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1.
Small ; : e2002811, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734686

RESUMO

Carbon-based nanomaterials have been widely utilized in catalysis and energy-related fields due to their fascinating properties. However, the controllable synthesis of porous carbon with refined morphology is still a formidable challenge due to inevitable aggregation/fusion of resulted carbon particles during the high-temperature synthetic process. Herein, a hierarchically oriented carbon-structured (fiber-like) composite is fabricated by simultaneously taking advantage of a confined pyrolysis strategy and disparate bond environments within metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In the resultant composite, the oriented carbon provides a fast mass (molecule/ion/electron) transfer efficiency; the doping-N atoms can anchor or act as active sites; the mesoporous SiO2 (mSiO2 ) shell not only effectively prevents the derived carbon or active metal nanoparticles (NPs) from aggregation or leaching, but also acts as a "polysulfide reservoir" in the Li-S batteries to suppress the "shuttle" effect. Benefiting from these advantages, the synthesized composite Pd@NDHPC@mSiO2 (NDHPC means N-doped hierarchically porous carbon) exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and stability toward the one-pot Knoevenagel condensation-hydrogenation reaction. Furthermore, the oriented NDHPC@mSiO2 manifests a boosted capacity and cycling stability in Li-S batteries compared to the counterpart that directly pyrolyzes without silica protection. This report provides an effective strategy of fabricating hierarchically oriented carbon composites for catalysis and energy storage applications.

2.
Dalton Trans ; 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734976

RESUMO

The development and application of photocatalysts with strong redox ability to degrade refractory pesticides is the key to eliminating pesticide contamination. In this work, we develop a facile, time-saving, and surfactant-assisted method to fabricate a new Z-scheme heterojunction based on TiO2/BiOCl. This photocatalyst is rich in oxygen vacancy defects (TiO2-OV-BiOCl), and displays an excellent photocatalytic degradation performance for imidacloprid (IMD), and a possible degradation pathway of IMD is provided. The surfactant F127 plays an essential role in regulating the oxygen vacancy defects (OVDs) of TiO2-OV-BiOCl, where the OVD mainly exists in 5 layer BiOCl ultrathin nanosheets. Free radical trapping experiments demonstrate that the introduction of an OVD in BiOCl as a 'charge mediator' changes the charge-transfer mode from a type-II mechanism to a Z-scheme mechanism. The formation of a Z-scheme heterojunction leads to an excellent light utilization and higher separation efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers with a prolonged lifetime compared to those of BiOCl and TiO2/BiOCl. This work highlights the critical role of an OVD in the construction of a Z-scheme heterojunction of TiO2/BiOCl, and it can be applied to construct efficient photocatalytic systems for pesticide degradation.

3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3971, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769993

RESUMO

Efficacy evaluation through human trials is crucial for advancing a vaccine candidate to clinics. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be used to quantify B cell repertoire response and trace antibody lineages during vaccination. Here, we demonstrate this application with a case study of Hecolin®, the licensed vaccine for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Four subjects are administered the vaccine following a standard three-dose schedule. Vaccine-induced antibodies exhibit a high degree of clonal diversity, recognize five conformational antigenic sites of the genotype 1 HEV p239 antigen, and cross-react with other genotypes. Unbiased repertoire sequencing is performed for seven time points over six months of vaccination, with maturation pathways characterize for a set of vaccine-induced antibodies. In addition to dynamic repertoire profiles, NGS analysis reveals differential patterns of HEV-specific antibody lineages and highlights the necessity of the long vaccine boost. Together, our study presents a quantitative strategy for vaccine evaluation in small-scale human studies.

