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1.
Chem Biodivers ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705573

RESUMO

A facile method was developed for synthesis of boronic acid-functionalized silica nanocomposites (SiO 2 -BA) by "thiol-ene"click reaction, where silica nanoparticles were synthesized by using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and γ-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) as precursors. The morphology and structure properties of the resultant SiO 2 -BA were characterized by Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),and Brunner-Emmet-Teller measurements  (BET). The adsorption behavior of the SiO 2 -BA for glycoproteins was evaluated. Under the optimized conditions, the SiO 2 -BA exhibited higher adsorption capacity towards glycoproteins (ovalbumin, OVA, (7.64 µmol/g) than non-glycoproteins (bovine serum albumin,BSA, 0.83 µmol/g). In addition, the practicality of the SiO 2 -BA was further assessed by selective enrichment of glycophoproteins from egg white samples.

2.
EMBO Mol Med ; 11(10): e10168, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475771

RESUMO

Accurate risk stratification for patients with stage II/III colon cancer is pivotal for postoperative treatment decisions. Here, we aimed to identify and validate a circRNA-based signature that could improve postoperative prognostic stratification for these patients. In current retrospective analysis, we included 667 patients with R0 resected stage II/III colon cancer. Using RNA-seq analysis of 20 paired frozen tissues collected postoperation, we profiled differential circRNA expression between patients with and without recurrence, followed by quantitative validation. With clinical information, we generated a four-circRNA-based cirScore to classify patients into high-risk and low-risk groups in the training cohort. The patients with high cirScores in the training cohort had a shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) than patients with low cirScores. The prognostic capacity of the classifier was validated in the internal and external cohorts. Loss-of-function assays indicated that the selected circRNAs played functional roles in colon cancer progression. Overall, our four-circRNA-based classifier is a reliable prognostic tool for postoperative disease recurrence in patients with stage II/III colon cancer.

3.
Oncogene ; 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530934

RESUMO

Patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit various clinical outcomes after radical treatments. The 5-year survival rate was between 50 and 87%. However, the underlying mechanisms of the variation remain unclear. Here we show that AMPKα1 is overexpressed in CRC patient specimens and the high expression is correlated with poor patient survival. We further reveal a previously unrecognized function of AMPKα1, which maintains high level of reduced glutathione to keep reduction-oxidation reaction (redox) homeostasis under stress conditions, thus promoting CRC cell survival under metabolic stress in vitro and enhancing tumorigenesis in vivo. Mechanistically, AMPKα1 regulate the glutathione reductase (GSR) phosphorylation possibly through residue Thr507 which enhances its activity. Suppression of AMPKα1 by using nano-sized polymeric vector induces a favorable therapeutic effect, especially when in combination with oxaliplatin. Our study uncovers a novel function of AMPKα1 in redox regulation and identifies a promising therapeutic strategy for treatment of CRC.

4.
Cancer ; 2019 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between a nonmedicinal herbal diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has often been hypothesized but never thoroughly investigated. METHODS: This study enrolled a total of 2469 patients with incident NPC and 2559 population controls from parts of Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces in southern China between 2010 and 2014. Questionnaire information was collected on the intake of traditional herbal tea and herbal soup as well as the specific herbal plants used in soups and other potentially confounding lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the NPC risk in association with herbal tea and soup intake. RESULTS: Ever consumption of herbal tea was not associated with NPC risk (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.91-1.17). An inverse association was observed for NPC among ever drinkers of herbal soup (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.90) but without any monotonic trend with an increasing frequency or duration of herbal soup consumption. Inverse associations with NPC risk were detected with 9 herbal plants used in herbal soup, including Ziziphus jujuba, Fructus lycii, Codonopsis pilosula, Astragalus membranaceus, Semen coicis, Smilax glabra, Phaseolus calcaratus, Morinda officinalis, and Atractylodes macrocephala (OR range, 0.31-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Consuming herbal soups including specific plants, but not herbal tea, was inversely associated with NPC. If replicated, these results might provide potential for NPC prevention in endemic areas.

