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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(7): e015323, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223390

RESUMO

Background Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) have shown their beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes and multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension. However, the mechanism of blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects of these agents has not been elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hemoglobin A1c reduction or body weight reduction with GLP-1RA treatment and SGLT2i treatment on BP changes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results Studies were identified by a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register until June 2019. Meta-regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between hemoglobin A1c reduction or body weight reduction and changes of BP. A total of 184 trials were included. Both GLP-1RA and SGLT2i led to significant reductions in systolic BP (weighted mean difference, -2.856 and -4.331 mm Hg, respectively; P<0.001 for both) and diastolic BP (weighted mean difference, -0.898 and -2.279 mm Hg, respectively; P<0.001 for both). For both drug classes, hemoglobin A1c reduction was not independently associated with systolic BP reduction or diastolic BP reduction. In GLP-1RA treatment, weight reduction was positively associated with systolic BP reduction and diastolic BP reduction (ß=0.821 and ß=0.287, respectively; P<0.001 for both). In SGLT2i treatment, weight loss was significantly associated with systolic BP reduction (ß=0.820; P=0.001) but was not associated with diastolic BP reduction. Conclusions Treatment with GLP-1RA and SGLT2i led to significant reductions in BP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Weight reduction was significantly and independently associated with BP reductions in GLP-1RA treatment and SGLT2i treatment.

2.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227466

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are substantial differences in genes, diet, culture, and environment between the Northern and Southern Chinese populations, which may influence treatment strategy and screening policy. We studied the differences in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic complications between Northern and Southern China. METHODS: We did a cross-sectional survey using data from the China Cardiometabolic Registries on blood pressure, blood lipids, and blood glucose in 25,398 Chinese T2D patients. Macrovascular, microvascular, and other complications were collected by self-report or medical records, and then divided into the Northern and Southern groups by the boundary of the Yangtze River. RESULTS: Northern patients were younger and had heavier weight, greater body-mass index and waist circumference, higher blood pressure, higher total cholesterol, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and higher hemoglobin A1C. The prevalence of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and macrovascular complications were 1.76 times, 1.24 times, and 1.47 times more in Northern than that in Southern Chinese patients. In addition, the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and microvascular complications in Northern Chinese patients also increased. When stratified by age, the difference in both cardiovascular disease and ischemic stroke morbidity became significant even in the 35-44 age group. CONCLUSIONS: More macrovascular and microvascular complications were found in Northern compared to Southern patients, and the largest difference also appeared in the younger age groups under 55, which may be meaningful to a screening and treatment strategy according to geographic differences.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238361

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young caused by hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1A) variants (HNF1A-MODY) is a common form of monogenetic diabetes. Although patients with HNF1A-MODY might specifically benefit from sulfonylurea treatment, available methods for screening this specific type of diabetes are not cost-effective. This study was designed to establish an optimized clinical strategy based on multiple biomarkers to distinguish patients with HNF1A-MODY from clinically diagnosed early-onset type 2 diabetes (EOD) for genetic testing in a Chinese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A case-control study including 125 non-related young patients with EOD and 15 probands with HNF1A-MODY (cohort 1) was conducted to evaluate reported biomarkers for HNF1A-MODY. A cut-off for the fasting insulin (Fins) level, the 97.5 percentile of 150 healthy subjects with normal components of metabolic syndrome (cohort 2), was used to filter out individuals with obvious insulin resistance (Fins <102 pmol/L). An optimized clinical screening strategy (HNF1A-CSS) was established, and its effectiveness was assessed in another group of 410 young patients with EOD (cohort 3). RESULTS: In cohort 1, body mass index (BMI), serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were confirmed to be useful for the differential diagnosis of HNF1A-MODY. In cohort 3, eight probands with HNF1A-MODY were identified. In cohort 3 and young relatives with HNF1A-MODY, meeting three of four criteria (BMI <28 kg/m2, hs-CRP <0.75 mg/L, Fins <102 pmol/L and HDL-c >1.12 mmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity of HNF1A-CSS were 100% and 69.3%, respectively. In the pooled analysis of all young patients, HNF1A-CSS displayed 90.5% sensitivity and 73.6% specificity for identifying patients with HNF1A-MODY among those with clinically diagnosed EOD. CONCLUSION: Our HNF1A-CSS is useful for distinguishing patients with HNF1A-MODY from patients with EOD in a young Chinese population.