4.
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 138-142, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744007

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects of butylphthalide (NBP) on learning and memory related ability, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) content in hippocampus and amygdala, cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS) expression and mitochondrial ATPase activity in rats with chronic alcoholism. Methods: Ninety SD male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (NC), model group (M) and butylphthalide remedy group (BR). Except for the control group, the water solution containing 6% (v/v) alcohol was used as the sole source of drinking water in the other two groups. After 14 days of feeding, the butylphthalide remedy group was injected with NBP intraperitoneally at the dose of 5 mg/kg once a day for 14 consecutive days, and the remaining two groups were injected with the same dose of normal saline. The control group subsequently used the Morris water maze method to observe and record the animals after entering the water. The time required for the underwater platform, their strategies and their swimming trajectories could analyze and infer the animal's ability to learn and remember. H2S concentration, CBS expression and mitochondrial ATPase activity in hippocampus and amygdale were dectected. Results: Compared with NC group, the latency period and swimming distance of M group were increased, the content of H2S and the mean optical density of CBS in hippocampus and amygdala were increased, and the activity of mitochondrial ATPase in hippocampus and amygdala was decreased significantly (P<0. 01) . Compared with the M group, the latency period and swimming distance of learning and memory performance of BR group were decreased, the content of H2S and the mean optical density of CBS in hippocampus and amygdala were decreased, and the activity of mitochondrial ATPase in hippocampus and amygdala was increased significantly (P<0. 01) . Conclusion: NBP can alleviate the effect of ethanol on learning and memory in rats, which may be related to the effect of NBP on the concentration of H2S and the expression of CBS in the amygdala of hippocampus and the increase of ATPase activity.

5.
Stem Cells Dev ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762286

RESUMO

Inflammatory response regulation is a mechanism through which human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) improve myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) however, the timing of HUCMSC delivery to achieve maximum effectiveness is controversial. To investigate the effects of HUCMSC delivery on the acute inflammatory stage of IRI, we transplanted HUCMSCs or HUCMSCs with cyclosporin A (CsA) via the coronary artery simultaneously during ischemia reperfusion in pigs. Ferumoxytol-labeled HUCMSCs (HUCMSC), HUCMSCs with cyclosporin A (HUCMSC+CsA), or PBS (control) groups were investigated to evaluate the homing of transplanted cells and changes in infarct features, cardiac activity, and inflammatory response at three time-points post-transplantation. Animals were sacrificed two weeks laterfor histological analysis of the hearts. We detected Prussian blue-dyed granules distributed around T lymphocyte clusters in the infarct area in the HUCMSC group. Infarct size and collagen deposition in the infarct area were lower in the HUCMSC group than in the control and HUCMSC+CsA groups. Cardiac function was mildly impaired in both the control and HUCMSC groups, whereas added CsA had a more severe impact. The levels of pro-inflammatory markers were lower in the HUCMSC group than in the control group at 24-h follow-up, and the difference was more significant after adding CsA. There were more CD3+ T lymphocytes and Foxp3+ Tregs in the HUCMSC group infarct area than in the other two groups. Proliferation rate of T lymphocytes was higher in the HUCMSC group than in the other two groups. Indirect co-culture experiments in vitro showed that MSCs promoted the generation of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+Tregs through a paracrine mechanism.These results indicate that immediate intracoronary delivery of HUCMSCs after ischemia reperfusion can reduce acute myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury and promote myocardial repair, mainly through T lymphocyte interactions to regulate the intense inflammatory response during the acute inflammatory stage.

6.
Food Funct ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766662

RESUMO

Antibacterial peptide CM4 (ABP-CM4) is a small cationic peptide with broad-spectrum activities against bacteria, fungi and tumor cells and may possibly be used as an antimicrobial agent. In this study, a C-terminal amidated antibacterial peptide ABP-CM4 (ABP-CM4N) with the strongest antibacterial activity was obtained through screening the antibacterial activities of ABP-CM4 with different modifications. The minimal inhibitory concentration of ABP-CM4N was 8 µM against P. aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) which was lower than that of ABP-CM4 (16 µM). The strengthened antimicrobial activity of ABP-CM4N may be associated with the increased membrane binding capacity, being two times that of ABP-CM4 (p < 0.001). The antibacterial mechanism of ABP-CM4N to Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined by means of cell membrane integrity analysiss, the intracellular ultrastructure change observation and E. coli genomic DNA binding assay. It was found that ABP-CM4N had the same antimicrobial mechanism as ABP-CM4, and the aim of the antimicrobial mechanism was mainly to destroy the cell membrane which caused nucleic acid or protein leakage, and secondly to interact with E. coli genomic DNA after penetrating the cell membrane. Furthermore, in vitro ABP-CM4N showed a better bacteriostatic activity in meats, with the treated samples showing two to three times less positive colonies than ABP-CM4.