5.
Sci Signal ; 12(594)2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409756

RESUMO

The ability of skeletal muscle to switch between lipid and glucose oxidation for ATP production during metabolic stress is pivotal for maintaining systemic energy homeostasis, and dysregulation of this metabolic flexibility is a dominant cause of several metabolic disorders. However, the molecular mechanism that governs fuel selection in muscle is not well understood. Here, we report that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a fasting-induced myokine that controls metabolic reprograming through the AMPK/CREB/PGC-1α pathway in female mice. Female mice with a muscle-specific deficiency in BDNF (MBKO mice) were unable to switch the predominant fuel source from carbohydrates to fatty acids during fasting, which reduced ATP production in muscle. Fasting-induced muscle atrophy was also compromised in female MBKO mice, likely a result of autophagy inhibition. These mutant mice displayed myofiber necrosis, weaker muscle strength, reduced locomotion, and muscle-specific insulin resistance. Together, our results show that muscle-derived BDNF facilitates metabolic adaption during nutrient scarcity in a gender-specific manner and that insufficient BDNF production in skeletal muscle promotes the development of metabolic myopathies and insulin resistance.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(10): 881-891, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation has an important role in the development of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, genetic factors for lung cancer have not been fully identified, especially in Chinese populations, which limits the use of existing polygenic risk scores (PRS) to identify subpopulations at high risk of lung cancer for prevention. We therefore aimed to identify novel loci associated with NSCLC risk, and generate a PRS and evaluate its utility and effectiveness in the prediction of lung cancer risk in Chinese populations. METHODS: To systematically identify genetic variants for NSCLC risk, we newly genotyped 19 546 samples from Chinese NSCLC cases and controls from the Nanjing Medical University Global Screening Array Project and did a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of 27 120 individuals with NSCLC and 27 355 without NSCLC (13 327 cases and 13 328 controls of Chinese descent as well as 13 793 cases and 14 027 controls of European descent). We then built a PRS for Chinese populations from all reported single-nucleotide polymorphisms that have been reported to be associated with lung cancer risk at genome-wide significance level. We evaluated the utility and effectiveness of the generated PRS in predicting subpopulations at high-risk of lung cancer in an independent prospective cohort of 95 408 individuals from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) with more than 10 years' follow-up. FINDINGS: We identified 19 susceptibility loci to be significantly associated with NSCLC risk at p≤5·0 × 10-8, including six novel loci. When applied to the CKB cohort, the PRS of the risk loci successfully predicted lung cancer incident cases in a dose-response manner in participants at a high genetic risk (top 10%) than those at a low genetic risk (bottom 10%; adjusted hazard ratio 1·96, 95% CI 1·53-2·51; ptrend=2·02 × 10-9). Specially, we observed consistently separated curves of lung cancer events in individuals at low, intermediate, and high genetic risk, respectively, and PRS was an independent effective risk stratification indicator beyond age and smoking pack-years. INTERPRETATION: We have shown for the first time that GWAS-derived PRS can be effectively used in discriminating subpopulations at high risk of lung cancer, who might benefit from a practically feasible PRS-based lung cancer screening programme for precision prevention in Chinese populations. FUNDING: National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Priority Academic Program for the Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, National Key R&D Program of China, Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholars of Jiangsu, and China's Thousand Talents Program.

7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 859: 172523, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279667

RESUMO

Many drugs with anti-diabetic effects regulate glucose consumption in peripheral tissues. Via cellular glucose consumption assays, we identified that coptisine, a main effective constituent from the plant Coptis chinensis, enhanced hepatic and skeletal muscle glucose consumption. We further explored its effects on glucose metabolism in diabetic animals to elucidate its mechanism of action. Our results showed that coptisine did not show cytotoxicity. Intragastric administration of coptisine for ten days in normal ICR mice markedly decreased fasting blood-glucose levels without significant effects on body weight. In alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice, intragastric administration of coptisine for 28 days decreased fasting and non-fasting blood-glucose levels as well. In type 2 diabetic KKAy mice, intragastric administration of coptisine for nine weeks improved glucose tolerance. It decreased fasting/non-fasting blood-glucose and fructosamine levels. Coptisine decreased low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels, however, had no significant effect on triglyceride levels. Coptisine increased AMPK phosphorylation while decreasing Akt phosphorylation in HepG2 hepatic cells and C2C12 myotubes. Coptisine also reduced mitochondrial respiration in isolated and cellular mitochondria, suggesting that coptisine lowered cellular energy levels. In particularly, coptisine administration (10-6 M) decreased the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) with a greater extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), resulting in an oxidative-to-glycolysis phosphorylation shifted for cellular energy generation. Our results demonstrate that coptisine acts as an enhancer of peripheral glucose consumption could improve glucose metabolism in diabetic animals. Coptisine may serve as a novel anti-diabetic agent and warrant further evaluation.

