, including CV death or death, myocardial infarction, stroke, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, aortic and intracranial aneurysm, aortic dissection, aortic valve disease and hypertension (all p>0.05). Sensitivity analysis conducted by random effects model altered the result of 4P MACE in romosozumab (1.36 [0.99-1.87], p=0.06). No other significant difference was detected in the sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Denosumab therapy was not associated with any risk of composite and specific cardiovascular outcomes among patients with primary osteoporosis than active comparators or placebo, while romosozumab therapy might increase the risk of 4P MACE.

2.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(1): 66-78, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468637

RESUMO

AIM: To assess glycaemic control and factors associated with poor glycaemic control at initiation of second-line therapy in the DISCOVER programme. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DISCOVER (NCT02322762 and NCT02226822) comprises two similar prospective observational studies of 15 992 people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) initiating second-line glucose-lowering therapy in 38 countries across six regions (Africa, Americas, South-East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe and Western Pacific). Data were collected using a standardized case report form. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured according to standard clinical practice in each country, and factors associated with poor glycaemic control (HbA1c >8.0%) were evaluated using hierarchical regression models. RESULTS: HbA1c levels were available for 80.9% of patients (across-region range [ARR] 57.5%-97.5%); 92.2% (ARR 59.2%-99.1%) of patients had either HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose levels available. The mean HbA1c was 8.3% (ARR 7.9%-8.7%). In total, 26.7% of patients had an HbA1c level ≥9.0%, with the highest proportions in South-East Asia (35.6%). Factors associated with having HbA1c >8.0% at initiation of second-line therapy included low education level, low country income, and longer time since T2D diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The poor levels of glycaemic control at initiation of second-line therapy suggest that intensification of glucose-lowering treatment is delayed in many patients with T2D. In some countries, HbA1c levels are not routinely measured. These findings highlight an urgent need for interventions to improve monitoring and management of glycaemic control worldwide, particularly in lower-middle- and upper-middle-income countries.

4.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797549

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the efficacy and safety of Gla-300 versus Gla-100 in insulin-naïve people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asia Pacific. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, active-controlled, 26-week study, insulin-naïve participants with T2DM inadequately controlled with non-insulin antihyperglycaemic drugs were randomised (2:1) to Gla-300 or Gla-100. The initial daily dose of basal insulin was 0.2 U/kg and adjusted at least weekly for 8-12 weeks to a target fasting self-monitored plasma glucose (SMPG) of 4.4-5.6 mmol/L. RESULTS: Of the 604 participants randomised, 570 (Gla-300 n=375; Gla-100 n=195) completed the study. Non-inferiority of Gla-300 versus Gla-100 in HbA1c reduction from baseline to week 26 was confirmed. In the Gla-300 and Gla-100 groups, 51.1% and 52.2% of participants achieved HbA1c target <7.0% (rate ratio [95% CI]: 0.98 [0.84 to 1.14]) and 19.1% and 21.9% achieved target without hypoglycaemia during the last 12 weeks of treatment (rate ratio [95% CI]: 0.87 [0.63 to 1.20]). Changes in fasting plasma glucose and 24-hour average 8-point SMPG were comparable between groups. Incidence of hypoglycaemia at any time of day was similar between treatment groups at Week 26, but incidence of anynocturnal hypoglycaemia were numerically lower with Gla-300 than Gla-100 over the initial 12-week titration period and 26-week on-treatment period. Rates of adverse events were similar between groups and low for serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Glycaemic control of Gla-300 is non-inferior to Gla-100 with a similar or lower incidence and proportion of hypoglycaemia in people with T2DM in Asia Pacific, reinforcing the results in the global EDITION programme. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 107470, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706807