7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678475

RESUMO

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) plays key roles in maintenance of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) quiescence. The present researches investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of SREBP1c on HSCs and liver fibrogenesis by HSC-targeted overexpression of the active SREBP1c using adenovirus in vitro and in vivo. Results demonstrated that SREBP1c exerted inhibitory effects on TAA-induced liver fibrosis. SREBP1c down-regulated TGFß1 level in liver, reduced the receptors for TGFß1 and PDGFß, and interrupted the signalling pathways of Smad3 and Akt1/2/3 but not ERK1/2 in HSCs. SREBP1c also led to the decreases in the protein levels of the bromodomain-containing chromatin-modifying factor bromodomain protein 4, methionine adenosyltransferase 2B (MAT2B) and TIMP1 in HSCs. In vivo activated HSCs did not express cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 but SREBP1c down-regulated both cyclins in vitro. SREBP1c elevated PPARγ and MMP1 protein levels in the model of liver fibrosis. The effect of SREBP1c on MAT2B expression was associated with its binding to MAT2B1 promoter. Taken together, the mechanisms underlying the effects of SREBP1c on HSC activation and liver fibrosis were involved in its influences on TGFß1 level, the receptors for TGFß1 and PDGFß and their downstream signalling, and the molecules for epigenetic regulation of genes.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3356, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620859

RESUMO

The absence of inversion symmetry in non-centrosymmetric materials has a fundamental role in the emergence of a vast number of fascinating phenomena, like ferroelectricity, second harmonic generation, and Weyl fermions. The removal of time-reversal symmetry in such systems further extends the variety of observable magneto-electric and topological effects. Here we report the striking topological properties in the non-centrosymmetric spin-orbit magnet PrAlGe by combining spectroscopy and transport measurements. By photoemission spectroscopy below the Curie temperature, we observe topological Fermi arcs that correspond to projected topological charges of ±1 in the surface Brillouin zone. In the bulk, we observe the linear energy-dispersion of the Weyl fermions. We further observe a large anomalous Hall response in our magneto-transport measurements, which is understood to arise from diverging bulk Berry curvature fields associated with the Weyl band structure. These results establish a novel Weyl semimetal phase in magnetic non-centrosymmetric PrAlGe.

9.
J Environ Manage ; 270: 110824, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721299

RESUMO

Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely introduced into the liquefaction process of sewage sludge (SS) to improve the yield/quality of liquefaction products (bio-oil/biochar). This study explores the effect of adding rice straw (RS) and wood sawdust (WS) on the transport/conversion behaviors of heavy metals (HMs) during the liquefaction of SS. The introduction of lignocellulosic biomass, especially for RS, substantially lowers the total content of HMs in biochar. Most HMs (except Cd) still remain in biochar, although the introduction of RS/WS enhances the transport of HMs into bio-oils. The addition of RS/WS raises the percentage of HMs in active form, but the contents of bioavailable/leachable HMs are not considerably increased and even decreased in some cases, especially when RS is introduced. The overall pollution degree and environmental risk of HMs in biochars are lowered to a certain extent with the addition of RS/WS. Considering that the pollution degree and environmental risk of HMs present in biochars are still at a considerable level, appropriate pollution management measures should be undertaken when using such biochars for agricultural use.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oryza , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Esgotos , Madeira
10.
MAGMA ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Essential tremor with resting tremor (rET) often exhibits severer clinical features and more extensive functional impairment than essential tremor without resting tremor (ETwr). However, the pathophysiology of rET is still unclear. This study aims to use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to explore the alterations of brain activity between the drug-naïve patients of rET and ETwr. METHODS: We recruited 19 patients with rET, 31 patients with ETwr and 25 healthy controls (HCs) to undergo a 3.0-T rs-fMRI examination. The differences of regional brain spontaneous activity between the rET, ETwr and HCs, as well as between total ET (rET + ETwr) and HCs were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF). The relationships between the altered brain measurements and the clinical scores were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with HCs, both ET subgroups showed significantly decreased ALFF or fALFF values in the basal ganglia, inferior orbitofrontal gyrus and insula. The rET group specifically showed decreased ALFF values in the hippocampus and motor cortices, while the ETwr group specifically evidenced increased ALFF and fALFF values in the cerebellum. DISCUSSION: Regional spontaneous activity in rET and ETwr share common changes and have differences, which may suggest that the functional activities in the limbic system and cerebellum are different between the two subtypes. Improved insights into rET and ETwr subtypes and the different brain spontaneous activity will be valuable for improving our understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease.