5.
J Diabetes Complications ; : 107537, 2020 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107122

RESUMO

AIM: The present study is undertaken to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MS) and lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. METHODS: A multi-center cross-sectional study was conducted on 8374 T2DM patients (4521 males and 3853 females) from 30 hospitals across China from June 2016 to January 2017. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were presented to show the association between MS and LEAD. The univariate and multiple logistic analyses were performed to examine the association between MS and the prevalence of LEAD. Furthermore, the relationship was analyzed in different sex groups. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the number and individual of MS components. RESULTS: Finally, 1809(21.60%) T2DM patients meet the diagnostic criteria of LEAD. Of the 3853 female subjects, 841(21.83%) patients were in the LEAD group and of the 4521 male subjects, 968(21.41%) patients were in the LEAD group. When adjusting for confounding variables, MS was significantly associated with the prevalence of LEAD in all enrolled T2DM patients (OR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.09-1.37, P = 0.001). However, upon analyzing LEAD in different sex groups, the significant association remained in females (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.12-1.58, P < 0.001), but not in males (OR = 1.11, 95%CI: 0.95-1.29, P = 0.202). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that MS is specifically associated with an increased risk of LEAD in female T2DM patients. However, MS may not be a significant factor in the prevalence of LEAD in male T2DM patients.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3182, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081869

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of lower extremity atherosclerotic disease (LEAD) in Chinese adult type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, and also explored the risk factors for LEAD and developed simple-to-use nomograms for LEAD and lesion degree in these patients. We retrospectively studied 4422 patients (male = 2084; female = 2338) with T2D who were ≥50. Based on lower extremity arterial ultrasound findings, we divided the patients into three groups: normal, mild, and moderate-to-severe group. The factors related to LEAD in patients with T2D were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The risk factors for moderate-to-severe LEAD included: high HbA1c (OR = 1.07 95% CI 1.02-1.13), diabetic peripheral neuropathy (OR = 1.93 95% CI 1.57-2.37), and diabetic retinopathy (OR = 1.26 95%CI 1.01-1.57). The overall areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the nomograms for predicting the risks of LEAD and moderate-to-severe LEAD in adult T2D patients were 0.793 (95%CI 0.720, 0.824) and 0.736 (95%CI 0.678, 0.795), respectively. The developed nomograms are simple to use and enable preliminary visual prediction of the risk and degree of LEAD in Chinese T2D patients over 50 years. The nomograms are accurate to a certain degree and provide a clinical basis for predicting the occurrence and progression of LEAD.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e19052, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028423

RESUMO

Disturbances in adipocytokine profiles can contribute to peripheral insulin resistance and impairment of insulin production, which are 2 primary pathophysiological mechanisms involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies of disturbed adipocytokine profiles have resulted in ambiguous findings; therefore, we conducted the current study comparing leptin, resistin, and adiponectin concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM who had normal body mass index (BMI) and those who were obese.We studied a population-based cohort of healthy participants and those with newly diagnosed T2DM. A normal BMI group was randomly selected; age- and sex-matched obese participants were recruited. Circulating leptin, resistin, and adiponectin concentrations were measured and compared between groups using analysis of variance; binary logistic regression analysis was then performed to compare the normal BMI and obese groups.In total, 85 healthy participants and 38 patients with diabetes (19 with normal BMI and 17 who were obese) were enrolled. After adjustment for BMI and waist circumference, the median leptin concentration was higher in the obese group (6.77 (3.89-10.73) ng/mL) than in the normal BMI group (1.69 (0.80-3.89) ng/mL) (P = .007), whereas the median adiponectin concentration was lower in the obese group (1.03 (0.75-2.36) µg/mL vs 3.36 (0.59-7.63) µg/mL, P = .03). In addition, the adiponectin/leptin ratio was higher in the normal BMI group (145.6 (41.3-495.9) ng/mL) than in the obese group (20.55 (8.74-36.94) ng/mL, P = .002).Compared with the normal BMI T2DM group, the obese T2DM group exhibited a disturbed adipocytokine profile in the form of a significantly increased leptin concentration and reduced adiponectin level. Further studies are needed to determine the causal relationship for this difference and evaluate its importance for personalized diabetic treatment.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Resistina/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura
8.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020779

