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1.
Clin Chim Acta ; 508: 161-169, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep breathing disorder and is characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia, which could cause inflammation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB)-dependent inflammatory pathways activation. Circulating APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand) play an important role in promoting inflammation and NF-KB-dependent inflammatory pathways activation. We explored the role of APRIL as a potential mechanism of inflammation in OSA patients. METHODS: After detailed sleep evaluated, venous blood and demographic data were collected from 155 subjects with varying severity of OSA and 52 control subjects. Plasma levels of APRIL were measured by human Magnetic Luminex assay. RESULTS: Plasma APRIL levels were significantly higher in OSA subjects compared with control subjects. Categorization of the OSA subjects into mild, moderate, and severe OSA subgroups found that plasma levels of APRIL increased with the severity of OSA. After adjusting confounding factors, found that increased plasma APRIL levels were conferred a higher odds ratio of OSA. Moreover, plasma APRIL levels were positively associated with the apnea-hypopnea index, which represents the severity of OSA. Furthermore, plasma APRIL showed higher discriminatory accuracy in predicting the presence of OSA. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma APRIL levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of OSA and its severity. APRIL could be a plasma biomarker with a positive diagnostic value for inflammation and NF-KB-dependent inflammatory pathways activation in subjects with OSA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The project was approved by the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No. ChiCTRROC-17011027).

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458137

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The association between smoking and the risk of skin cancers has been studied without reaching consistent findings. This study aims to assess this association through an updated meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We retrieved cohort studies that investigated the temporal association between smoking and the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and malignant melanoma (MM). Pooled relative risks (RRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) of the included articles were calculated for current, former, and heavy smoking compared with never smoking. Publication bias was detected using the Egger's regression. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies, published between 1990 and 2018, were included. Current smoking was associated with a higher risk of SCC (pooled RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.15, 1.52) but with a lower risk of BCC (pooled RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.96) and MM (pooled RR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.64, 0.82). No publication bias was detected, and no single study had a substantial impact on the pooled results. Similar results were detected for heavy smoking, while former smoking was not associated with the risk of skin cancer. CONCLUSION: Current smoking and heavy smoking were associated with a higher risk of SCC but a decreased risk of BCC and MM, while former smoking was not associated with skin cancer risk.

3.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418175

RESUMO

DNA hypermethylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in the oncogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Aberrant DNA methylation represses the transcription of promotors of tumor suppressor genes, inducing gene silencing. Realgar (α-As4S4) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of various diseases in the ancient time. Realgar was reported to have efficacy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). It has been demonstrated that realgar could efficiently reduce DNA hypermethylation of MDS. This review discusses the mechanisms of realgar on inhibiting DNA hypermethylation of MDS, as well as the species and metabolisms of arsenic in vivo.

4.
ISA Trans ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446498

RESUMO

Feed-water valves are widely used in nuclear power plants to regulate the flow rate of the water supplying to steam generators and thus hold the water level in steam generators at desired value. The flow rate characteristics of feed-water valves have important effects on the management quality of the water level in steam generators and therefore influence the safety and the efficiency of nuclear power plants. In this paper, the effects of throttling window shapes on the flow rate characteristics through feed-water valves are investigated in two aspects, i.e., the overall performances and the fluid dynamics. First of all, a dimensionless parameter defining throttling window shapes is proposed for quantitative assessment. Then, for the analysis of overall performances, the rated flow coefficient, the loss coefficient, and the inherent valve characteristics are investigated. A revised fitting function is obtained to predict the inherent valve characteristics with different throttling window shapes for engineering application. Finally, for the observation of fluid dynamics, the velocity characteristics and the pressure characteristics are both discussed. The wear conditions are predicted at different relative travel and throttling window shapes. This paper provides a reference for researchers dealing with the design work of feed-water valves and is beneficial for the improvement of the whole water level control system.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370156

RESUMO

There is little evidence linking eating speed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) incidence. We therefore aimed to evaluate the prospective association of eating speed with GDM incidence. Overall, 97,454 pregnant women were recruited between January 2011 and March 2014. Singleton pregnant women who did not have GDM, heart disease, stroke, cancer, type 1 diabetes, and/or type 2 diabetes at the time of study enrollment were eligible. Each woman was asked about her eating speed at that time via a questionnaire. Odds ratios of GDM in relation to eating speed were obtained using logistic regression. Among the 84,811 women eligible for analysis, 1902 cases of GDM were identified in medical records. Compared with women who reported slow eating speed, the age-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of GDM for women who reported medium, relatively fast, or very fast eating speed were 1.03 (0.90, 1.18), 1.07 (0.94, 1.23), and 1.28 (1.05, 1.58), respectively. Adjustment for demographic, lifestyle-related, and dietary factors including dietary fat, dietary fiber, and energy intakes yielded similar results. The association was attenuated and no longer significant after further adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index. The mediation analysis showed that being overweight accounted for 64% of the excess risk of GDM associated with eating speed. In conclusion, women who reported very fast eating speed, compared with those reporting slow eating speed, were associated with an increased incidence of GDM, which may be largely mediated by increased body fat.

