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1.
BMJ ; 372: n316, 2021 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602665
2.
Skeletal Radiol ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the subluxation degrees of extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon on neutral wrist MRI in patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain and to evaluate the relationships of ECU subluxation with accompanying imaging findings such as ECU tenosynovitis, distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) stability, and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 297 MRIs of 292 patients having ulnar side pain were reviewed retrospectively. Degrees of ECU subluxation was classified into four grades: grade 0, no subluxation; grade 1, tendon displacement < 50% of the tendon width; grade 2, tendon displacement 51 to 99% of the tendon width; and grade 3, tendon displacement of 100% of the tendon width. ECU tenosynovitis, ECU tendinosis, injuries of triangular fibrocartilage and distal radioulnar ligaments (DRUL), translation ratio of the DRUJ, rotation angle of the DRUJ, and the width, depth, and length of the ulnar groove were assessed on wrist MRI. The relationships between degree of ECU subluxation and these imaging findings were investigated. RESULTS: Women had higher subluxation degrees of the ECU tendon (p = 0.001). Tenosynovitis of the ECU, sprain of the dorsal DRUL, dorsovolar translation ratio and rotation angle of the DRUJ, and depth and length of the ulnar groove were statistically significantly related to the subluxation degree of the ECU tendon (p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: High-grade subluxation of the ECU tendon was strongly correlated with ECU tenosynovitis and DRUJ translation. Clinicians and radiologists should scrutinize imaging findings, particularly when patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain have high-grade subluxation of the ECU tendon.

3.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(1): 1075-1100, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443809

RESUMO

In recent years, starch-based nanoparticles have attracted great interest due to their small size, good biocompatibility, and environmental friendliness, as well as their potential applications in foods, drug delivery carriers, and biodegradable edible films. Compared with nonstarch polysaccharides, starch can be enzymatically hydrolyzed into glucose in vivo, so it can be used as an enzyme-responsive carrier. The recent research progress of starch-based nanoparticles, including starch nanoparticles, starch nanospheres, starch micelles, starch vesicles, starch nanogels, and starch nanofibers, are reviewed in this paper. The main focus is on their responsiveness, digestibility, toxicity, interactions with other components, and applications. Starch-based nanoparticles are nontoxic and responsive to pH, temperature, light, and other stimuli. It can interact with proteins, antioxidants, and lipids through electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding interactions. Starch-based nanoparticles have a wide range of applications, including enhancing the mechanical properties of films and gels, stabilizing emulsions, as a fluorescent indicator, a catalyst, and a nanocarrier to control the release of active ingredients and drugs.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 137: 111274, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517190

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and inflammation are important pathogenic factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR). DR remains the most common ocular complication caused by diabetes mellitus (DM) and is the leading cause of visual impairment in working-aged people worldwide. Melatonin has attracted extensive attention due to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, melatonin inhibited oxidative stress and inflammation by enhancing the expression and activity of silent information regulator factor 2-related enzyme 1 (Sirt1) both in in vitro and in vivo models of DR, and the Sirt1 inhibitor EX-527 counteracted melatonin-mediated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on Müller cells. Moreover, melatonin enhanced Sirt1 activity through the maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3)/miR-204 axis, leading to the deacetylation of the Sirt1 target genes forkhead box o1 (Foxo1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65, eventually contribute to the alleviation of oxidative stress and inflammation. The study revealed that melatonin promotes the Sirt1 pathway, thereby protecting the retina from DM-induced damage.