RESUMO

AIMS: The relationship between albuminuria and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was well characterized in hypertension (HTN), but not in diabetes. Moreover, most studies have described the correlation between albuminuria and cardiovascular mortality, but not cardiovascular diseases (CVD) morbidity. This study aimed to explore the relationship between albuminuria and LVH, CVD morbidity in patients with HTN, diabetes mellitus (DM) or HTN + DM. METHODS: Conducted a data analysis based on the demographic, medical history and laboratory data of 2504 patients from the ATTEND study, a national registry study on HTN and DM in Chinese outpatients. RESULTS: The prevalence of LVH and CVD was 7.7% and 21.5% in HTN + DM, 7.6% and 17.6% in HTN, 3.9% and 5.2% in DM patients. Subjects with HTN + DM implied higher risk of LVH (P = 0.023), CVD (P = 0.001) and 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) (P < 0.001) than those with DM only. There was no significant relationship between albuminuria and LVH or CVD. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-fifth of HTN and/or DM patients with microalbuminuria suffered from CVD. Comorbidity of DM and HTN significantly increases cardiovascular events than DM only. No statistical association between albuminuria and LVH or CVD was found.

6.
Diabetes Ther ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773420

RESUMO

With the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, particularly in emerging countries, its management in the context of available resources should be considered. International guidelines, while comprehensive and scientifically valid, may not be appropriate for regions such as Asia, Latin America or Africa, where epidemiology, patient phenotypes, cultural conditions and socioeconomic status are different from America and Europe. Although glycaemic control and reduction of micro- and macrovascular outcomes remain essential aspects of treatment, access and cost are major limiting factors; therefore, a pragmatic approach is required in restricted-resource settings. Newer agents, such as sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in particular, are relatively expensive, with limited availability despite potentially being valuable for patients with insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. This review makes a case for the role of more accessible second-line treatments with long-established efficacy and affordability, such as sulfonylureas, in the management of type 2 diabetes, particularly in developing or restricted-resource countries.

7.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 107464, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771933

RESUMO

AIMS: Our aim was to search for clinical predictors of good glycemic control in patients starting or intensifying oral hypoglycemic pharmacological therapy. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective cohort of 499 diabetic subjects was enrolled in this study: patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDM group) or poor glycemic control with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (PDM group). All subjects then started or intensified OADs therapy and followed up for 91 days. Glycemic control was determined according to HbA1c at day 91 with HbA1c <7% considered good. RESULTS: The proportions of patients with good glycemic control after follow up for 91 days were 66.9% and 34.8% in NDM group and PDM group respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the change in GA at 28 days was the only predictor of good glycemic control in NDM patients (OR = 1.630, 95% CI 1.300-2.044, P < 0.001). In PDM patients, changes in GA at 28 days, CPI, baseline HbA1c, diabetic duration, and BMI were all independent predictors of good glycemic control (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: GA decline is a good predictor of future success in newly diagnosed patients. In patients intensifying therapy, beside GA decline, other individualized clinical characteristics should also be considered.

8.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(11): 1654-1663, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603618

RESUMO

A subgroup analysis of the nationwide, cross-sectional 3B STUDY was performed to understand the current blood pressure (BP) control status and treatment patterns in Chinese diabetes patients as well as to identify factors associated with BP control. The demographic data, anthropometric parameters, and laboratory results were collected from 24 512 type 2 diabetes patients. The BP goal was a systolic BP <130 mm Hg and a diastolic BP <80 mm Hg regardless of a history of hypertension or current antihypertensive treatment. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 59.9% with geographical differences. Among the diabetes patients with hypertension, 76.9% received antihypertensive medicines. Calcium channel blockers (39.3%), angiotensin II receptor antagonists (26.6%), and then ß-blockers (14.0%) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (13.6%) were frequently used for BP control. Only 17.5% (n = 2658) of diabetes patients with hypertension reached the recommended target BP. Body mass index <24 kg/m2 , urban resident, frequent physical activity, good adherence to medication, comorbidity with cardiovascular disease, achieving glycemic goal (HbA1c <7.0%), achieving lipid goal (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L) were independent factors that predicted achievement of target BP goal. On the contrary, comorbidity with chronic kidney disease predicted failure to achieve target BP goal. Patients who were treated in a cardiology department or lived in the North were more likely to achieve BP goals. A considerable proportion of diabetic patients failed to achieve guideline-recommended BP targets. More aggressive efforts should be made to overcome the diverse barriers and facilitate the optimization of diabetes management.

