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1.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645309

RESUMO

Wheat pathogens, especially those causing powdery mildew and stripe rust, seriously threaten yield worldwide. Utilizing newly identified disease resistance genes from wheat relatives is an effective strategy to minimize disease damage. In this study, chromosome-specific molecular markers for the 3Sb and 7Sb chromosomes of Aegilops bicornis were developed using PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) primers for screening wheat-Ae. bicornis progenies. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to further identify wheat-Ae. bicornis progenies using oligonucleotides probes Oligo-pSc119.2-1, Oligo-pTa535-1, and Oligo-(GAA)8. After establishing Ae. bicornis 3Sb and 7Sb chromosome-specific FISH markers, Holdfast (common wheat)-Ae. bicornis 3Sb addition, 7Sb addition, 3Sb(3A) substitution, 3Sb(3B) substitution, 3Sb(3D) substitution, 7Sb(7A) substitution, and 7Sb(7B) substitution lines were identified by the molecular and cytological markers. Stripe rust and powdery mildew resistance, along with agronomic traits were investigated to evaluate the breeding potential of these lines. Holdfast and Holdfast-Ae. bicornis progenies were all highly resistant to stripe rust, indicating that the stripe rust resistance might derive from Holdfast. However, Holdfast-Ae. bicornis 3Sb addition, 3Sb(3A) substitution, 3Sb(3B) substitution, and 3Sb(3D) substitution lines showed high resistance to powdery mildew while Holdfast was highly susceptible, indicating that chromosome 3Sb of Ae. bicornis carries previously unknown powdery mildew resistance gene(s). Additionally, the transfer of the 3Sb chromosome from Ae. bicornis to wheat significantly increased tiller number, but chromosome 7Sb has a negative effect on agronomic traits. Therefore, wheat germplasm containing Ae. bicornis chromosome 3Sb has potential to contribute to improving powdery mildew resistance and tiller number during wheat breeding.

2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 213, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The identification of chromosomes among Avena species have been studied by C-banding and in situ hybridization. However, the complicated results from several cytogenetic nomenclatures for identifying oat chromosomes are often contradictory. A universal karyotyping nomenclature system for precise chromosome identification and comparative evolutionary studies would be essential for genus Avena based on the recently released genome sequences of hexaploid and diploid Avena species. RESULTS: Tandem repetitive sequences were predicted and physically located on chromosomal regions of the released Avena sativa OT3098 genome assembly v1. Eight new oligonucleotide (oligo) probes for sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were designed and then applied for chromosome karyotyping on mitotic metaphase spreads of A. brevis, A. nuda, A. wiestii, A. ventricosa, A. fatua, and A. sativa species. We established a high-resolution standard karyotype of A. sativa based on the distinct FISH signals of multiple oligo probes. FISH painting with bulked oligos, based on wheat-barley collinear regions, was used to validate the linkage group assignment for individual A. sativa chromosomes. We integrated our new Oligo-FISH based karyotype system with earlier karyotype nomenclatures through sequential C-banding and FISH methods, then subsequently determined the precise breakage points of some chromosome translocations in A. sativa. CONCLUSIONS: This new universal chromosome identification system will be a powerful tool for describing the genetic diversity, chromosomal rearrangements and evolutionary relationships among Avena species by comparative cytogenetic and genomic approaches.


Assuntos
Avena/classificação , Avena/genética , DNA de Plantas , Diploide , Genoma de Planta , Cariotipagem/classificação , Terminologia como Assunto , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Análise Citogenética
3.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 1000, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32793251

RESUMO

In many non-cultivated angiosperm species, seed dispersal is facilitated by the shattering of the seed head at maturity; in the Triticeae tribe, to which several of the world's most important cereals belong, shattering takes the form of a disarticulation of the rachis. The products of the genes Btr1 and Btr2 are both required for disarticulation to occur above the rachis nodes within the genera Hordeum (barley) and Triticum/Aegilops (wheat). Here, it has been shown that both Btr1 and Btr2 are specific to the Triticeae tribe, although likely paralogs (Btr1-like and Btr2-like) are carried by the family Poaceae including Triticeae. Aegilops tauschii (the donor of the bread wheat D genome) lacks a copy of Btr1 and disarticulation in this species occurs below, rather than above the rachis node; thus, the product of Btr1 appears to be required for disarticulation to occur above the rachis node.

