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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 559729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101081

RESUMO

Objective: Decreased homotopic connectivity of brain networks such as the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits may contribute to the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, little is known about interhemispheric functional connectivity (FC) at rest in OCD. In this study, the voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method was applied to explore interhemispheric coordination at rest in OCD. Methods: Forty medication-free patients with OCD and 38 sex-, age-, and education level-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The VMHC and support vector machine (SVM) methods were used to analyze the data. Results: Patients with OCD had remarkably decreased VMHC values in the orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, middle occipital gyrus, and precentral and postcentral gyri compared with HCs. A combination of the VMHC values in the thalamus and postcentral gyrus could optimally distinguish patients with OCD from HCs. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the contribution of decreased interhemispheric FC within and outside the CSTC circuits in OCD and provide evidence to the pathophysiology of OCD.

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 98, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194450

RESUMO

Abnormal functional connectivity (FC) within discrete brain networks is involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with inconsistent results. In the present study, we investigated the FC patterns of 40 drug-naive patients with OCD and 38 healthy controls (HCs) through an unbiased voxel-wise global brain FC (GFC) analysis at rest. Compared with HCs, patients with OCD showed decreased GFC within the default mode network (DMN) (i.e., left posterior cingulate cortex/lingual gyrus) and sensorimotor network (i.e., left precentral gyrus/postcentral gyrus) and increased GFC within the executive control network (ECN) (i.e., left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal lobule). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses further indicated that the altered GFC values within the DMN, ECN, and sensorimotor network may be used as neuroimaging markers to differentiate patients with OCD from HCs. These findings indicated the aberrant FC patterns of the DMN, ECN, and sensorimotor network associated with the pathophysiology of OCD and provided new insights into the changes in brain organization function in OCD.

3.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 270(8): 1015-1024, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570980

RESUMO

Abnormalities of the cerebellum and default-mode network (DMN) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been widely reported. However, alterations of reciprocal functional connections between the cerebellum and DMN at rest in OCD remain unclear. Forty patients with OCD and 38 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based functional connectivity (FC) and support vector machine (SVM) were applied to analyze the imaging data. Compared with HCs, patients with OCD exhibited increased FCs between the left Crus I-left superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and between the right Crus I-left superior MPFC, left middle MPFC, and left middle temporal gyrus (MTG). A significantly negative correlation was observed between the right Crus I-left MTG connectivity and the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale compulsion subscale scores in the OCD group (r = - 0.476, p = 0.002, Bonferroni corrected). SVM classification analysis indicated that a combination of the left Crus I-left superior MPFC connectivity and the right Crus I-left middle MPFC connectivity can be used to discriminate patients with OCD from HCs with a sensitivity of 85.00%, specificity of 68.42%, and accuracy of 76.92%. Our study highlights the contribution of the cerebellar-DMN connectivity in OCD pathophysiology and provides new findings to OCD research.

4.
Front Neurol ; 10: 744, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354612

RESUMO

Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of abrupt death in patient with epilepsy. It represents 5-30% of all rapid deaths in individuals with epilepsy. Ketogenic diet (KD) has been used in clinic for treatment of epilepsy for many decades. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the SUDEP and the relationship between KD and SUDEP remain uncertain. Kcna1-null (Kcna1-/-) mouse, an animal model of SUDEP, is frequently used to study mechanisms underlying SUDEP. The current mini-review focus on risk factors for SUDEP and their relationship with KD treatment in Kcna1-/- mice. Emerging data suggest that factors including seizure frequency, longevity, rest, age, and gender both in Kcna1-/- mice and KD treated Kcna1-/-mice are involved in SUDEP. This provides valuable prediction for clinical application of KD for treatment of SUDEP.

5.
Chin Med ; 14: 14, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976295

RESUMO

Background: The simple and caged xanthones from Clusiaceae showed significant antineoplastic activity. This study aims to identify structural diverse xanthones and search for novel antitumor natural products from this family plants. Methods: The structures of new compounds 1a and 1b were elucidated mainly through comprehensive NMR and MS spectroscopic data, and their absolute configurations were determined by the comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism. Results: A pair of new xanthone enantiomers, (+)- and (-)-cracochinxanthone A (1a and 1b), along with thirty known analogues (2-31), were isolated from extracts of the stems and leaves of C. cochinchinense. Preliminary biological assay of some isolates against HL-60, PC-3, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cell lines. Conclusion: Some isolated xanthones exhibited high sensitivity against three human malignant cell lines and the structure-activity relationship study showed that the prenyl and geranyl units may play an important role in antitumor activity.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30905622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Default-mode network (DMN) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the network homogeneity (NH) of DMN in OCD remains equivocal. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in the NH of the DMN at rest and the correlation between the NH of DMN and clinical variables in patients with OCD. METHODS: This study used the independent component analysis and unbiased hypothesis-driven NH method to analyze the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 40 drug-naive patients with OCD and 40 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs). RESULTS: Patients with OCD exhibited decreased NH values in the left ventral medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus (PCu) compared with HCs. Furthermore, analyses of receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that the decreased NH values in the right PCC/PCu may be used as a candidate neuroimaging marker to distinguish patients with OCD from HCs. CONCLUSION: These findings contribute new evidence of the participation of the altered NH of the DMN in the pathophysiology of OCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study on the mechanism of brain network in obsessive-compulsive disorder with multi-model magnetic resonance imaging (ChiCTR-COC-17013301).