11.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 29(2): 202-207, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626886

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the dental changes of patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) with long-term treatment of oral appliances, via the method of three-dimensional model analysis. METHODS: Using Geomagic Studio 2014 software, we transferred the dental models, which were from 18 OSAHS patients before and after treatment of oral appliances, into three-dimensional models for digital analysis. Datasets obtained from pre- and after treatment were compared for accuracy via paired t test using SPSS 22.0 software package. RESULTS: Eighteen patients using oral appliances for 6.57±1.98 years, showed significant differences in some dentition values between pre-treatment and after-treatment. The total dentition changes indicated intrusion of upper premolars, buccalization of upper posterior teeth and mesialization of lower posterior teeth. Statistical analysis demonstrated decrease in upper dental arch length, increase in upper posterior arch width and decrease in upper arch depth and dramatic reduction of overjet in anterior teeth. In the same time, other values evaluated showed no significant change before and after treatment of oral appliances. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term wearing oral appliances results in changes in several variables of dental occlusion, which should not be ignored for dentists conducting this treatment plan. However, the side effect of dental occlusion changes is little on a whole, leading to high security in this aspect.


Assuntos
Sobremordida , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Dente Pré-Molar , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração
13.
BMC Genet ; 21(1): 79, 2020 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HTR1B gene encodes the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptor, which is involved in a variety of brain activities and mental disorders. The regulatory effects of non-coding regions on genomic DNA are one of many reasons for the cause of genetic-related diseases. Post-transcriptional regulation that depends on the function of 3' regulatory regions plays a particularly important role. This study investigated the effects, on reporter gene expression, of several haplotypes of the HTR1B gene (rs6297, rs3827804, rs140792648, rs9361234, rs76194807, rs58138557, and rs13212041) and truncated fragments in order to analyze the function of the 3' region of HTR1B. RESULTS: We found that the haplotype, A-G-Del-C-T-Ins-A, enhanced the expression level compared to the main haplotype; A-G-Del-C-G-Ins-A; G-G-Del-C-G-Ins-G decreased the expression level. Two alleles, rs76194807T and rs6297G, exhibited different relative luciferase intensities compared to their counterparts at each locus. We also found that + 2440 ~ + 2769 bp and + 1953 ~ + 2311 bp regions both had negative effects on gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: The 3' region of HTR1B has a regulatory effect on gene expression, which is likely closely associated with the interpretation of HTR1B-related disorders. In addition, the HTR1B 3' region includes several effector binding sites that induce an inhibitory effect on gene expression.

14.
Nature ; 583(7817): 533-536, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699400

RESUMO

The quantum-level interplay between geometry, topology and correlation is at the forefront of fundamental physics1-15. Kagome magnets are predicted to support intrinsic Chern quantum phases owing to their unusual lattice geometry and breaking of time-reversal symmetry14,15. However, quantum materials hosting ideal spin-orbit-coupled kagome lattices with strong out-of-plane magnetization are lacking16-21. Here, using scanning tunnelling microscopy, we identify a new topological kagome magnet, TbMn6Sn6, that is close to satisfying these criteria. We visualize its effectively defect-free, purely manganese-based ferromagnetic kagome lattice with atomic resolution. Remarkably, its electronic state shows distinct Landau quantization on application of a magnetic field, and the quantized Landau fan structure features spin-polarized Dirac dispersion with a large Chern gap. We further demonstrate the bulk-boundary correspondence between the Chern gap and the topological edge state, as well as the Berry curvature field correspondence of Chern gapped Dirac fermions. Our results point to the realization of a quantum-limit Chern phase in TbMn6Sn6, and may enable the observation of topological quantum phenomena in the RMn6Sn6 (where R is a rare earth element) family with a variety of magnetic structures. Our visualization of the magnetic bulk-boundary-Berry correspondence covering real space and momentum space demonstrates a proof-of-principle method for revealing topological magnets.