4.
Plant Dis ; 100(8): 1717-1724, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686226

RESUMO

Wheat is one of the major food crops in the world. Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an economically important disease that affects wheat worldwide. The discovery of novel resistance genes and the deployment of effectively resistant cultivars are important for the ongoing control of wheat stripe rust and the maintenance of the agricultural productivity of wheat. CH7086, a new stripe rust-resistant wheat introgression line, was selected by crossing susceptible cultivars with the resistant Thinopyrum ponticum-derived partial amphiploid Xiaoyan 7430. The resistance of CH7086 is effective against all current Chinese P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races. CH7086 was crossed with the stripe rust-susceptible cultivars to develop F1, F2, F3, and BC1 populations for genetic analysis. Segregation in the F2 and BC1 populations and F2:3 lines were tested for resistance against the P. striiformis f. sp. tritici race CYR32. This test showed that CH7086 carries a single dominant gene for stripe rust resistance, which was temporarily designated YrCH86. The closest of the eight simple sequence repeat (SSR) and expressed sequence tag-SSR markers flanking the locus were X2AS33, which is 1.9 cM distal, and Xmag3807, which is 3.1 cM proximal. The resistance gene and its polymorphic markers were placed in deletion bin 2AS-0.78-1.00 using the 'Chinese Spring' nullisomic-tetrasomic, ditelosomic, and deletion lines. The tests of both allelism and resistance specificity suggested that the resistance gene found in CH7086 was not Yr17, which was the only current formally named Yr gene on chromosome 2AS. Thus, YrCH86 appeared to be a new locus and was permanently designated Yr69.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(8): 17231-44, 2015 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26225967

RESUMO

Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a globally serious disease adversely affecting wheat production. The Bgt-resistant wheat breeding line CH09W89 was derived after backcrossing a Bgt resistant wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7045 with susceptible wheat cultivars. At the seedling stage, CH09W89 exhibited immunity or high resistance to Bgt pathotypes E09, E20, E21, E23, E26, Bg1, and Bg2, similar to its donor line TAI7045 and Th. intermedium. No Th. intermedium chromatin was detected based on genomic in situ hybridization of mitotic chromosomes. To determine the mode of inheritance of the Bgt resistance and the chromosomal location of the resistance gene, CH09W89 was crossed with two susceptible wheat cultivars. The results of the genetic analysis showed that the adult resistance to Bgt E09 in CH09W89 was controlled by a single recessive gene, which was tentatively designated as pmCH89. Two polymorphic SSR markers, Xwmc310 and Xwmc125, were linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances 3.1 and 2.7 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring aneuploid and deletion lines, the resistance gene and its linked markers were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL in the bin 0.68-0.78. Due to its unique position on chromosome 4BL, pmCH89 appears to be a new locus for resistance to powdery mildew. These results will be of benefit for improving powdery mildew resistance in wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Triticum/genética , Aneuploidia , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Hibridização Genética , Triticum/imunologia , Triticum/microbiologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 16(1): 2162-73, 2015 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25608651

RESUMO

A new wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line CH13-21 was selected from the progenies derived from a cross between wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7047 and wheat line Mianyang11. CH13-21 was characterized by using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), multicolor-GISH (mc-GISH), multicolor-fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH) and chromosome-specific molecular markers. When inoculated with stripe rust and powdery mildew isolates, CH13-21 displayed novel resistance to powdery mildew and stripe rust which inherited from its Thinopyrum parent. The chromosomal counting analyses indicated that CH13-21 has 42 chromosomes, with normal bivalent pairing at metaphase I of meiosis. GISH probed by Th. intermedium genomic DNA showed that CH13-21 contained a pair of wheat-Th. intermedium translocated chromosomes. Sequential mc-FISH analyses probed by pSc119.2 and pAs1 clearly revealed that chromosome arm 6BS of CH13-21 was replaced by Thinopyrum chromatin in the translocation chromosome. The molecular markers analysis further confirmed that the introduced Th. intermedium chromatin in CH13-21 belonged to the long arm of homoeologous group 6 chromosome. Therefore, CH13-21 was a new T6BS.6Ai#1L compensating Robertsonian translocation line. It concludes that CH13-21 is a new genetic resource for wheat breeding programs providing novel variation for disease resistances.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Translocação Genética/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Triticum/citologia , Triticum/imunologia
7.
PLoS One ; 9(11): e113455, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25415194