9.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 7(1): e000728, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641525

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the risk of cancers of digestive system with incretin-based therapies among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research design and methods: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched for randomized controlled clinical trials that compared incretin-based drugs with placebo or other antidiabetic drugs. Paired reviewers independently screened citations, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. Network meta-analysis was performed, followed by subgroup analysis. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system was used to assess the quality of evidence. Results: A total of 84 studies (n=101 595) involving cancers of digestive system were identified (a median follow-up of 30 weeks). The risk of cancers of digestive system with incretin-based therapies was comparable with insulin (OR: 0.86, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.69), metformin (OR: 0.32, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.38), sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (OR: 5.26, 95% CI 0.58 to 47.41), sulfonylureas (OR: 1.27, 95% CI 0.68 to 2.39), thiazolidinediones (OR: 0.42, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.42), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (OR: 2.98, 95% CI 0.12 to 73.80), and placebo (OR: 0.87, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05). The results of subgroup analysis based on the type of digestive system cancers indicated that incretin-based therapies did not increase the risk of gastrointestinal cancers, respectively. The results of subgroup analysis based on age, duration, mean HbA1c, trial duration, and sample size did not indicate the risk of digestive system cancers. Conclusions: Moderate to high Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation evidence suggests that incretin-based therapies were not associated with an increased risk of cancer of digestive system in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545362

RESUMO

AIM: The objectives of the present study were to compare bone characteristics with QCT and other metabolic factors relevant to bone health in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes and to evaluate the association of various lab factors with bone characteristics qualified by QCT. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based survey of diabetes and metabolic syndrome was conducted in Pinggu, China. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted, and QCT was tested. The volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) of Lumbar vertebra 2-4 was measured. RESULTS: Among the 4001 eligible participants, the average age was 47.41±11.86 years. The prevalence of osteoporosis evaluated by QCT was 10.6% in the NGT group, 14.8% in the IGT group, and 16.9% in the DM group. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age was negatively associated with vBMD, while BMI and the waist-hip ratio were positively associated with vBMD across all participants. However, the levels of HbA1c, FPG and PPG were not associated with vBMD after adjusting for sex, age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-c, HDL-c, FT4, FT3, TSH, UACR, CRE, and SUA. CONCLUSION: We found that the prevalence of osteoporosis evaluated by QCT was 10.6% in the NGT group, 14.8% in the IGT group, and 16.9% in the DM group. The levels of HbA1c, FPG and PPG were not associated with vBMD after adjusting for metabolic factors in a Chinese sample.

11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512365

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of metformin in delaying or preventing progression to diabetes in a Chinese population with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicentre, randomized, open-label, controlled study (NCT03441750) will assess the efficacy of metformin in preventing diabetes over ≥2 years. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned (1:1) to lifestyle intervention (LSI) or metformin plus LSI, with stratification based on blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication use and isolated/non-isolated impaired fasting glucose. All participants will receive LSI advice. Participants in the metformin plus LSI group will receive metformin 850 mg once daily for the first 2 weeks, and twice daily thereafter, according to tolerability. RESULTS: The primary objective is to compare rates of newly diagnosed diabetes in the two intervention groups. Changes in glycaemia, blood pressure, body weight, insulin resistance, and safety outcomes will also be evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: This large clinical trial in a Chinese population with IGR aims to provide critical information to guide clinical decision-making in order to alleviate the current diabetes epidemic.