RESUMO

Hemoglobin (Hb) North Manchester [ß51(D2) Pro→His; HBB:c.155 C>A] is a rare Hb ß-globin gene variant that affects glycated Hb measurement values, such as ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, in patients with diabetes. This variant was first detected in the UK in 1998. Here, we describe the first case involving Hb North Manchester detected incidentally in a patient with type 2 diabetes in Northern China. The Hb variant was discovered by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography, yet capillary electrophoresis of both glycated Hb program and Hb program failed to detect it. Subsequently, Sanger sequencing was carried out to help identify the Hb variant.

9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904080

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test is a standard test for diabetes screening and diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate A1c performance for diabetes screening in high-altitude polycythemia compared to a population with a high proportion of people living in an oxygen-deficient environment. DESIGN: A population-based epidemiological survey was conducted. SETTING: The cities Lhasa and Shigatse were selected. Volunteers were recruited through educational advertisements about diabetes. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1401 Tibetan adults without known diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), HbA1c, and complete blood cell count were performed. Hemoglobin A1c was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography, and serum glucose level, using the hexokinase method. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: World Health Organization criteria were used to define diabetes and prediabetes. Hemoglobin A1c test performance was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: The participants' mean age was 44.3 ± 15.0 years; 33.3% of the participants were men and 38.6% lived in urban areas. The prediabetes and diabetes prevalence rates were 7.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The optimal HbA1c cutoff for detecting diabetes was 46 mmol/mol (6.4%), with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.8% and 93.6%, respectively. The cutoff for detecting diabetes was 6.7% (50 mmol/mol) in subjects with high-altitude polycythemia (HAPC). The relationship between red blood cell (RBC) counts and HbA1c was significant (P < 0.001), while there was no correlation between hemoglobin (Hb) and HbA1c (P = 0.085). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and fasting serum glucose or 2-hour OGTT (OGTT2h) serum glucose, RBC count and not Hb level was an independent risk factor for HbA1c (ß = 0.140, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The optimal HbA1c cutoff for detecting diabetes was 46 mmol/mol (6.4%) in Tibet. Red blood cell count was an independent risk factor for elevated HbA1c, and HAPC may affect the predictive ability of HbA1c.

10.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981444

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to analyze the strength of association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial glucose (2h PPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), disposition index (DI) and nine anthropometrics measures, to explore the best indicator for hyperglycemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data of 3,572 adults from the Pinggu Metabolic Disease Study. Anthropometrics were measured, visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area were calculated using an abdominal computed tomography scan. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between FPG, 2h PPG, HbA1c, DI and nine anthropometrics measures (height, weight, waist circumference [WC], body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio, VFA, subcutaneous fat area, and visceral-to-subcutaneous ratio). Logistic regression was further carried out to understand the association between per standard increase and risk for hyperglycemia. RESULTS: Higher VFA and subcutaneous fat area were associated with higher FPG, 2h PPG, HbA1c and DI after adjusting for other covariates. The strongest association observed after adjustment was WC for FPG, with one standard deviation greater WC being associated with 1.70 increased odds; WHR for 2h PPG, with one standard deviation greater WHR being associated with 1.83 increased odds. The strength of the association between VFA and FPG, 2h PPG, HbA1c, and DI was less than WHR and WC, but slightly stronger than body mass index. Stratified analyses showed that VFA performs better as an anthropometrics indicator in predicting hyperglycemic risk in women than men. CONCLUSIONS: WHR and WC remain the best indicators for hyperglycemic risk among ahealthy Chinese population.