8.
Cancer Med ; 8(10): 4852-4866, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241250

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation, reflected by aberrantly increased levels of various serological antibodies, has been suggested to be an early indicator of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) onset and progression. We have previously suggested that certain lifestyle and dietary factors were associated with elevated serological levels of the antibody against various EBV antigens namely VCA, Zta, EBNA1, and oral EBV DNA loads among healthy population. It remains unclear whether these potential environmental factors would also influence EBV serological antibodies in NPC patients. We conducted an epidemiological study to evaluate the associations between such environmental factors and EBV antibody levels among 1701 NPC patients in South China. Pretreatment serums were collected and examined for VCA-IgA and EA-IgA by immunoenzymatic assays and antienzyme rate (AER) of EBV DNase-specific neutralizing antibody. We found that consumption of Canton-style herbal tea was significantly correlated with increased serological antibody levels of VCA-IgA and EA-IgA, with adjusted ORs of 1.35 (95% CI: 1.03-1.76) and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.01-1.73), respectively, in the weekly intake frequency stratum, while not related to AER of EBV DNase-specific neutralizing antibody. Smoking was found to be not only an apparent risk factor for higher antibody levels of AER in stage III-IV patients (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.11-2.30), but also associated closely with NPC stage at diagnosis (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.47-3.22), with dose-response effects. In conclusion, we found consumption of Canton-style herbal tea and cigarette smoking were in positive associations with elevated EBV antibodies in NPC patients, which may be of public health significance for the primary prevention of EBV-associated diseases especially NPC.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(8): 1308-1315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in susceptibility genes lead to increased breast cancer risk. METHODS: To identify coding variants associated with breast cancer risk, we conducted whole-exome sequencing in genomic DNA samples from 831 breast cancer cases and 839 controls of Chinese women. We also genotyped samples, including 4,580 breast cancer cases and 6,695 controls, using whole exome-chip arrays. We further performed a replication study using a Multi-Ethnic Global Array in samples from 1,793 breast cases and 2,059 controls. A single marker analysis was performed using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: We identified a missense variant (rs139379666, P2974L; AF = 0.09% for breast cancer cases, but none for controls) in the ATM gene for breast cancer risk using combing data from 7,204 breast cancer cases and 9,593 controls (P = 1.7 × 10-5). To investigate the functionality of the variant, we first silenced ATM and then transfected the overexpression vectors of ATM containing the risk alleles (TT) or reference alleles (CC) of the variant in U2OS and breast cancer SK-BR3 cells, respectively. Our results showed that compared with the reference allele, the risk allele significantly disrupts the activity of homologous recombination-mediated double-strand breaks repair efficiency. Our results further showed that the risk allele may play a defected regulation role in the activity of the ATM structure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified a novel mutation that disrupts ATM function, conferring to breast cancer risk. IMPACT: Functional investigation of genetic association findings is necessary to discover a pathogenic variant for breast cancer risk.