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia
7.
J Nat Med ; 73(1): 278-282, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182180

RESUMO

A new depsidone, paucinervin Q (1), a new dichromone, paucinervin R (2), and a known compound, paucinervin B (3), were isolated from the stems of Garcinia paucinervis by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were determined by analysis of spectroscopic data. The isolates were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against three cancer cell lines HL-60, PC-3 and CaCo-2. Compound 1 showed significant inhibitory activities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Depsídeos/química , Garcinia/química , Lactonas/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular
8.
Fitoterapia ; 127: 220-225, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474978

RESUMO

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane-soluble portion of the stems of Garcinia paucinervis led to the isolation of eight new xanthones, including three pairs of enantiomers, (+) and (-) paucinervins L-N (1a-3a, and 1b-3b), one optically pure compound, (-) paucinervin O (4), and one new analogue, paucinervin P (5), as well as thirteen known xanthones (6-18). Their structures were established by detailed analysis of extensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1-4 were confirmed by ECD calculations. All the isolates 1-18 displayed antiproliferative effect against HL-60 with IC50 values ranging from 0.87 to 29.14 µM, of which compound 5 was the most active. Compounds 6, and 14 exhibited potential inhibitory activity against PC-3 cells, while compounds 5-7, 14, and 16-17 displayed cytotoxic potency against Caco-2 cells. A preliminary structure-activity relationship was also discussed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Garcinia/química , Xantonas/química , Células CACO-2 , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Caules de Planta/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
9.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7020, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765538

RESUMO

The protective effects of Kisspeptin on heat-induced oxidative stress in rats were investigated by using a combination of biochemical parameters and metabonomics. Metabonomic analyses were performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in conjunction with multivariate and univariate statistical analyses. At the end point of the heat stress experiment, histological observation, ultrastructural analysis and biochemical parameters were measured. Metabonomic analysis of liver tissue revealed that Kisspeptin mainly attenuated the alteration of purine metabolism and fatty acid metabolism pathways. Futhermore, Kisspeptin also increased the levels of GSH, T-AOC as well as SOD activities, and upregulated MDA levels. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of Kisspeptin against heat-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/patologia , Metabolômica , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Histocitoquímica , Microscopia Eletrônica , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos
10.
PLoS One ; 12(7): e0179164, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692647

RESUMO

Kisspeptin is a peptide encoded by the Kiss 1 gene and is also called metastin. Previous studies have generally focused on several functions of this peptide, including metastasis, puberty, vasoconstriction and reproduction. However, few studies have focused on the cardiac functions of kisspeptin. In the present study, cardiac histomorphology was observed via TEM (transmission electron microscope) and HE and Masson staining to observe instinctive changes. Serum metabolites levels were also measured and analyzed using GC/TOF-MS after injection with kisspeptin-10. A gene chip was employed to screen the potential genes and pathways in the myocardium at the transcriptional leve, while RT-PCR and Western Blot were conducted to verify the relevant mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Histopathological findings demonstrated that there were many irregular wavy contractions through HE staining and increased fibrosis around the heart cells through Masson staining after treatment with kisspeptin-10. Additionally, the main changes in ultrastructure, including changes in mitochondrial and broken mitochondrial cristae, could be observed with TEM after treatment with kisspeptin-10. The PCA scores plot of the serum metabolites was in the apparent partition after injection of kisspeptin-10. Twenty-six obviously changed metabolites were detected and classified as amino acids, carbohydrate metabolites, organic acids and other metabolites. Furthermore, gene chip analysis showed 1112 differentially expressed genes after treatment with kisspeptin-10, including 330 up-regulated genes and 782 down-regulated genes. These genes were enriched in several signaling pathways related to heart diseases. The RT-PCR result for ITGB8, ITGA4, ITGB7, MYL7, HIF1-α and BNP corresponded with the gene chip assay. Moreover, the upregulated genes ITGB8, ITGA4 and BNP also displayed consistent protein levels in Western Blot results. In summary, these findings suggest that kisspeptin-10 could alter the morphology and structure of myocardial cells, serum metabolite levels, and expression of genes and proteins in heart tissues. Our work determined the profound effects of kisspeptin-10 on the heart, which could further lead to the development of therapeutics related to kisspeptin-10, including antagonists and analogs.