15.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(7): 684-8, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700497

RESUMO

Rotator cuff repair is a common treatment for rotator cuff tear, which could effectively relieve shoulder pain and improve shoulder movement, and the incidence of rotator cuff retear after rotator cuff repair is still high. The main reason is poor tendon-bone healing in rotator cuff enthesis after rotator cuff repair and could not recover the original histological structure and biomechanical properties. Therefore, the key to solve the problem is how to effectively improve the healing of tendon bone at the end of rotator cuff. With the in-depth study of rotator cuff enthesis, various treatments have made great progress on improving tendon to bone healing of rotator cuff. Our study will discuss the researchprogress on tendon to bone healing of rotator cuff in recent years from three following aspects to provide some guidance for the clinical treatment of rotator cuff tear:the factors affecting the tendon to bone healing of rotator cuff, the recovery of tendon to bone interface promoting the tendon to bone healing of rotator cuff and the application of tissue engineering in tendon to bone healing.

16.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to preoperatively predict the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of patients with breast cancer using radiomics signatures based on single-parametric and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Three hundred six patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type (IDC-NST) were retrospectively enrolled. Quantitative imaging features were extracted from fat-suppressed T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced T1 weighted (DCE-T1) preoperative MRI. Then, three radiomics signatures based on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images, DCE-T1 images and their combination were developed using a support vector machine (SVM) to predict the HER2-positive vs HER2-negative status of patients with breast cancer. The area under the curve (AUC), accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to assess the predictive performances of the signatures. RESULTS: Twenty-eight quantitative radiomics features, namely, 14 texture features, 4 first-order features, 9 wavelet features, and 1 shape feature, were used to construct radiomics signatures. The performance of the radiomics signatures for distinguishing HER2-positive from HER2-negative breast cancer based on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images, DCE-T1 images, and their combination had an AUC of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.700 to 0.770), 0.71 (0.673 to 0.738), and 0.86 (0.832 to 0.882) in the primary cohort and 0.70 (0.666 to 0.744), 0.68 (0.650 to 0.726), and 0.81 (0.776 to 0.837) in the validation cohort, respectively. CONCLUSION: Radiomics signatures based on multiparametric MRI represent a potential and efficient alternative tool to evaluate the HER2 status in patients with breast cancer.

17.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e23495, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563, which is located on chromosome 14, contains conserved binding sites with miR-155/130a and RNA-binding proteins according to bioinformatic prediction. We investigated the association of BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 expression in coronary artery segments with atherosclerotic stenosis and identified the proteome-wide BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563-regulated proteins in human coronary artery. METHODS: The atherosclerotic grade and extent in coronary artery segments were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 expression in eight coronary artery segments from one patient was quantified by RT-qPCR assay. A proteomic approach was adopted to reveal significant differences in protein expression between among four groups differing in their BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 expression levels. RESULTS: The RT-qPCR assay revealed that coronary artery segments with severe atherosclerotic stenosis had significantly low BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 levels. The proteomic analysis identified 49 differentially expressed proteins among the segment groups with different BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 expression levels, of which 10 were downregulated and 39 were upregulated with increases in the BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 level. The 10 downregulated proteins were P61626 (LYSC_HUMAN), P02760 (AMBP_HUMAN), Q02985 (FHR3_HUMAN), P01701 (LV151_HUMAN), P06312(KV401_HUMAN), P01624 (KV315_HUMAN), P13671 (CO6_HUMAN), P01700(LV147_HUMAN), Q9Y287(ITM2B_HUMAN), and A0A075B6I0 (LV861_HUMAN). The top 10 upregulated proteins were Q92552 (RT27_HUMAN), Q9UJY1(HSPB8_HUMAN), Q9Y235(ABEC2_HUMAN), P19022 (CADH2_HUMAN), O43837(IDH3B_HUMAN), Q9H479(FN3K_HUMAN), Q9UM22(EPDR1_HUMAN), P48681(NEST_HUMAN), Q9NRP0(OSTC_HUMAN), and Q15628(TRADD_HUMAN). CONCLUSION: BTBD7_hsa_circ_0000563 is involved in the atherosclerotic changes in human coronary artery segments. Verification, mechanistic, and function studies are needed to confirm whether patients with coronary artery disease would benefit from such personalized medicine in the future.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687306