10.
Nat Genet ; 51(7): 1131-1136, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209392

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is ubiquitous worldwide and is associated with multiple cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The importance of EBV viral genomic variation in NPC development and its striking epidemic in southern China has been poorly explored. Through large-scale genome sequencing of 270 EBV isolates and two-stage association study of EBV isolates from China, we identify two non-synonymous EBV variants within BALF2 that are strongly associated with the risk of NPC (odds ratio (OR) = 8.69, P = 9.69 × 10-25 for SNP 162476_C; OR = 6.14, P = 2.40 × 10-32 for SNP 163364_T). The cumulative effects of these variants contribute to 83% of the overall risk of NPC in southern China. Phylogenetic analysis of the risk variants reveals a unique origin in Asia, followed by clonal expansion in NPC-endemic regions. Our results provide novel insights into the NPC endemic in southern China and also enable the identification of high-risk individuals for NPC prevention.

11.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1596-1605, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chinese-style salted fish intake in early life is considered an established risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, results for adult intakes of salted fish and preserved foods are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to ascertain the relations of Chinese-style hard and soft salted fish and preserved food intakes with NPC risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study in southern China with 2554 NPC cases identified through a rapid case ascertainment system and 2648 healthy controls, frequency-matched on age, sex, and area. Subjects (aged 20-74 y) were interviewed via a food-frequency questionnaire, including information on portion size. Data were also collected on alcohol consumption and potential confounders. Food intake was grouped into 3-5 energy-adjusted intake levels during adulthood (10 y prior) and adolescence (16-18 y). For childhood (at age 10 y), intake frequency of selected food items was collected. Multivariate-adjusted ORs with 95% CIs were estimated via logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no association between NPC and intake of hard Chinese-style salted fish during adulthood, and an increased risk at the highest level of intake during adolescence (OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.39). In contrast, we found a decreased risk for the middle intake level of soft salted fish during adulthood (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.81) and adolescence (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.85). Preserved foods showed contrasting risk profiles, e.g., the highest adult intake level of salted egg (OR: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.22, 1.87) and fermented black beans (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.80). Associations with NPC were weaker than previously reported, e.g., for weekly childhood intake of salted fish (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.97). CONCLUSIONS: Hard and soft salted fish have different risk profiles. Salted fish and other preserved foods were at most weak risk factors for NPC in all periods and may play a smaller role in NPC occurrence than previously thought.

12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 514(2): 407-414, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056256

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle secretes myokines, which are involved in metabolism and muscle function regulation. The role of fasting on myokine expression in skeletal muscle is largely unknown. In this study, we used gastrocnemius skeletal muscle RNA sequencing data from fasting male mice in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Adopted male and female C57BL/6J mice that fasted for 24 h were included to examine the effect of fasting on myokine expression in slow-twitch soleus and fast-twitch tiabialis anterior (TA) skeletal muscle. We found that fasting significantly affected many myokines in muscle. Fasting reduced Fndc5 and Igf1 gene expression in soleus and TA muscles in both male and female mice without muscle phenotype or gender differences, but Il6, Mstn and Erfe expression was influenced by fasting with fibre type- and gender-dependent effects. Fasting also induced muscle atrophy marker genes Murf1 and Fbxo32 and reduced myogenesis factor Mef2 expression without muscle fibre or gender differences. We further found that the expression of transcription factors Pgc1α, Pparα, Pparγ and Pparδ had muscle fibre type-dependent effects, and the expression of Pgc1α and Pparα had gender-dependent effects. The sophisticated expression pattern of myokines would partially explain the complicated cross-talk between skeletal muscle and other organs in different genders and muscles phenotypes, and it is worth further investigation.