Assuntos
Kisspeptinas/sangue , Kisspeptinas/farmacologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Análise Discriminante , Fibrose , Kisspeptinas/genética , Kisspeptinas/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética
11.
J Nat Med ; 71(4): 642-649, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28550652

RESUMO

A new biflavonoid, paucinervin K (1) and a new triterpene, 23-hydroxy-friedelin (2), together with eleven known compounds 3-13 were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis. Their structures, including stereochemistry, were determined by spectroscopic analysis of NMR, MS, IR and ECD calculation and the octant rule. Some of the isolated compounds were tested for antiproliferative, α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities in vitro. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 5 and 9 showed moderate preferential antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Compounds 3-6 and 9 exhibited potent growth inhibition against HepG-2 and PC-3 cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.02-10.05 µM.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Garcinia/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/química , Biflavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
12.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 181: 115-124, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389048

RESUMO

Neuromedin S (NMS) has been identified as an endogenous ligand for FM-3/GPR66 and FM-4/TGR-1 which are NMU receptors NMUR1 and NMUR2, respectively. The NMS molecule is present in some peripheral tissues and the central nervous system (CNS), and it had been documented that NMS has fundamental and important roles in multiple physiological functions and processes such as circadian rhythm, energy balance, feeding behavior, stress responses and reproduction. The possible role of NMS in sexual development postnatally, however, is still obscure. This study aims to determine the change of NMS and its receptor gene expression in the reproductive axis of male Xiaomeishan pigs, postnatally. Firstly, the cDNA of the NMS and its receptors was cloned and sequenced. The results showed that there was a lack of 12 amino acids in the C-terminal of the male Xiaomeishan pig NMS amino-acid sequences compared with other animal species, but the main protein structure of prepro-NMS was high in homology. In addition, the nucleotide sequence and amino acids of the male Xiaomeishan pig's NMUR1 and NMUR2 had high homology. The NMS and NMUR2 mRNA in the male Xiaomeishan pig was detected in the reproductive axis at postnatal development stages, including postnatal day 3, 30, 60, 90 and 120, using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. The data showed that there were developmental changes in NMS and NMUR2 in the reproductive axis of the male Xiaomeishan pigs, postnatally, which suggested that NMS and NMUR2 might have a role in the development of the boar reproductive axis, but its regulatory mechanism remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Clonagem Molecular , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Neurotransmissores/genética , Suínos
13.
Fitoterapia ; 119: 83-89, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400224

RESUMO

Two new amide compounds, mariamides A and B (1-2), were obtained together with fourteen known compounds from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS data. Most of the compounds showed significant antioxidant activities than positive control in ABTS and FRAP assays. However, only amide compounds 1-4 showed moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity and compounds 7 and 16 showed the most potent activity against DPPH. Most of the compounds showed moderate to stronger α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Nevertheless, only flavonoids showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activities. These results indicate a use of milk thistle seed extracts as promising antioxidant and antidiabetic agents.


Assuntos
Amidas/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Cardo-Mariano/química , Amidas/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Sementes/química , alfa-Glucosidases
14.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0151871, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27010315

RESUMO

Neuromedin B is one member of a family of bombesin-like peptides, which performs a variety of physiological functions via their receptor (NMBR) in most mammals. However, the genes encoding NMB and NMBR and their functions especially reproduction of the pigs are currently not fully understood. To research the physiological functions of NMB, we cloned and analyzed the NMB and NMBR genes, and systematically investigated the expression levels of NMB and NMBR mRNA using relative real-time PCR and the distribution of NMBR by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Experimental results show that the sequences of the amino acid and gene of NMB and NMBR were highly conservative and homology in many species, Significantly, the relative RT-PCR results revealed that NMB was mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), whereas NMBR is highly expressed in peripheral tissues and organs, such as endocrine tissues, glands and reproductive organs. The IHC results show that NMBR positive cells were widely distributed in the body, such as respiratory and circulatory system, digestive system, urogenital system, in lymphatic organs and in the endocrine system. We also systematically investigated expression levels of NMB and NMBR in the reproductive axis using relative real-time PCR. In sow estrous cycle, the hypothalamic levels of both NMB and NMBR mRAN were similar, but the expression levels of the pituitary were negatively correlated. Expression levels in the ovarian system are lowest in metestrus phases and highest in proestrus and estrus phases. In boar post-natal development stages, the hypothalamic, pituitary and testicular levels of NMB and NMBR mRNAs showed developmental changes on postnatal day 30, 60, 90 and 120. Taken together, this study provided molecular and morphological data necessary for further research of physiological function of NMB/NMBR system in the pigs.