5.
Eur J Radiol ; 135: 109405, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441267

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the quantitative and qualitative image quality of computed tomography (CT) of the extremities (shoulder, wrist, pelvis, and ankle joints) with low-dose radiation and standard-dose radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we included 400 individuals who underwent CT of the extremities, comprising 50 cases of each joint (shoulder, wrist, pelvis, and ankle) at low and standard dose regimens. Low-dose CTs were performed using identical voltage and parameters with the exception of decreased (half of standard dose) tube current. Low-dose and standard-dose images were compared in terms of radiation dose, objective image quality according to the standard deviation (SD) of the Hounsfield unit value of the medulla, cortex, muscle, subcutaneous fat, and air, and subjective image quality according to noise, sharpness, diagnostic acceptability, and artifacts. RESULTS: In the shoulder and pelvis, the mean value of the SD for all tissue on low dose CT images was significantly higher than that of standard dose CT, except for the SD of cortex in the shoulder joint and marrow in the pelvis. In the wrist, the mean value of the SD for all tissue was not significantly different between low dose and standard CT (p > 0.05). In the ankle, the mean value of the SD of the medulla and cortex was not different (p > 0.05), but the remaining measurements were significantly higher in low dose CT. Subjective image quality in the shoulder and pelvis were significantly reduced in low dose CT. In the wrist, all categories of subjective image quality except artifacts were similar. In the ankle, all categories of subjective image quality except for artifacts were degraded in low dose CT. CONCLUSIONS: Objective image noise is more increased in low dose CT images of the shoulder and pelvis. Although diagnostic performance was acceptable, mean subjective image quality also decreased. In the wrist, objective image noise and subjective image quality were not degraded in low dose CT. In the ankle, some measurements of objective and subjective image quality were similar between low dose and standard dose CT.

6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278451

RESUMO

Recently, amylose-lipid complexes have attracted widespread attention because of their various applications. However, DBS complexed with fatty acids of different carbon chain length are rarely studied. This study aimed to probe the complexation of DBS with saturated fatty acids having different carbon chain lengths (C6-C18). The results revealed that DBS was able to form V-type complexes with all the fatty acids considered. Compared to DBS, the relative crystallinity of the complexes increased 2-3 times. DBS with lauric acid and myristic acid formed three types V-type complexes (type I, type IIa, and type IIb). The complexing index followed the order of hexanoic acid > octanoic acid > capric acid > lauric acid > myristic acid > palmitic acid > stearic acid. Furthermore, lauric acid and myristic acid formed complexes with DBS more easily compared with other fatty acids.

7.
PeerJ ; 8: e10385, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304653

RESUMO

Background: Increasing evidence has shown that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA methylation regulators have important biological functions in human cancers. However, there are few studies on the value of m6A reader protein YTHDC2 in the diagnosis and tumor-infiltrating of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Therefore, it is important to understand the potential clinical value of YTHDC2 in the prognosis and immune infiltration of HNSCC. Methods: In this study, gene expression profiles and the corresponding clinical information of 270 HNSCC patients were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The gene co-expression network was established to verify whether YTHDC2 was related to the prognosis of HNSCC and verified again in the public database. The correlations between YTHDC2 and immune infiltration was investigated via Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). Results: The results showed that YTHDC2 appeared in the blue module related to survival time and survival state and had a close correlation with the prognosis and immune infiltration level of HNSCC in public database. Patients with low expression of YTHDC2 had poor overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) than those with high expression. In addition, the expression of YTHDC2 was positively correlated with the level of CD4+ T cell subpopulations infiltration in HNSCC. Conclusions: Through this study, we found that YTHDC2 is a tumor suppressor gene with high expression in normal tissues and low expression in tumor tissues. In addition, YTHDC2 is correlated with the immune infiltrating levels of B cells, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, neutrophils, and dendritic cells in HNSCC, which may become a potential marker for prognosis and immune infiltration of HNSCC.