13.
Gene ; 705: 90-94, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034940

RESUMO

DNA ligase III (LIG3) has been implicated in the etiology of cancer. However, few studies have accessed the association of LIG3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with gastric cancer risk, especially in Chinese population. The current study was undertaken to investigate contribution of LIG3 gene polymorphisms to gastric cancer risk. We first applied TaqMan assay to genotype three LIG3 gene SNPs (rs1052536 C > T, rs3744356 C > T, rs4796030 A > C) in 1142 patients with gastric cancer and 1173 healthy controls. And then, we adopted unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis to estimate the association between LIG3 SNP genotypes and gastric cancer risk. In all, no positive association was found between the three LIG3 SNPs and gastric cancer risk in single locus analysis or combined risk genotypes analysis. However, compared with participants with rs4796030 AA genotype, participants with the AC/CC had a decreased risk of developing tumors from cardia at an adjusted OR of 0.68 (95% CI = 0.48-0.96, P = 0.026). In addition, we found that participants harboring 2-3 risk genotypes were at a significantly increased risk of developing tumor from cardia (adjusted OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.16-2.28, P = 0.005). These results suggest that genetic variations in LIG3 gene may play a weak role in modifying the risk of gastric cancer. Future functional studies should be performed to elucidate the biological role of LIG3 polymorphisms in gastric cancer carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , DNA Ligase Dependente de ATP/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
14.
Biol Sex Differ ; 10(1): 13, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The male predominance in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) suggests the contribution of the X chromosome to the susceptibility of NPC. However, no X-linked susceptibility loci have been examined by genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for NPC by far. METHODS: To understand the contribution of the X chromosome in NPC susceptibility, we conducted an X chromosome-wide association analysis on 1615 NPC patients and 1025 healthy controls of Guangdong Chinese, followed by two validation analyses in Taiwan Chinese (n = 562) and Malaysian Chinese (n = 716). RESULTS: Firstly, the proportion of variance of X-linked loci over phenotypic variance was estimated in the discovery samples, which revealed that the phenotypic variance explained by X chromosome polymorphisms was estimated to be 12.63% (non-dosage compensation model) in males, as compared with 0.0001% in females. This suggested that the contribution of X chromosome to the genetic variance of NPC should not be neglected. Secondly, association analysis revealed that rs5927056 in DMD gene achieved X chromosome-wide association significance in the discovery sample (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.89, P = 1.49 × 10-5). Combined analysis revealed rs5927056 for DMD gene with suggestive significance (P = 9.44 × 10-5). Moreover, the female-specific association of rs5933886 in ARHGAP6 gene (OR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.47-0.81, P = 4.37 × 10-4) was successfully replicated in Taiwan Chinese (P = 1.64 × 10-2). rs5933886 also showed nominally significant gender × SNP interaction in both Guangdong (P = 6.25 × 10-4) and Taiwan datasets (P = 2.99 × 10-2). CONCLUSION: Our finding reveals new susceptibility loci at the X chromosome conferring risk of NPC and supports the value of including the X chromosome in large-scale association studies.

15.
Theranostics ; 9(4): 1115-1124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867819

RESUMO

Rationale: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with multiple malignancies with expression of viral oncogenic proteins and chronic inflammation as major mechanisms contributing to tumor development. A less well-studied mechanism is the integration of EBV into the human genome possibly at sites which may disrupt gene expression or genome stability. Methods: We sequenced tumor DNA to profile the EBV sequences by hybridization-based enrichment. Bioinformatic analysis was used to detect the breakpoints of EBV integrations in the genome of cancer cells. Results: We identified 197 breakpoints in nasopharyngeal carcinomas and other EBV-associated malignancies. EBV integrations were enriched at vulnerable regions of the human genome and were close to tumor suppressor and inflammation-related genes. We found that EBV integrations into the introns could decrease the expression of the inflammation-related genes, TNFAIP3, PARK2, and CDK15, in NPC tumors. In the EBV genome, the breakpoints were frequently at oriP or terminal repeats. These breakpoints were surrounded by microhomology sequences, consistent with a mechanism for integration involving viral genome replication and microhomology-mediated recombination. Conclusion: Our finding provides insight into the potential of EBV integration as an additional mechanism mediating tumorigenesis in EBV associated malignancies.