Assuntos
Neurocinina B/análogos & derivados , Receptores da Bombesina/genética , Suínos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Neurocinina B/análise , Neurocinina B/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Receptores da Bombesina/análise , Reprodução , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/fisiologia
15.
J Nat Med ; 70(2): 173-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26645396

RESUMO

Three new prenylated xanthones, garcinexanthones G-I (1-3), together with fifteen known ones (4-18) were identified from the leaves of Garcinia lancilimba. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Most of the compounds exhibited inhibitory effects against HL-60 (human leukemia), A549 (human lung cancer), and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines. Among them, compounds 7, 17, and 13 exhibited the most pronounced growth inhibitory activity against HL-60, A549, and MCF-7 cell lines with GI50 values of 1.68, 4.88, and 6.28 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Garcinia/química , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Leucemia/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Células MCF-7 , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Folhas de Planta/química , Prenilação , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/farmacologia , Xantonas/uso terapêutico
16.
Arch Pharm Res ; 39(2): 172-177, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26659874

RESUMO

Three new xanthones, paucinervins H-J (1-3), as well as eleven known compounds (4-14), were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia paucinervis. The structures of the new compounds (1-3) were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectra and HR ESIMS. In vitro antiproliferative activity against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells was tested, among which, compounds 2, 5, 6 and 7 exhibited strong growth inhibitory effects with GI50 values ranging from 1.30 to 9.08 µM, respectively. Preliminary SARs were also discussed.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Garcinia/química , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Xantonas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Plantas Medicinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Proteome Res ; 14(3): 1495-503, 2015 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25607524

RESUMO

Heat stress can cause systemic physiological and biochemical alterations in living organisms. In reproductive systems, heat stress induces germ cell loss and poor quality semen. However, until now, little has been known about such a complex regulation process, particularly in the perspective of metabolism. In this study, serum, hypothalamus, and epididymis samples derived from male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats being exposed to high environmental temperature (40 °C) 2 h per day for 7 consecutive days were analyzed using metabonomics strategies based on GC/TOFMS. Differentially expressed metabolites reveal that the energy metabolism, amino acid neurotransmitters, and monoamine neurotransmitters pathways are associated with heat stress, in accordance with changes of the three upstream neuroendocrine system pathways in the SNS (sympathetic adrenergic system), hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), and hypothalamic pituitary testis axis (HPT) axis. Many of these metabolites, especially in the epididymis, were found to be up-regulated, presumably due to a self-preserving action to resist the environmental hot irritation to maintain normal functioning of the male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Reprodução , Animais , Peso Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Plant Cell Rep ; 34(5): 871-84, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627256

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A GSHS gene, LcGSHS , was cloned from L. chinense for the first time. Evidence is presented here that endogenous SA accumulation maybe important for the regulation of LcGSHS expression level. Glutathione (GSH) plays a pivotal role in heavy metal detoxification. GSH synthetase (GSHS) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of GSH synthesis in plants. Salicylic acid (SA) is one of the important plant hormones, which plays a critical role in triggering plant responses to different stresses such as cadmium (Cd) stress. Until now, little has been done to explore the relationship among the accumulation of endogenous SA, GSHS transcript levels and the GSH content in plants under Cd treatment and we will investigate this link in this study. The chlorophyll content, transcripts level of LcGSHS gene, endogenous SA accumulation, GSH accumulation and Cd concentration in the leaves of Lycium chinense were studied under different treatment conditions. Endogenous SA, LcGSHS transcript expression and GSH content can be induced by Cd treatment in L. chinense, however, reduced by co-treatment with 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), an inhibitor of SA biosynthesis. Strong staining was observed in the leaves of Arabidopsis expressing ProLcGSHS::GUS under Cd stress and the staining was reduced by co-treatment with AIP. The transgenic Arabidopsis expressing ProLcGSHS::LcGSHS also showed greater tolerance to Cd stress than wild types. Evidence was presented here that under Cd stress, GSH accumulation occurred via enhanced LcGSHS gene expression and the SA signaling cascade was involved in this accumulation. Furthermore, the overexpression of LcGSHS in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in greater tolerance to Cd stress than wild-type lines.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutationa Sintase/genética , Lycium/enzimologia , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Glutationa Sintase/metabolismo , Lycium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Estresse Fisiológico
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