12.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 1747684, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485449

RESUMO

Introduction: Urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio (UCPCR) is used as a marker of endogenous insulin secretion. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of UCPCR for distinguishing between type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and non-T1DM (monogenic diabetes and T2DM) and predicting therapeutic choices in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Methods: Twenty-three patients with genetically confirmed monogenic diabetes (median age 35.0 years (interquartile range 30.0-47.0), 13 (56.5%) men), 56 patients with T1DM (median age 46.0 years (interquartile range 26.5-59.5), 28 (50.0%) men), 136 patients with T2DM (median age 53.0 years (interquartile range 42.0-60.0), 87 (64.0%) men), and 59 healthy subjects (median age 36.0 years (30.0-42.0), 26 (44.1%) men) were included. UCPCR was collected in the morning. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify optimal UCPCR cut-off values to differentiate T1DM from non-T1DM. This UCPCR cut-off was used to divide T2DM patients into two groups, and the two groups were compared. Results: The UCPCR was lower in patients with T1DM compared with T2DM, monogenic diabetes, and healthy subjects, while the UCPCR was similar in T2DM and monogenic diabetes. A UCPCR cut-off of ≥0.21 nmol/mmol distinguished between monogenic diabetes and T1DM (area under the curve [AUC], 0.949) with 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. UCPCR ≥ 0.20 nmol/mmol had 82% sensitivity and 93% specificity for distinguishing between T2DM and T1DM, with an AUC of 0.932. UCPCR was not reliable for distinguishing between monogenic diabetes and T2DM (AUC, 0.605). Twenty-five of 136 (18.4%) T2DM patients had UCPCR ≤ 0.20 nmol/mmol. Compared with T2DM patients with a UCPCR > 0.20 nmol/mmol, T2DM patients with UCPCR ≤ 0.20 nmol/mmol had a lower serum C-peptide (fasting C-peptide, 0.39 nmol/L vs. 0.66 nmol/L, P < 0.001; postprandial C-peptide, 0.93 nmol/L vs. 1.55 nmol/L, P < 0.001), lower BMI (22.8 kg/m2 vs. 25.2 kg/m2, P = 0.006), and higher percentage of insulin or secretagogue therapy (92.0% vs. 59.5%, P = 0.002). Conclusions: UCPCR is a practical and noninvasive marker that can distinguish between TIDM and T2DM or monogenic diabetes. UCPCR ≤ 0.20 nmol/mmol reflects severe impaired beta cell function and the need for insulin or secretagogue therapy in T2DM patients.

13.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 9347132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485457

RESUMO

Identifying factors that may impact vildagliptin's efficacy could contribute to individualized treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes. In the current study, we aimed to assess the correlation between patient baseline triglyceride (TG) and efficacy of vildagliptin in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes in a post hoc analysis of the VISION study. TG-based subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate baseline TG's impact on the decrease of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients receiving vildagliptin plus low-dose metformin (VLDM) vs. high-dose metformin (HDM). Additionally, multivariate linear regression was performed to assess the association between baseline TG and HbA1c reduction at weeks 12 and 24 for patients receiving VLDM vs. HDM. For patients receiving VLDM, baseline TG ≤ 2.03 mmol/L was associated with significantly greater HbA1c reduction vs. TG > 2.03 mmol/L at week 12, but not at week 24. Additionally, multivariate linear regression analysis revealed a significant independent association and an association short of statistical significance between patient baseline TG and the HbA1c-reducing efficacy of VLDM at weeks 12 (P < 0.001) and 24 (P = 0.082), respectively, while such association was absent for HDM. Collectively, baseline TG was an independent predictive factor for the efficacy of a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV in treating type 2 diabetes during its initial use.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12086, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427625

RESUMO

To identify the factors associated with serum total bilirubin (STB) and determine whether STB is independently associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) or diabetic kidney disease (DKD), 1,665 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) (248 outpatients newly diagnosed with T2DM [NDM] and 1,417 inpatients previously diagnosed with T2DM [PDM]) were studied. Clinical and biochemical information was collected, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs6704078) of the UGT1A1 gene was genotyped in 1,059 individuals. Multiple linear regression showed that STB was associated with haemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and serum triglyceride concentration in NDM and PDM patients, and with serum albumin, duration of diabetes, and smoking in PDM patients. In patients with PDM, multiple logistic regression revealed that serum albumin was associated with DR (odds ratio [OR] = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-0.96, p = 0.001) and DKD (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005) after adjustment for STB, STB-related factors, and risk factors for DR and DKD. In addition, patients with the T allele of rs6704078 had higher STB (13.2 [10.4-17.9] µmol/L versus 11.8 (9.4-14.8) µmol/L; p < 0.001) and similar risks of DR or DKD to those without the T allele. Thus, serum albumin, but not STB, is associated with DR and DKD.

