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1.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825295

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with cognitive dysfunctions, including mental time travel (MTT). However, findings on diminished MTT ability may be confounded by a number of factors, including the individuals' language ability, factors related to the MTT task and the demographic factors of participants. The present study provided a meta-analysis of MTT ability in people with ASD. The results showed significant overall reductions in MTT ability in people with ASD. Moderator analyses revealed that the variables examined did not explain the reduction in MTT ability. These findings suggest that MTT ability is diminished in people with ASD and that the degree of this diminishment may not depend on the characteristics of measures or demographic variables of people with ASD.

2.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218211066282, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841982

RESUMO

Delay discounting (DD) refers to the phenomenon in which the subjective value of future rewards is reduced over time. There are individual differences in the DD rate, and increased discounting has been observed in those with various psychiatric disorders. Episodic future thinking (EFT) is the act of vividly imagining events that may happen in the future. Studies have shown that EFT could reduce DD, although inconsistent results have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the efficacy with which EFT reduces DD and to identify potential moderators. Forty-seven studies (including 63 contrasts) were included in the final analysis. EFT was found to significantly reduce DD (Hedges' g =0.52). Moderator analysis showed that positive EFT (g=0.64) was more effective in reducing DD than EFT with the valence not specifically mentioned (g=0.28), and EFT with neutral or negative valence (g=-0.03). In addition, several factors related to the control task and DD task were related to the efficacy of EFT to reduce DD. These findings have implications for using EFT to reduce DD in the future.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8394, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863942

RESUMO

Schizotypy, a subclinical group at risk for schizophrenia, has been found to show impairments in response inhibition. However, it remains unclear whether this impairment is accompanied by outright stopping (reactive inhibition) or preparation for stopping (proactive inhibition). We recruited 20 schizotypy and 24 non-schizotypy individuals to perform a modified stop-signal task with electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded. This task consists of three conditions based on the probability of stop signal: 0% (no stop trials, only go trials), 17% (17% stop trials), and 33% (33% stop trials), the conditions were indicated by the colour of go stimuli. For proactive inhibition (go trials), individuals with schizotypy exhibited significantly lesser increase in go response time (RT) as the stop signal probability increasing compared to non-schizotypy individuals. Individuals with schizotypy also exhibited significantly increased N1 amplitude on all levels of stop signal probability and increased P3 amplitude in the 17% stop condition compared with non-schizotypy individuals. For reactive inhibition (stop trials), individuals with schizotypy exhibited significantly longer stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in both 17% and 33% stop conditions and smaller N2 amplitude on stop trials in the 17% stop condition than non-schizotypy individuals. These findings suggest that individuals with schizotypy were impaired in both proactive and reactive response inhibition at behavioural and neural levels.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Inibição Psicológica , Inibição Proativa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Inibição Reativa , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psych J ; 10(3): 437-443, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594832

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the relationships among clinical insight, subjective memory complaints, and objective memory performance in patients with schizophrenia. We recruited 205 patients with schizophrenia and 221 healthy controls in this study. The participants were administered a subjective-report scale on memory (the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire), and several objective memory tasks measuring verbal memory, visual memory, and working memory. Clinical insight was measured with an item in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. We found that when patients with schizophrenia were divided into subgroups with good and poor insight, both subgroups showed impairment in memory performance compared with controls. The schizophrenia patients with good insight reported similar memory complaints as controls whereas patients with poor insight reported less memory complaints than did the controls. These findings suggest that clinical insight may be related to subjective memory complaints, but not objective memory performance.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc ; 27(10): 981-991, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia and individuals with schizotypy, a subclinical group at risk for schizophrenia, have been found to have impairments in cognitive control. The Dual Mechanisms of Cognitive Control (DMC) framework hypothesises that cognitive control can be divided into proactive and reactive control. However, it is unclear whether individuals with schizotypy have differential behavioural impairments and neural correlates underlying these two types of cognitive control. METHOD: Twenty-five individuals with schizotypy and 26 matched healthy controls (HCs) completed both reactive and proactive control tasks with electroencephalographic data recorded. The proportion of congruent and incongruent trials was manipulated in a classic colour-word Stroop task to induce proactive or reactive control. Proactive control was induced in a context with mostly incongruent (MI) trials and reactive control in a context with mostly congruent (MC) trials. Two event-related potential (ERP) components, medial frontal negativity (MFN, associated with conflict detection) and conflict sustained potential (conflict SP, associated with conflict resolution) were examined. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of behavioural results. In terms of ERP results, in the MC context, HC exhibited significantly larger MFN (360-530 ms) and conflict SP (600-1000 ms) amplitudes than individuals with schizotypy. The two groups did not show any significant difference in MFN or conflict SP in the MI context. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings provide initial evidence for dissociation of neural activation between proactive and reactive cognitive control in individuals with schizotypy. These findings help us understand cognitive control deficits in the schizophrenia spectrum.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/complicações , Teste de Stroop
6.
Psych J ; 9(1): 87-95, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722451

RESUMO

Involuntary mental time travel (MTT) refers to the phenomenon of mentally reliving past experiences or pre-living possible future events in an involuntary form. Few studies have explored involuntary MTT in individuals with schizotypal personality features. The present study aimed to first explore the psychometric properties of the Involuntary Autobiographic Memory Inventory (IAMI) in a Chinese sample (Study 1), and then to explore whether individuals with schizotypal personality features experience involuntary MTT more frequently than individuals without schizotypal features. Moreover, the study explored whether the aberrant frequency of involuntary MTT is correlated with positive schizotypal features (Study 2). The results showed that the IAMI had good structural validity and reliability in a Chinese sample. Individuals with schizotypal traits reported a significantly higher frequency, less positive emotion, and stronger emotional intensity for both involuntary memories and future thoughts compared with individuals without schizotypal features. Further analyses in individuals with schizotypal personality features showed that the frequencies of both involuntary memories and future thoughts were significantly correlated with positive schizotypal traits. These results have potential theoretical and clinical implications for a comprehensive understanding of involuntary MTT among individuals with schizotypal personality features.


Assuntos
Associação Livre , Memória Episódica , Psicometria/normas , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Tempo , Tradução , Adulto Jovem
7.
Mem Cognit ; 47(2): 279-291, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284189

RESUMO

The ability to flexibly retrieve and implement sequences of actions is essential to motor learning and planning. Recent research has indicated that serial memory for instructions is influenced by presentation modality (spoken vs. visual demonstration) and recall modality (verbal vs. enacted recall). The present study extended this work by investigating the impact of recall direction (forward vs. backward), in addition to that of presentation and recall modality, on working memory for instruction sequences in healthy young adults. Experiment 1 (N = 24) showed that adults were more accurate in backward than forward verbal recall following spoken instructions. In contrast, enacted recall was not influenced by recall direction. Experiment 2 (N = 24) used visual demonstration of instruction sequences and found similar performance levels in forward and backward recall. Experiment 3 (N = 24) replicated the findings from Experiment 1 and 2, along with the previous observation of an advantage for demonstrated over spoken presentation. In addition, the beneficial effects of enacted recall and visual demonstration also emerged in an analysis of response times, specifically in reduced preparation and recall duration. Demonstrated instructions improved maintenance of all items while backward recall enhanced memory of later items in the sequence. These findings provide new insights into the cognitive processes and temporal dynamics of working memory for serial actions and instructions.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Seriada/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
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