8.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184759

RESUMO

The toxic protein of ricin has drawn wide attention in recent years as a potential bioterrorism agent due to its high toxicity and wide availability. For the verification of the potential anti-terrorism activities, it is urgent for the quantification of ricin in food-related matrices. Here, a novel strategy of trypsin/Glu-C tandem digestion was introduced for quantitative detection of ricin marker peptides in several beverage matrices using isotope-labeled internal standard (IS)-mass spectrometry. The ricin in beverages was captured and enriched by biotinylated anti-ricin polyclonal antibodies conjugated to streptavidin magnetic beads. The purified ricin was cleaved using the developed trypsin/Glu-C tandem digestion method and then quantitatively detected by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) with isotope-labeled T7A and TG11B selected as IS. The use of trypsin/Glu-C digestion allows shorter peptides, which are more suitable for MS detection, to be obtained than the use of single trypsin digestion. Under the optimized tandem digestion condition, except for T7A in the A-chain, two resulting specific peptides of TG13A, TG28A from the A-chain and two of TG11B, TG33B from the B-chain were chosen as novel marker peptides with high MS response. The uniqueness of the selected marker peptides allows for unambiguous identification of ricin among its homologous proteins in a single run. The MS response of the four novel marker peptides is increased by more than 10 times compared with that of individual corresponding tryptic peptides. Both the marker peptides of A-chain T7A and B-chain TG11B were selected as quantitative peptides based on the highest MS response among the marker peptides from their individual chains. The limit of detection (LOD) of ricin is 0.1 ng/mL in PBS and 0.5 ng/mL in either milk or orange juice. The linear range of calibration curves for ricin were 0.5-300 ng/mL in PBS, 1.0-400 ng/mL in milk, and 1.0-250 ng/mL in orange juice. The method accuracy ranged between 82.6 and 101.8% for PBS, 88.9-105.2% for milk, and 95.3-118.7% for orange juice. The intra-day and inter-day precision had relative standard deviations (%RSD) of 0.3-9.4%, 0.7-8.9%, and 0.2-6.9% in the three matrices respectively. Furthermore, whether T7A or TG11B is used as a quantitative peptide, the quantitative results of ricin are consistent. This study provides not only a practical method for the absolute quantification of ricin in beverage matrices but also a new strategy for the investigation of illegal use of ricin in chemical weapon verification tasks such as OPCW biotoxin sample analysis exercises.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6020, 2020 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243995

RESUMO

Understanding the structure and function of vasculature in the brain requires us to monitor distributed hemodynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution in three-dimensional (3D) volumes in vivo. Currently, a volumetric vasculature imaging method with sub-capillary spatial resolution and blood flow-resolving speed is lacking. Here, using two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) with an axially extended Bessel focus, we capture volumetric hemodynamics in the awake mouse brain at a spatiotemporal resolution sufficient for measuring capillary size and blood flow. With Bessel TPLSM, the fluorescence signal of a vessel becomes proportional to its size, which enables convenient intensity-based analysis of vessel dilation and constriction dynamics in large volumes. We observe entrainment of vasodilation and vasoconstriction with pupil diameter and measure 3D blood flow at 99 volumes/second. Demonstrating high-throughput monitoring of hemodynamics in the awake brain, we expect Bessel TPLSM to make broad impacts on neurovasculature research.

10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease clinically characterised by skin and internal organs fibrosis with high mortality. However, the pathogenesis of SSc is still controversial and the effect of the current treatment is far from satisfactory. We aimed to find out novel candidate genes related to the pathological process in SSc. METHODS: In this study, the weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was conducted to identify the key module and hub genes most related to SSc in GSE58095, a microarray dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Also, the key module was analysed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. Then we validated hub genes in other datasets (GSE32413, GSE125362, GSE45485, GSE76885, GSE95065). The serum of 37 patients with SSc and 25 healthy control subjects (HCs) were recruited and detected by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Five interested genes (IGFBP7, LRRC32, STMN2, C1QTNF5, CPXM1) were up-regulated in SSc microarray datasets from the GEO. And the level of serum IGFBP7, which encodes a secreted protein, was upregulated in SSc patients-also in dcSSc patients and SSc with ILD patients. CONCLUSIONS: Among the five interested genes, the IGFBP7 was a novel candidate gene for SSc and may be served as potential target and early biomarker for accurate treatment, which also provides further insights into the pathogenesis of SSc at the molecular level.

