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Food Sci Biotechnol ; 28(6): 1649-1658, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807337


An effective evaluation model was established to digitize the quality of cocoa butter equivalents (CBEs) based on determinations of total and sn-2 fatty acid compositions and triacylglycerol (TAG) profiles and the "deducting score" principle. Similarity scores for selected fats and oils calculated from the model revealed differences between them and parallel cocoa butter compositions. For CBE1 and CBE2, total similarity scores were 90.6 and 90.0, whereas those of mango (76.3), dhupa (84.1), sal fat (84.7), kokum (78.3), palm mid fractions (PMF, 77.9), shea butter (64.0), illipe butter (89.7) and Pentadesma butyracea butter (67.2), respectively. Similarity scores were found to agree with physical properties, including polymorphism, crystal morphology, crystallization or melting behaviors, and solid fat content. The present study provides an accurate means of assessing CBE quality and hopefully will contribute to the development of commercial CBEs.

Food Sci Biotechnol ; 28(1): 35-41, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815292


The product of ferulic acid decarboxylation, 4-vinylguaiacol (4-VG), is an important antioxidant and is reported to have an antioxidant capacity comparable to α-tocopherol. In this study, evaluation on antioxidant capacities of ferulic acid, catechin, and 4-VG was performed when 200 ppm of each compound was added in a 10% O/W emulsion for 50 days. Peroxide value (POV) results of the O/W emulsion containing 4-VG were noteworthy. The POV was 1.9 meq/L of emulsion after 29 days, which was no different to the initial value (day 0). Even when the oxidation was allowed to advance to day 50, the POV remained at 2.2 meq/L of emulsion, representing only a tiny increase relative to the initial value on day 0. 1H-NMR results also showed that the lowest conjugated forms and no aldehydes were detected in emulsion of 4-VG stored for 50 days, proving the excellent antioxidant capacity in the O/W emulsion.

Food Sci Biotechnol ; 27(4): 1041-1046, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263833


Decarboxylation of ferulic acid would increase the solubility in oils. Rice bran extract (RBE) containing 29 mg ferulic acid/g RBE was decarboxylated to obtain decarboxylated rice bran extract (DRBE), and its antioxidant capacity in oil system was studied. After addition of DRBE (500 ppm), oxidation was monitored for 20 days at 60 °C under the dark. To compare the oxidation degree, 500 ppm of ferulic acid and well-known lipid soluble antioxidant, α-tocopherol, were used. Contents of conjugated dienes and aldehydes were measured using 1H NMR as well as peroxide value (POV). On 7 days of oxidation, DRBE (539.0 meq/kg oil) showed lower POV than the control (819.7 meq/kg oil). Also, contents of total conjugated form and aldehydes were 194.60, and 5.94 mmol/L oil, which were lower than those of control (323.63 and 15.94 mmol/L oil). However, after 10 days of oxidation, antioxidant capacity of DRBE was not observed.

PLoS One ; 12(5): e0176037, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459863


The present investigation was conducted to study the true retentions of α-tocopherol, tocotrienols and ß-carotene in crown daisy, unripe hot pepper, onion, garlic, and red pepper as affected by various domestic cooking methods, those were, boiling, baking, stir-frying, deep-frying, steaming, roasting, and microwaving. Fatty acid compositions were determined by GC, and HPLC were used for quantification of α-tocopherol, tocotrienols, and ß-carotene. True retentions of α-tocopherol in cooked foods were as follows: boiling (77.74-242.73%), baking (85.99-212.39%), stir-frying (83.12-957.08%), deep-frying (162.48-4214.53%), steaming (45.97-179.57%), roasting (49.65-253.69%), and microwaving (44.67-230.13%). Similarly for true retention of ß-carotene were: boiling (65.69-313.75%), baking (71.46-330.16%), stir-frying (89.62-362.46%), deep-frying (178.22-529.16%), steaming (50.39-240.92%), roasting (73.54-361.47%), and microwaving (78.60-339.87%).

Culinária , Especiarias/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Temperatura Alta , Micro-Ondas , Tocotrienóis/química , Água/química , alfa-Tocoferol/química , beta Caroteno/química
J Food Sci ; 81(1): C35-41, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26641978


Caffeic acid was used to synthesize 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) by thermal decarboxylation and to prepare caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) by esterification reaction. The identities of synthesized products were confirmed by (1)H NMR. Antioxidative activities of 4-VC and CAPE were compared with α-tocopherol and BHT in stripped soybean oil at 60 °C under the dark. To evaluate the degrees of oxidation at different concentrations and combinations, peroxide value (PV) and (1)H NMR were performed. From the results of PV, the formation of primary oxidation products (i.e., hydroperoxides) in stripped soybean oil containing 200 ppm CAPE was the slowest. The relative oxidation degree of 200 ppm CAPE (9.5%) was lower than other samples on 9 d. Similar results were obtained by (1)H NMR analysis. After 15 d of storage, levels of conjugated diene forms and aldehydes of 200 ppm CAPE sample (57.3 and 0.9 mmol/mol oil) were also lower than other treatments. In addition, 4-VC and α-tocopherol were found to have a synergistic antioxidant effect.

Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Catecóis/química , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Óleo de Soja/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/química , Álcool Feniletílico/química , alfa-Tocoferol/análise
J Agric Food Chem ; 63(47): 10280-6, 2015 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26492097


Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) and 4-vinylcatechol (4-VC) were prepared for studying their antioxidative activities in emulsion. Oil-in-water emulsions of stripped soybean oil containing 200 ppm of CAPE, 4-VC, or α-tocopherol were stored at 40 °C in the dark for 50 days, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) was used to identify and quantify the oxidation products. Emulsion droplet sizes, peroxide values, and levels of primary oxidation products (i.e., hydroperoxides) and secondary oxidation products (i.e., aldehydes) were determined. The results showed that CAPE (200 ppm) and 4-VC (200 ppm) had significantly greater antioxidant activities on the oxidation of stripped soybean oil-in-water emulsions than α-tocopherol (200 ppm). The peroxide values of CAPE (8.4 mequiv/L emulsion) and 4-VC (15.0 mequiv/L emulsion) were significantly lower than that of α-tocopherol (33.4 mequiv/L emulsion) (p < 0.05) on 36 days. In addition, the combinations of CAPE + α-tocopherol (100 + 100 ppm) or 4-VC + α-tocopherol (100 + 100 ppm) had better antioxidant activities than α-tocopherol (200 ppm). For CAPE + α-tocopherol, 4-VC + α-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol, the amounts of conjugated diene forms were 16.67, 13.72, and 16.32 mmol/L emulsion, and the concentrations of aldehydes were 2.15, 1.13, and 4.26 mmol/L emulsion, respectively, after 50 days of storage.

Ácidos Cafeicos/química , Catecóis/química , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Óleo de Soja/química , Antioxidantes/química , Emulsões/química , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Álcool Feniletílico/química