11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(5): 838-846, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944546

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the safety of a higher starting dose of basal insulin in overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This 16-week, randomized, multicentre, open-label trial enrolled adults with T2D (body mass index 25-40 kg/m2 ) and suboptimal glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.5-11.0% [58-97 mmol/mol] and fasting plasma glucose [FPG] >9.0 mmol/L) with two to three oral anti-hyperglycaemic drugs at 51 centres in China. Patients were randomized (1:1) to a higher (0.3 U/kg) or standard (0.2 U/kg) starting dose of insulin glargine 100 U/mL, which was then titrated to achieve a self-monitored fasting blood glucose (FBG) of 4.4 to 5.6 mmol/L. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with ≥1 episode of overall confirmed hypoglycaemia (≤3.9 mmol/L or severe). RESULTS: At the end of study (n = 866), 11.0% patients treated with the 0.3 U/kg starting insulin dose experienced overall confirmed hypoglycaemia versus 8.6% of patients treated with 0.2 U/kg (estimated difference 2.1%, 95% confidence interval - 1.68, 5.89). The proportions of patients with symptomatic (9.8% vs 7.0%; P = 0.128) and nocturnal hypoglycaemia (2.7% vs 1.2%; P = 0.102) were similar in the two groups. There were no events of severe hypoglycaemia or FBG <3.0 mmol/L during the 16-week treatment, and achievement of HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) (37.1% vs 37.1%) or FPG <5.6 mmol/L (15.9% vs 16.3%), <6.1 mmol/L (27.6% vs 26.1%), or < 7.0 mmol/L (48.8% vs 48.3%) without hypoglycaemia were comparable in the two groups. Moreover, the mean time was shorter (4.53, 3.95 and 2.74 weeks vs 5.51, 5.21 and 3.64 weeks) and number of titrations was lower (3.5, 3.0 and 2.0 vs 4.3, 4.0 and 2.8) to achieve self-monitored FBG targets of <5.6, <6.1 and <7.0 mmol/L in the higher versus the standard insulin dose group (all P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Among overweight/obese patients with T2D, a higher insulin starting dose was as safe as the standard starting dose, and self-monitored FBG targets were achieved earlier with the higher versus the standard dose.

12.
Endocr Connect ; 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with a higher risk of premature death, but there are factors in certain patients with T1DM that protect them from complications and premature death. These factors had not been identified in non-Caucasian populations, so we aimed to identify factors that protect against the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in long-standing T1DM in China. METHODS: 95 T1DM patients with >30 years' duration of diabetes were enrolled in this nationwide study. Differences between groups of patients with and without complications were compared, and multivariable regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between candidate protective factors and the development of DN or DR. RESULTS: 30 of the participants did not have DN and the same amount did not have DR. 6/52 of participants without DN were from a rural area, whereas 11/28 of participants with DN had been born in a rural area (p=0.005). Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was higher in participants with DN (135±26 mmHg vs. 121±13 mmHg; p=0.002). In participants without DR, 27/30 were married or cohabitating, and only 3/30 were single, never married, or widowed, but for those with proliferative DR (PDR), 13/26 had been married (p=0.003). A rural or urban origin and SBP were associated with DN in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: We have shown that higher socioeconomic status, indicated by birth in an urban area, and being married or cohabitating, are accompanied by better blood pressure control and a lower risk of microvascular complications in Chinese patients with long-standing T1DM. These findings illustrate the importance of improving care for patients with T1DM in China.