11.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106681

RESUMO

While calcium imaging has become a mainstay of modern neuroscience, the spectral properties of current fluorescent calcium indicators limit deep-tissue imaging as well as simultaneous use with other probes. Using two monomeric near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent proteins (FPs), we engineered an NIR Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based genetically encoded calcium indicator (iGECI). iGECI exhibits high levels of brightness and photostability and an increase up to 600% in the fluorescence response to calcium. In dissociated neurons, iGECI detects spontaneous neuronal activity and electrically and optogenetically induced firing. We validated the performance of iGECI up to a depth of almost 400 µm in acute brain slices using one-photon light-sheet imaging. Applying hybrid photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy, we simultaneously monitored neuronal and hemodynamic activities in the mouse brain through an intact skull, with resolutions of ~3 µm (lateral) and ~25-50 µm (axial). Using two-photon imaging, we detected evoked and spontaneous neuronal activity in the mouse visual cortex, with fluorescence changes of up to 25%. iGECI allows biosensors and optogenetic actuators to be multiplexed without spectral crosstalk.

12.
Opt Express ; 28(20): 29044-29053, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114810

RESUMO

Estimation of optical aberrations from volumetric intensity images is a key step in sensorless adaptive optics for 3D microscopy. Recent approaches based on deep learning promise accurate results at fast processing speeds. However, collecting ground truth microscopy data for training the network is typically very difficult or even impossible thereby limiting this approach in practice. Here, we demonstrate that neural networks trained only on simulated data yield accurate predictions for real experimental images. We validate our approach on simulated and experimental datasets acquired with two different microscopy modalities and also compare the results to non-learned methods. Additionally, we study the predictability of individual aberrations with respect to their data requirements and find that the symmetry of the wavefront plays a crucial role. Finally, we make our implementation freely available as open source software in Python.

13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 163: 2048-2059, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961176

RESUMO

In this work, we aimed to investigate the effect of the combination of starch nanoparticles (SNPs) and Tween 80 (TW) on the stability of oil-in-water emulsions. The emulsions prepared under different SNPs/TW ratios and different oil fraction values were characterized by means of photography, optical microscopy, laser particle size analysis, rheological measurement, quartz crystal microbalance analysis, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. At an oil fraction value of 0.4, the emulsions with a 3: 1 ratio of SNPs (1.5%, w/v) to TW (0.5%, w/v) exhibited excellent storage stability over a long period of 30 d, which was significantly better than the 2% TW stabilized emulsion and the 2% SNPs stabilized emulsion. Compared with the SNPs stable emulsions, the presence of TW decreased the emulsion droplets size, which was beneficial to reduce the aggregation of droplets. Emulsions co-stabilized by SNPs and TW can maintain good performance under harsh conditions. The results of quartz crystal microbalance analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry revealed non-covalent interactions between SNPs and TW. The results showed that SNPs and TW co-existed at the oil-water interface and improved the performance of the emulsion.

14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22190, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957346

RESUMO

Researchers seek to identify optimal journals for submission based on their studies but tend to rely on journal impact factors or scientific journal rankings. We investigated research trends by selecting high-frequency words from author keywords (AKs), analyzing subject areas, and performing quantitative data analysis of Korean dental journals. Consequently, we suggest a method for choosing journals that fit a specific subject area.We used a corpus of 9 Korean dentistry journals regarded in Korea as quality internationally approved journals. AKs occurring more than 10 times were assigned to Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and subcategories, which were then categorized using the MeSH tree structure. KnowledgeMatrix Plus and VOSviewer were used to analyze network relationships, density, and clustering.The AKs were of 7527 types, 15,960 terms, and formed 54 clusters. The AKs with 10+ occurrence were 199 types, 4289 terms, and formed 9 clusters. Assigning the AKs with 10+ occurrence to MeSH terms led to expanding 732 types of AK terms into 249 types with 9 clusters and 4268 links. Core study areas over the past 10 years were facial asymmetry, a topic under oral surgery and medicine, and orthognathic surgery focused on mandibular fractures, followed by shear bond strength of zirconia. Analyzing 16 MeSH subject categories, we found that the "analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic techniques and equipment" category had the largest distribution of AKs (40.7%). This was followed by "diseases" (21.2%) and "anatomy" (14.90%). The orthognathic surgery cluster was the largest, followed by the shear bond strength cluster. Dental implants is a core area with strong links to high-occurrence words, such as cone-beam computed tomography and mandible, which were distributed in the order of The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics (37.8%) and Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science (30.6%). Five clusters were closely packed in the center, 2 clusters were formed above the center, 1 cluster was formed below the center, and a cluster on the right was widespread.Cluster analysis using AKs and MeSH may be a good analytic method for researchers to determine expanding research areas and select optimal journals for paper submission.