RESUMO

Powdery mildew (PM) is a very destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line CH7086 was shown to possess powdery mildew resistance possibly originating from Th. ponticum. Genomic in situ hybridization and molecular characterization of the alien introgression failed to identify alien chromatin. To study the genetics of resistance, CH7086 was crossed with susceptible genotypes. Segregation in F2 populations and F2:3 lines tested with Chinese Bgt race E09 under controlled conditions indicated that CH7086 carries a single dominant gene for powdery mildew resistance. Fourteen SSR and EST-PCR markers linked with the locus were identified. The genetic distances between the locus and the two flanking markers were 1.5 and 3.2 cM, respectively. Based on the locations of the markers by nullisomic-tetrasomic and deletion lines of 'Chinese Spring', the resistance gene was located in deletion bin 2BL-0.89-1.00. Conserved orthologous marker analysis indicated that the genomic region flanking the resistance gene has a high level of collinearity to that of rice chromosome 4 and Brachypodium chromosome 5. Both resistance specificities and tests of allelism suggested the resistance gene in CH7086 was different from previously reported powdery mildew resistance genes on 2BL, and the gene was provisionally designated PmCH86. Molecular analysis of PmCH86 compared with other genes for resistance to Bgt in the 2BL-0.89-1.00 region suggested that PmCH86 may be a new PM resistance gene, and it was therefore designated as Pm51. The closely linked flanking markers could be useful in exploiting this putative wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line for rapid transfer of Pm51 to wheat breeding programs.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Resistência à Doença , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Cruzamento , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia
8.
Theor Appl Genet ; 126(1): 265-74, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23052018

RESUMO

Stripe rust-resistant wheat introgression line CH223 was developed by crossing the resistant partial amphiploid TAI7047 derived from Thinopyrum intermedium with susceptible cultivars. The resistance is effective against all the existing Chinese stripe rust races, including the most widely virulent and predominant pathotypes CYR32 and CYR33. Cytological analyses using GISH detected no chromosomal segments from Th. intermedium. It was presumed that the segment was too small to be detected. Normal bivalent pairing at meiosis in CH223 and its hybrids confirmed its stability. Genetic analysis of the F(1), F(2), F(3) and BC(1) populations from crosses of CH223 with susceptible lines indicated that resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene. The resistance gene was mapped using an F(2:3) population from Taichung 29/CH223. The gene was linked to five co-dominant genomic SSR markers, Xgwm540, Xbarc1096, Xwmc47, Xwmc310 and Xgpw7272, and flanked by Xbarc1096 and Xwmc47 at 8.0 and 7.2 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines, the polymorphic markers and the resistance gene were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL. As no permanently named stripe rust resistance genes had been assigned to chromosome 4BL, this new resistance gene is designated Yr50. The gene, together with the identified closely linked markers, could be used in marker-assisted selection to combine two or more resistance genes in a single genotype.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Triticum/genética , Alelos , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/imunologia , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Citogenética , Genes de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Hibridização In Situ , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo Genético
9.
Yi Chuan ; 30(8): 1056-62, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18779158

RESUMO

Genome in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis of wheat-Secale africanum amphiploid revealed that the S. africanum genome displayed significant divergence to the Secale cereale genome. It is thus valuable to deploy genes from S. africanum. We performed the PCR analysis on S. africanum, wheat-S. afticanum amphiploid, T. eastivum cv. Anyuepaideng and other genetic stocks by 100 ISSR primers. A specific segment of 561 bp, named pSaUBC815561, was obtained from S. africanum using primer UBC815. This segment was not amplified from the control wheat lines. Primer UBC815 also am-plified fragments from wild species of genus Secale, including S. vavilovii, S. sylvestre, and other cultivated ryes. Based on the sequence of pSaUBC815561, a pair of special primers U815-F and U815-R was designed and was used to amplify the DNA of wheat related species in Triticeae aimed at validating the specificity of pSaUBC815561. PCR analysis indicated that this specific DNA fragment was amplified not only from a set of Chinese Spring wheat-Imperial rye chromosome addition lines but also from certain wheat-rye introgression lines. Therefore, pSaUBC815561 can be used as a specific marker for detection of chromosomes of Secale genome in wheat.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Secale/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Triticum/genética
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