13.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 22(2): 212-220, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944560

RESUMO

We investigated association between blood pressure and glucose control and the prevalence of albuminuria and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with hypertension and diabetes. Our study participants were treated patients with both diseases, enrolled in a China nationwide registry. The 773 patients were classified into four groups according to the control status of hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure [BP] ≤140/90 mm Hg) and diabetes (HbA1c <7.0%): both uncontrolled (n = 208), only diabetes (n = 175) or hypertension controlled (n = 172), and both controlled (n = 218). Albuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio of ≥30 mg/g. LVH was assessed by the electrocardiogram Cornell product method. Antihypertensive therapy was not different between the four groups (P ≥ .48). The use of insulin alone or insulin plus oral antidiabetic agents was significantly higher than those with both diseases controlled (P ≤ .02). Patients with controlled hypertension and diabetes had a significantly (P < .0001) lower prevalence of albuminuria (odds ratio 0.22, 95% confidence interval 0.11-0.43) than those with both diseases uncontrolled. Intensive BP control to <130/80 mm Hg was associated with lower risks of albuminuria in all patients (P = .001) and patients with HbA1c <7.0% (P = .048). Intensive glycemic control to HbA1c <6.5% was also associated with a significantly lower risk of albuminuria in all patients (P = .01), but not those with controlled BP (P = .43). Similar trends were observed for LVH, but statistical significance was not achieved on either intensive control condition (P ≥ .07). In patients with hypertension and diabetes, blood pressure and glucose control were associated with a lower prevalence of albuminuria and LVH, especially when achieving a more stringent target.

14.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(1): 107470, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706807

RESUMO

AIMS: The relationship between albuminuria and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was well characterized in hypertension (HTN), but not in diabetes. Moreover, most studies have described the correlation between albuminuria and cardiovascular mortality, but not cardiovascular diseases (CVD) morbidity. This study aimed to explore the relationship between albuminuria and LVH, CVD morbidity in patients with HTN, diabetes mellitus (DM) or HTN + DM. METHODS: Conducted a data analysis based on the demographic, medical history and laboratory data of 2504 patients from the ATTEND study, a national registry study on HTN and DM in Chinese outpatients. RESULTS: The prevalence of LVH and CVD was 7.7% and 21.5% in HTN + DM, 7.6% and 17.6% in HTN, 3.9% and 5.2% in DM patients. Subjects with HTN + DM implied higher risk of LVH (P = 0.023), CVD (P = 0.001) and 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) (P < 0.001) than those with DM only. There was no significant relationship between albuminuria and LVH or CVD. CONCLUSIONS: More than one-fifth of HTN and/or DM patients with microalbuminuria suffered from CVD. Comorbidity of DM and HTN significantly increases cardiovascular events than DM only. No statistical association between albuminuria and LVH or CVD was found.

15.
J Diabetes Complications ; 34(2): 107464, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771933

RESUMO

AIMS: Our aim was to search for clinical predictors of good glycemic control in patients starting or intensifying oral hypoglycemic pharmacological therapy. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective cohort of 499 diabetic subjects was enrolled in this study: patients with newly diagnosed diabetes (NDM group) or poor glycemic control with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) (PDM group). All subjects then started or intensified OADs therapy and followed up for 91 days. Glycemic control was determined according to HbA1c at day 91 with HbA1c <7% considered good. RESULTS: The proportions of patients with good glycemic control after follow up for 91 days were 66.9% and 34.8% in NDM group and PDM group respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the change in GA at 28 days was the only predictor of good glycemic control in NDM patients (OR = 1.630, 95% CI 1.300-2.044, P < 0.001). In PDM patients, changes in GA at 28 days, CPI, baseline HbA1c, diabetic duration, and BMI were all independent predictors of good glycemic control (All P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: GA decline is a good predictor of future success in newly diagnosed patients. In patients intensifying therapy, beside GA decline, other individualized clinical characteristics should also be considered.