16.
Cancer Med ; 8(4): 1835-1844, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793524

RESUMO

Whether the association between body size or shape and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk exists or varies by age-specific body size indicators is unclear. In a population-based case-control study conducted in Southern China between 2010 and 2014, self-reported height, weight, and body shape at age 20 and 10 years before interview were collected from 2448 histopathologically confirmed NPC cases and 2534 population-based controls. Body mass index (BMI) was categorized according to the World Health Organization guidelines for Asian populations: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2 ), normal weight (18.5-22.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (23.0-27.4 kg/m2 ), and obese (≥27.5 kg/m2 ). Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Furthermore, restricted cubic spline analysis was employed to examine nonlinear effects of BMI and body shape as continuous covariates. Underweight vs normal weight at age 20 years was associated with a 22% decreased NPC risk (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67, 0.90), whereas obesity was not significantly associated with NPC risk. Associations with BMI 10 years before the interview were similar. Having the leanest body shape at age 20 years, compared with the mode was not significantly associated with NPC risk (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.62, 1.16), but having a larger body shape was associated with an elevated risk (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03, 1.52). Increasing BMI revealed positive trends with NPC risk. Despite some indication of significant findings, evidence for a strong association between BMI or body shape and NPC risk is still limited.

17.
Oral Oncol ; 88: 102-108, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616779

RESUMO

OBJECTS: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) incidence exhibits a remarkable sex disparity, with higher risk among males. Whether this pattern can be partly explained by female reproductive history is unclear. METHODS: A population-based case-control study of NPC was conducted in southern China between 2010 and 2014, including 674 histopathologically verified female NPC cases and 690 female controls randomly selected from population-based registries. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression after adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Women who had 3, 4, or ≥5 pregnancies compared with 2 pregnancies were at significantly increased risk for NPC (ORs 1.56, 1.45 and 1.88, respectively). History of deliveries was similarly associated with a greater risk of NPC. These positive associations were more prominent in women who were younger than 50 years, had less than 10 years of education, or were white-collar workers. Increasing time since menopause was associated with a diminished NPC risk (Ptrend = 0.010). Women more than 15 years after menopause had a 0.35-fold (95% CI: 0.16-0.75) NPC risk compared with those 0-3 years after menopause. CONCLUSION: Contrary to our hypothesis, a history of pregnancy or delivery increased the risk of NPC and the risk decreased with increasing time since menopause. However, the non-linear relationship and no consistent risk patterns across strata indicate that the observed associations are unlikely to be causal, and may at least partially be ascribed to residual confounding by socioeconomic factors.

18.
Gastroenterology ; 156(5): 1455-1466, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have associated approximately 50 loci with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC)-nearly one third of these loci were initially associated with CRC in studies conducted in East Asian populations. We conducted a GWAS of East Asians to identify CRC risk loci and evaluate the generalizability of findings from GWASs of European populations to Asian populations. METHODS: We analyzed genetic data from 22,775 patients with CRC (cases) and 47,731 individuals without cancer (controls) from 14 studies in the Asia Colorectal Cancer Consortium. First, we performed a meta-analysis of 7 GWASs (10,625 cases and 34,595 controls) and identified 46,554 promising risk variants for replication by adding them to the Multi-Ethnic Global Array (MEGA) for genotype analysis in 6445 cases and 7175 controls. These data were analyzed, along with data from an additional 5705 cases and 5961 controls genotyped using the OncoArray. We also obtained data from 57,976 cases and 67,242 controls of European descent. Variants at identified risk loci were functionally annotated and evaluated in correlation with gene expression levels. RESULTS: A meta-analyses of all samples from people of Asian descent identified 13 loci and 1 new variant at a known locus (10q24.2) associated with risk of CRC at the genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10-8. We did not perform experiments to replicate these associations in additional individuals of Asian ancestry. However, the lead risk variant in 6 of these loci was also significantly associated with risk of CRC in European descendants. A strong association (44%-75% increase in risk per allele) was found for 2 low-frequency variants: rs201395236 at 1q44 (minor allele frequency, 1.34%) and rs77969132 at 12p11.21 (minor allele frequency, 1.53%). For 8 of the 13 associated loci, the variants with the highest levels of significant association were located inside or near the protein-coding genes L1TD1, EFCAB2, PPP1R21, SLCO2A1, HLA-G, NOTCH4, DENND5B, and GNAS. For other intergenic loci, we provided evidence for the possible involvement of the genes ALDH7A1, PRICKLE1, KLF5, WWOX, and GLP2R. We replicated findings for 41 of 52 previously reported risk loci. CONCLUSIONS: We showed that most of the risk loci previously associated with CRC risk in individuals of European descent were also associated with CRC risk in East Asians. Furthermore, we identified 13 loci significantly associated with risk for CRC in Asians. Many of these loci contained genes that regulate the immune response, Wnt signaling to ß-catenin, prostaglandin E2 catabolism, and cell pluripotency and proliferation. Further analyses of these genes and their variants is warranted, particularly for the 8 loci for which the lead CRC risk variants were not replicated in persons of European descent.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cancer Med ; 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30378292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified strong associations between genetic variants in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, given the complex LD pattern in this region, the causal variants and the underlying mechanism of how genetic variants in HLA contribute to NPC development is yet to be understood. METHODS: To systematically characterize the HLA variants and their relationship to NPC susceptibility, we fine-mapped the HLA genes based on the GWAS data of 1583 NPC cases and 972 healthy controls, using SNP2HLA with the Pan-Asian panel as references. Stepwise conditional regression was used to identify independent association loci. RESULTS: Interestingly, the most significant association was the presence of Gln in HLA-A amino acid position 62 (OR = 0.57, P = 1.41 × 10-16 ). The G allele of rs2894207 located between HLA-B and HLA-C showed protective effect of NPC development (OR = 0.52, P = 2.23 × 10-13 ). Additionally, amino acid Phe-67 located in the peptide-binding pocket of HLA-DRB1 was identified as a novel functional variant with OR = 0.64 and P = 9.64 × 10-11 . Another novel variant, Glu-45 in HLA-B pocket B, conferred a protective effect on NPC susceptibility (OR = 0.64, P = 5.23 × 10-8 ). These four variants explained 2.07% of the phenotypic variance for NPC risk. CONCLUSION: In summary, by fine-mapping the HLA region in south Chinese population, we reported additional loci missed in the GWAS studies and provided a better understanding of the relationship between HLA and NPC susceptibility.