Assuntos
Bibliometria , Odontologia , Medical Subject Headings , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , República da Coreia
15.
Arch Oral Biol ; 119: 104895, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to construct a gene co-expression network to identify key modules and genes in people with generalized aggressive periodontitis. METHODS: We used database GSE79705 to construct a co-expression network by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). In addition, Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 51 co-expression modules were conducted, darkseagreen1 and blue1 modules were the most significantly related to generalized aggressive periodontitis. Genes in the darkseagreen1 module enriched in affecting cellular response to tumor necrosis factor and vascular endothelial growth factor production, and the blue1 module enriched in the regulation of ion transport, proteinaceous extracellular matrix and neuropeptide binding. Besides, we found that 4 hub genes (SNRPG, MRPL22, MRPS18C and CEP290) played an important role in the occurrence of generalized aggressive periodontitis. CONCLUSION: Through this study, we identified two modules and four hub genes associated with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Besides, 4 hub genes (SNRPG, MRPL22, MRPS18C and CEP290) can be expected to trigger new therapeutic drug development for generalized aggressive periodontitis.

16.
Langmuir ; 36(39): 11528-11537, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883083

RESUMO

Mesoporous silica MCM-48 with rich silanol was prepared using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as mixed templates, and the dynamic adsorption performance of acetone was evaluated by testing breakthrough curves. The mixed micelle formed by CTAB and PVP, as well as the hydrogen bond between the carbonyl group of PVP and silanol group affected the condensation process of Si-OH group during the formation of mesoporous structure, resulting in the increase of Si-OH group number on the surface of MCM-48. Compared with MCM-48 synthesized by single template (CTAB), the acetone adsorption capacity of MCM-48 (1:3) synthesized by mixed templates (PVP:CTAB = 1:3) improved by 23.86%, which was attributed to the increase of silanol group amount and the decrease of pore size. In addition, Bangham model had the highest goodness of fit to describe the adsorption process among four kinetic models for the adsorbents, conforming to the mechanism of pore diffusion. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to fit the adsorption isotherm data, and the Freundlich model could better describe the adsorption of acetone. Freundlich model fitting results showed that MCM-48 with rich silanol had a strong affinity for acetone, and the adsorption of acetone on MCM-48 belonged to multilayer adsorption. The thermodynamic results showed that the adsorption of MCM-48 for acetone was physical adsorption, and the adsorption behavior was exothermic. This work provided insight into how the inherent properties of an adsorbent and environmental factors (including initial concentration and adsorption temperature) affected the adsorption performance of ketones, thus more ideas could be provided for the accurate design of adsorbents. Furthermore, silanol-rich MCM-48 synthesized by mixed templates is expected to be a promising adsorbent for acetone removal.

17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 246: 116586, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747246

RESUMO

Chitosan hydrogels fabricated by covalent crosslinking exhibit tough mechanical properties and chemical stability. In this paper, debranched starch (DBS) is oxidized to dialdehyde debranched starch (DADBS), which is used as a new type of a crosslinking agent to prepare hydrogels. Chitosan hydrogels with excellent properties are prepared by dynamic Schiff-base crosslinking between the aldehyde groups in DADBS and the amino groups in chitosan. Hence, chitosan hydrogels exhibit a rapid gelation ability, with a gelation time of less than 30 s, and their storage modulus increases with the gelation time. By adjusting the molar ratio of the amino group of chitosan to the aldehyde group of DADBS and the reaction temperature, the hydrogels exhibit tunable elasticity and mechanical properties. Notably, scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of 100-200 nm microgels in the hydrogel network, which could exert a strengthening effect on the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. In addition, chitosan hydrogels exhibit a rapid self-healing ability and remarkable fluorescence properties; also, they can be 3D printed in different shapes. Overall, the DADBS cross-linked chitosan hydrogels demonstrate potential applications in food, medicine, agriculture, and materials.