15.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 1534365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396537

RESUMO

Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective glucose-lowering drugs, but there is concern that they may increase the risk of malignant neoplasia. The present meta-analysis examined the safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists with regard to malignant neoplasia. Methods: We analyzed data from randomized controlled trials with a minimum duration of 24 weeks that assessed the incidence of neoplasms in type 2 diabetes patients receiving GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with placebo or other hypoglycemic drugs. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases with a language restriction of English through October 1, 2018, and carried out a meta-analysis of the available trial data using a fixed effects model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for neoplasia. Results: Thirty-four relevant articles, providing data for 50452 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the incidence of malignant neoplasia with placebo or other interventions, no increase in malignant neoplasm formation was observed with the use of GLP-1 receptor agonists (OR 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.15; p = 0.46), liraglutide (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27; p = 0.38), exenatide (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86-1.16; p = 1.00), semaglutide (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35-2.22; p = 0.80), or albiglutide (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.23-4.88; p = 0.93). A subanalysis of trials lasting longer than 3 years also showed no increase in the neoplasia risk with GLP-1 receptor agonist use (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.92-1.15; p = 0.60). Between-trial statistical heterogeneity was low for all comparisons. Conclusion: GLP-1 receptor agonists can be used without safety concerns related to malignant neoplasia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

16.
J Diabetes ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess whether early life exposure to the Chinese famine (1959-1961) modifies the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. METHODS: Data from 4247 adults born between 1954 and 1964 from the 2011 and 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were analyzed. CVD in 2011 and 2015 was based on self-reported doctor's diagnosis of cardiac events (heart attack, coronary heart disease, angina, congestive heart failure, or other heart problems) and stroke. Diabetes in 2011 was defined by fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, or known diabetes. RESULTS: Diabetes in 2011 was cross-sectionally associated with an increase of CVD risk in 2011 (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.53-2.40, P < 0.001) after adjusting for age and gender. Famine exposure changed the association between diabetes and CVD in areas severely affected by famine. The odds ratios (OR) of diabetes in 2011 for CVD in 2015 were 1.24 (95%CI 0.73-2.10), 1.27 (95%CI 0.72-2.24), 2.25 (95%CI 1.29-3.91), 4.31 (95%CI 2.07-8.97) and 1.72 (95%CI 0.84-3.51) among adults in late childhood-, mid-childhood-, early childhood-, fetal-, and nonexposed cohorts in severe famine areas, respectively. CONCLUSION: T2DM is associated with the risk of CVD among Chinese adults. Fetal and early childhood exposure to the Chinese famine exacerbated the associated risk.

17.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 25(5): e12757, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261444

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a culturally sensitive nurse-led structured education programme for patients with type 2 diabetes. BACKGROUND: A nurse-led satisfactory diabetes education programme might be feasible. The structured education programme is considered a potential model that helps patients manage diabetes. DESIGN: A mixed-method design. METHODS: A convenience sample of 44 participants received the programme. Feasibility was assessed using the recruitment rate and the retention rate. Acceptability was assessed by interviews to obtain the perception and experience of participants. Also, preliminary efficacy on diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, self-management behaviours, and clinical outcomes was assessed. Finally, data were collected from April to December 2015. RESULTS: The recruitment rate and the retention rate were acceptable. Participants thought that the programme contributed to their positive changes. They enjoyed and accepted the programme, and they wanted to gain the ongoing support. Significant improvements in diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, self-management behaviours, A1C , fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were reported in 12-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This programme is feasible and acceptable, and its preliminary efficacy is promising. Ongoing support, a control group, and long-term follow-up are required in future studies to assess its effectiveness.