20.
EBioMedicine ; 37: 101-109, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a crucial risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but the mechanism for its elevated activation level in NPC endemic areas remains unclear. This study aims to identify the EBV natural variations contributed to the different reactivation potential between NPC endemic and non-endemic areas. METHODS: 1030 subjects were recruited in China, including 303 healthy individuals from two NPC non-endemic areas, 483 healthy people from three endemic areas and 244 NPC patients. Among which, saliva DNA samples from 244 participants were sequenced for the EBV immediate early (IE) genes of BRLF1 and BZLF1, their promoters were included; the rest 786 subjects were used for the validation of significant variations among three different populations. Haplotype and population structure analysis were conducted. Dual-luciferase assay was used to detect the promoter activity. RESULTS: A total of 246 distinct variations were detected, 29 showed significant difference in the frequencies between healthy people from NPC endemic area and non-endemic area. Population structure analysis clustered EBV strains into 9 subgroups mostly in accordance with the geographical origin of samples. Interestingly, two EBV genotypes, Rp-V1 and Rp-V2, were identified according to the linkage relationship of the variations in BRLF1 promoter (Rp). Rp-V1 has higher frequency in NPC endemic areas than in non-endemic areas (52.38% vs 18.15%, P = 2.07 × 10-14), and was associated with higher oral EBV DNA levels (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.21-2.24, P = .002), suggesting a more powerful activation ability of Rp-V1 than that of the prototype Rp-of the EBV strain; On the contrary, Rp-V2 has higher frequency in NPC non-endemic areas than in endemic areas (18.48% vs 0.38%, P = 1.17 × 10-7), might represent a reduced activation potential of EBV. Further dual-luciferase assay showed Rp-V1 has higher promoter activity while compared with Rp-V2 (P < .0001). Notably, Rp-V1 impaired the transcription repression effect of YY1 while Rp-V2 strengthened the transcription repression effect of EBF1 on Rp. In addition, significant differences of Rta 393-407 CTL epitope which may influence the recognition of Rta by CD8+ T cells were detected between healthy people from NPC endemic area and non-endemic area. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified natural variations in cis-acting elements (YY1 and EBF1) of EBV Rp altering Rp transcription activities, which may contribute to the elevated EBV activation level in NPC endemic areas than non-endemic areas.

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