18.
ChemSusChem ; 13(19): 5185-5198, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738188

RESUMO

The hydrogenation of furfural (FUR), a typical bio-based furan derivative, is a critical reaction within the roadmap for upgrading lignocellulosic biomass into high value-added chemicals and liquid fuels, the performance of which is strongly correlated with the catalysts' intrinsic peculiarities. Metal catalysts with tailorable sizes, uniform dispersions and robust sintering resistance are generally recognized as a prerequisite for obtaining better hydrogenation activity, selectivity and stability, which has prompted intensive research into metal particle size effects and their regulation strategies. The roles of metal particle sizes and corresponding dispersions of metal catalysts used for FUR hydrogenation have been clearly recognized to be crucial over the past decade. In this regard, this systematic Minireview aims to provide profound insights into particle size effects in the metal-catalyzed hydrogenation of FUR, as well as conditional and structural approaches to regulating these effects. In addition, from the aspect of catalyst stability, the impacts and improvements of the metal particle sintering issue are analyzed. Moreover, several suggestions are proposed in response to the challenges in regulating particle size effects. Furthermore, the viewpoints presented herein would potentially contribute to the rational development of metal hydrogenation catalysts and further help to boost a more sustainable biomass refining system.

19.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 1860452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733963

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the association between variables related to tea consumption (duration, frequency, and type) and the risk of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A rural community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Weitang Town, Suzhou, China. People aged 60 years or above were invited to complete the survey. All eligible patients underwent detailed eye examination. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was diagnosed and graded based on the retinal fundus imaging. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose concentrations of ≥7.0 mmol/L or self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Information about tea consumption such as duration, type, and frequency, together with demographics and lifestyle characteristics, were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire interview. The association between tea consumption and the risk of DR was determined by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Among the 5,281 participants, 614 had diabetes mellitus (prevalence of 11.63%). The prevalence rate of DR was 10.38% in the diabetic population and 1.04% in the general population. Compared with non-tea consumers, the crude OR values for DR in subjects with long-term and short-term tea consumption were 0.34 (95%CI = 0.14-0.82, p = 0.016) and 1.64 (95%CI = 0.74-3.64, p = 0.221), respectively. When adjusted for age, gender, and other confounders, consumption of tea for ≥20 years was associated with reduced odds of DR (OR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.09-0.97, p = 0.044). Thus, long-term tea consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of DR. There was no statistical significance between frequency or type of tea consumption with DR (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Elderly diabetic Chinese residents who consumed tea for more than twenty years had a lower risk of DR compared to non-tea consumers. The long-term tea consumption may be an independent protective factor for DR. However, further studies are warranted to examine the association.

20.
Neurotox Res ; 38(4): 1037-1048, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840757

RESUMO

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious medical problem, and effective treatment is limited. Hemorrhaged blood is highly toxic to the brain, and heme, which is mainly released from hemoglobin, plays a vital role in neurotoxicity. However, the specific mechanism involved in heme-mediated neurotoxicity has not been well studied. In this study, we investigated the neurotoxicity of heme in neurons. Neurons were treated with heme, and cell death, autophagy, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were analyzed. In addition, the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in heme-induced cell death and the downstream effects were also assessed. We showed that heme induced cell death and autophagy in neurons. The suppression of autophagy using either pharmacological inhibitors (3-methyladenine) or RNA interference of essential autophagy genes (BECN1 and ATG5) decreased heme-induced cell death in neurons. Moreover, the ER stress activator thapsigargin increased cell autophagy and the cell death ratio following heme treatment. Autophagy promoted heme-induced cell apoptosis and cell death through the BECN1/ATG5 pathway. Our findings suggest that heme potentiates neuronal autophagy via ER stress, which in turn induces cell death via the BECN1/ATG5 pathway. Targeting ER stress-mediated autophagy might be a promising therapeutic strategy for ICH.

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