RESUMO

We report a highly efficient and stable electrode comprised of porous Fe-doped ß-nickel hydroxide nanopyramid array supported on nickel foam (U-Fe-ß-Ni(OH)2/NF) for overall water splitting. The unique structure is assembled via a self-templated strategy by utilizing FeNi oxalate (FeNi-C2O4/NF) nanopyramid as the templates, followed by an anion-exchange reaction at room temperature. Due to the intrinsic activity of Fe-doped ß-Ni(OH)2 along with unique porous array structures consisting of two-dimensional (2D) active materials on three-dimensional (3D) conductive substrates, the developed electrode exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity for both OER and HER in an alkaline medium. The introduced amount of Fe plays a significant role in promoting OER and HER activity compared to ß-Ni(OH)2 electrode. The optimal electrode (U-Fe-ß-Ni(OH)2/NF-2) generated a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at low overpotentials of 218 mV for the OER and 121 mV for the HER. The electrode also demonstrated considerably stable performance during the continuous water splitting process. Furthermore, we elucidated the promotion mechanisms of Fe-doped ß-Ni(OH)2 for OER and HER based on extensive characterization and electrochemical measurements. Hence, this work provides a facile approach to developing low-cost, efficient, and stable hydroxide-based electrodes for bifunctional OER and HER in the water splitting.

19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(3): 1085-1092, 2020 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608608

RESUMO

From March 2018 to February 2019, quantitative detection was made of 102 kinds of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using online gas chromatography in Ezhou City. We compared and analyzed the composition, seasonal variation, and diurnal variation of VOCs. Using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR), we estimated the ozone generation potential (OFP) of VOCs. The results show that the annual average volume fraction of atmospheric VOCs in Ezhou is (30.78±15.89)×10-9, and is overall higher in winter than summer, represented by alkane > oxygen > halogenated hydrocarbon > olefin > aromatic hydrocarbon > alkyne. The night volume fraction is higher than in the daytime, and overall the distribution is "double peak". The aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and OVOCs appear as a "third peak" at 00:00-02:00. Aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins contribute more to the OFP potential of VOCs, with contribution rates of 35.45% and 29.5%, respectively. The highest contribution rate to OFP is ethylene, reaching 24.217%. Analysis of VOC characteristic species found that vehicle exhaust fumes and solvent volatilization are the main sources of VOCs in Ezhou. Of these, motor vehicle emissions are the most important source. Controlling Ezhou's motor vehicle emissions helps to reduce the composition of atmospheric VOCs, thereby reducing ozone production.

20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 665-673, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608725

RESUMO

Vehicle emissions have become a major source of air pollution in urban cities. The vehicle emission inventory of the Liaoning province from 2000 to 2030 was established based on the COPERT model and ArcGIS, and the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of six pollutants (CO, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, SO2, and CO2) were analyzed. Taking 2016 as the base year, eight scenarios of control measures were designed based on scenario analysis, and the effects of different scenarios on emission reduction were assessed. Results showed that during 2000-2016, CO, NMVOC, NOx, and PM10 emissions at first exhibited increasing trends, after which they decreased. Emissions of SO2 exhibited fluctuating trends, while the emissions of CO2 showed a continuous increase. Passenger cars and motorcycles were the main contributors of CO and NMVOC emissions. Heavy-duty trucks and buses were the main sources of NOx and PM10 emissions. Passenger cars were the major contributors to SO2 and CO2 emissions. Vehicle emissions were significantly higher in the central and southern in Liaoning Province. At the city level, vehicle emissions were mainly concentrated in Shenyang and Dalian. The scenario analysis showed that the implementation of stricter vehicle emission standards can enhance the emission reduction effect. Moreover, accelerating the implementation of new emission standards was beneficial to reduce emissions. The integrated scenario would achieve the maximum emission reduction, with reduction rates of CO, NMVOC, NOx, PM10, CO2, and SO2 at 30.7%, 14.3%, 81.7%, 29.4%, 12.3%, and 12.1%, respectively.

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