16.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(1): 15-35, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773420

RESUMO

With the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, particularly in emerging countries, its management in the context of available resources should be considered. International guidelines, while comprehensive and scientifically valid, may not be appropriate for regions such as Asia, Latin America or Africa, where epidemiology, patient phenotypes, cultural conditions and socioeconomic status are different from America and Europe. Although glycaemic control and reduction of micro- and macrovascular outcomes remain essential aspects of treatment, access and cost are major limiting factors; therefore, a pragmatic approach is required in restricted-resource settings. Newer agents, such as sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in particular, are relatively expensive, with limited availability despite potentially being valuable for patients with insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. This review makes a case for the role of more accessible second-line treatments with long-established efficacy and affordability, such as sulfonylureas, in the management of type 2 diabetes, particularly in developing or restricted-resource countries.

17.
18.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(2): 158-166, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512365

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of metformin in delaying or preventing progression to diabetes in a Chinese population with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This multicentre, randomized, open-label, controlled study (NCT03441750) will assess the efficacy of metformin in preventing diabetes over ≥2 years. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned (1:1) to lifestyle intervention (LSI) or metformin plus LSI, with stratification based on blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication use and isolated/non-isolated impaired fasting glucose. All participants will receive LSI advice. Participants in the metformin plus LSI group will receive metformin 850 mg once daily for the first 2 weeks, and twice daily thereafter, according to tolerability. RESULTS: The primary objective is to compare rates of newly diagnosed diabetes in the two intervention groups. Changes in glycaemia, blood pressure, body weight, insulin resistance, and safety outcomes will also be evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: This large clinical trial in a Chinese population with IGR aims to provide critical information to guide clinical decision-making in order to alleviate the current diabetes epidemic.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545362

RESUMO

AIM: The objectives of the present study were to compare bone characteristics with quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and other metabolic factors relevant to bone health in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM) and to evaluate the association of various laboratory factors with bone characteristics qualified by QCT. METHODS: This cross-sectional population-based survey of diabetes and metabolic syndrome was conducted in Pinggu, China. The oral glucose tolerance test was conducted and QCT was tested. The volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) of lumbar vertebrae 2 through 4 was measured. RESULTS: Among the 4001 eligible participants, the average age was 47.41 ± 11.86 years. The prevalence of osteoporosis evaluated by QCT was 10.6% in the normal glucose tolerance group, 14.8% in the IGT group, and 16.9% in the DM group. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that age was negatively associated with vBMD, whereas body mass index and waist-hip ratio were positively associated with vBMD across all participants. However, the levels of hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial glucose were not associated with vBMD after adjusting for sex, age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, FT4, FT3, thyroid-stimulating hormone, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, creatinine, and serum uric acid. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the prevalence of osteoporosis evaluated by QCT was 10.6% in the normal glucose tolerance group, 14.8% in the IGT group, and 16.9% in the DM group. The levels of hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, and postprandial glucose were not associated with vBMD after adjusting for metabolic factors in a Chinese sample.

20.
J Diabetes ; 12(2): 134-141, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess whether early life exposure to the Chinese famine (1959-1961) modifies the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. METHODS: Data from 4247 adults born between 1954 and 1964 from the 2011 and 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were analyzed. CVD in 2011 and 2015 was based on self-reported doctor's diagnosis of cardiac events (heart attack, coronary heart disease, angina, congestive heart failure, or other heart problems) and stroke. Diabetes in 2011 was defined by fasting blood glucose, HbA1C, or known diabetes. RESULTS: Diabetes in 2011 was cross-sectionally associated with an increase of CVD risk in 2011 (OR 1.91, 95%CI 1.53-2.40, P < 0.001) after adjusting for age and gender. Famine exposure changed the association between diabetes and CVD in areas severely affected by famine. The odds ratios (OR) of diabetes in 2011 for CVD in 2015 were 1.24 (95%CI 0.73-2.10), 1.27 (95%CI 0.72-2.24), 2.25 (95%CI 1.29-3.91), 4.31 (95%CI 2.07-8.97) and 1.72 (95%CI 0.84-3.51) among adults in late childhood-, mid-childhood-, early childhood-, fetal-, and nonexposed cohorts in severe famine areas, respectively. CONCLUSION: T2DM is associated with the risk of CVD among Chinese adults. Fetal and early childhood exposure to the Chinese famine exacerbated the associated risk.

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