18.
Endocr Res ; : 1-8, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184515

RESUMO

Background: To identify the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics related to the occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and frequent hypoglycemia in children, adolescents and adults with type 1 diabetes in China. Methods: The 3C Study was an epidemiological study that recruited 849 type 1 diabetes patients aged 0-78 years in Beijing and Shantou, China. Separate logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of sociodemographic and clinical factors with the occurrence of DKA in the past 12 months or frequent hypoglycemia (≥5 episodes) in the past 7 days. Results: Children and adolescents were significantly more likely to have DKA in the past 12 months compared to adults: odds ratio (OR) and (95% confidence interval [CI]), 4.67 (1.90, 11.52) for <13 years and 4.00 (1.59, 10.10) for 13 to <19 years. Underweight participants were also more likely to have DKA relative to normal weight participants: OR (95% CI), 6.87 (2.64, 17.87). Children and participants who did not receive diabetes education in the past 12 months were more likely to have frequent hypoglycemia: OR (95% CI), 2.95 (1.23, 7.06) and 7.67 (1.77, 13.2), respectively. Participants who reported self-monitoring of blood glucose ≤2 times/week (ref: 7 times/week) and participants who had higher HbA1c levels were less likely to have frequent hypoglycemia: OR (95% CI), 0.14 (0.03, 0.64) and 0.78 (0.63, 0.96), respectively. Gender, family income, parent education, health insurance coverage, diabetes duration, and insulin administration method were not significantly associated with DKA or frequent hypoglycemia in this sample. Conclusions: Children, adolescents and underweight individuals with type 1 diabetes in China were more likely to report DKA, and children, individuals without adequate diabetes education, and those with lower HbA1c levels were more likely to have frequent hypoglycemia. These patients should be targeted for preventive interventions.

19.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161658

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Data of nationwide glycemic control and hypoglycemic treatment patterns in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients in China are absent. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of treatment patterns for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients and the clinical outcomes during 12-month follow up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is an observational prospective cohort study with 12 months of follow up. Patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes for <6 months were enrolled. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and hypoglycemic treatment patterns were collected at baseline and at every 3 months of follow up. RESULTS: A total of 79 hospitals were recruited, consisting of 5,770 participants. The mean HbA1c was 8.4 ± 2.5% at baseline, and decreased to 6.7 ± 1.2% at 12 months with 68.5% of patients achieving HbA1c <7%. At baseline, 44.6% of the patients were without hypoglycemic medications, 37.7% had oral hypoglycemic agents and 17.7% received insulin treatment. Determinants of change in HbA1c were treatment patterns, comorbidities, baseline characteristics such as obesity and smoking, regions, and tiers of hospitals. Associated factors with treatment alterations were time of follow up, treatment patterns, patient-reported reasons such as the economic factors and poor efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: In newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients, compared with patients without medications, patients with one oral hypoglycemic agent had higher possibilities of reaching glycemic control, whereas patients using insulin had lower possibilities of reaching the target. Factors associated with change in HbA1c and treatment alterations were also revealed.

20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(11): 2349-2353, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215715

RESUMO

The global burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing, indicating an urgent need for improved disease prevention and management strategies. Contemporary, global, real-world data, collected in a consistent way, on the characteristics, treatment and outcomes of people with T2D are lacking, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where disease burden is increasing most rapidly. The DISCOVER study programme (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT02322762 and NCT02226822) is a global, prospective, 3-year programme of observational research, which has been designed to fill this knowledge gap. DISCOVER is being conducted in 38 countries across six continents, including several lower-middle- and upper-middle-income countries where patients have rarely or never been studied previously. In total, 15 992 people with T2D who had initiated a second-line glucose-lowering therapy have been recruited. Data being collected include information on demographics, clinical and treatment characteristics, socio-economic status, clinical outcomes and patient-reported outcomes. Findings from DISCOVER will provide unique insights into current patterns of T2D care worldwide, which should contribute to informing clinical guidelines and health policy, and may help to improve patient care.

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