6.
Postgrad Med J ; 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the fat redistribution in later stages of life, how the associations between abdominal obesity and the risk of morbidity and mortality have changed with age have not been elucidated, especially for waist to height ratio (WHtR). OBJECTIVE: To compare the strength of association between obesity indices and chronic diseases at baseline, and the subsequent mortality risk among US adults. METHODS: We included 21 109 participants from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2014. We performed logistic regression and receiver operating curve analysis to examine the discriminatory power of obesity indicators on cardiometabolic diseases and cancer at baseline. Sex-stratified and age-stratified Cox models were constructed to explore the prospective association between obesity indices and all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality. RESULTS: Elevated WHtR, elevated waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI)-classified obesity are associated with higher odds of hypertension (OR: 1.37-2.13), dyslipidemia (OR: 1.06 to 1.75, all p<0.05) and diabetes (OR: 1.40-3.16, all p<0.05). WHtR had significantly better discriminatory power to predict cardiometabolic health than BMI, especially for diabetes (area under the curve: 0.709 vs 0.654). After multivariable adjustment, all obesity indicators are associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality among females aged ≥65 years (HR: 0.64 to 0.85), but the association was only significant for BMI when obesity indicators were mutually adjusted (HR: 0.79). CONCLUSIONS: WHtR and WC appeared to be the better indicators for cardiometabolic health than BMI. However, BMI had a stronger and inverse association with a greater risk of all-cause mortality among older females.

7.
Nanotechnology ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325436

RESUMO

Polyethylenimine (PEI), a kind of cationic non-viral gene delivery vector, is capable of stable and efficient transgene expression for gene delivery. However, low transfection efficiency in vivo along with high toxicity limited the further application of gene therapy in the clinic. To enhance gene transfection performance and reduce cytotoxicity of polyethylenimine, branched polyethylenimine-derived cationic polymers BPEI25k-man-S/L/M/H with different grafting degree with mannitol moieties were prepared and the transfection efficiency was evaluated. Among them, BPEI25k-man-L showed the best transfection efficiency, lower toxicity, and significantly enhanced long-term systemic transgene expression for 96 hours in vivo even at a single-dose administration. The results of cellular uptake mechanism and western-blot experiments revealed that the mannitol modification of BPEI25k induced and up-regulated the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and thus enhanced the caveolae-mediated cellular uptake. This class of gene delivery system highlights a paradigmatic approach for the development of novel and safe non-viral vectors for gene therapy.

8.
Hypertens Pregnancy ; : 1-7, 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326772

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the association between intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and preeclampsia via meta-analysis.Methods: Pooled odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI) of GDM and preeclampsia for women with ICP were calculated using the fixed- or random-effects model.Results: Women with ICP were more likely to have GDM (pooled OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.58, 3.03, I2 = 88.25%) and preeclampsia (pooled OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 2.37, 2.81, I2 = 0%) than women without ICP.Conclusion: The present study supports the concept that ICP is associated with the risk of GDM and preeclampsia.

9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 257: 112834, 2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278031

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cistanche tubulosa is a precious traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease. Echinacoside and acteoside are the main active constituents in Cistanche tubulosa that have the pharmacological activities with research value. It has been reported that echinacoside and acteoside could improve the learning and memory ability, promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast. AIM OF STUDY: Echinacoside and acteoside from Cistanche tubulosa have shown significant activities of anti-osteoporosis and anti-Alzheimer's disease, while these effects have not been studied concurrently in a rat model. The aim of this study was to establish and verify the model of osteoporosis combined with Alzheimer's disease in rat, and to investigate the double effects of echinacoside and acteoside on this concurrent model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three model groups of ovariectomy (OVX), sham surgery with D-galactose and AlCl3 (D), ovariectomy with D-galactose and AlCl3 (OVX + D) were set at the same time. The rats in drug treatment groups were ovariectomized. While conducting the intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and intragastric administration of AlCl3 in the rats of drug treatment groups, the rats were orally administered echinacoside (90 mg/kg/d), acteoside (90 mg/kg/d) and the positive control drugs of estradiol valerate (0.6 mg/kg/d), donepezil HCl (0.8 mg/kg/d), respectively. After the drug treatment of 8 weeks, Morris Water Maze (MWM) test for 6 days was firstly performed. The rats were then sacrificed to harvest the blood, uteri, femora, tibiae and brain tissues. The serum was used for biochemical tests. The uteri were used for histomorphometry. The right femora were used for Micro-CT and histomorphometry, respectively. The right tibiae were used for biomechanical test. The hippocampus collected on ice box was used for biochemical tests. The brain collected by perfusion was used for histomorphometry. RESULTS: Compared with Sham group, OVX + D group could significantly reduce the learning and memory ability by causing oxidative damage, impairing neurons in hippocampus and affecting the hydrolysis and synthesis of acetylcholine. Meanwhile, the activities of BALP and TRAP in OVX + D group increased significantly (P < 0.001) as compared to Sham group. In addition, compared with Sham group, the mean bone mineral density obviously decreased (P < 0.05), the trabecular bone mass and microarchitecture were also destroyed significantly in OVX + D group. Furthermore, the maximum load and maximum stress significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and the energy absorption also decreased greatly as compared to Sham group. After administrated with echinacoside and acteoside, the typical pathological features of osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease were ameliorated. CONCLUSIONS: The model of osteoporosis combined with Alzheimer's disease in rat was feasible and successfully established. Echinacoside and acteoside also showed some significant effects on this concurrent model, and they could be potential candidates from Cistanche tubulosa with double effects for further study.

10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335193

RESUMO

Ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) regulates inflammation in vitro; however, the mechanisms by which USP8 inhibits neuroinflammation and its pathophysiological functions are not completely understood. In this study, we aimed to determine whether USP8 exerts neuroprotective effects in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive and motor impairment. We commenced intracerebroventricular USP8 administration 7 days prior to i.p. injection of LPS (750 µg/kg). All treatments and behavioral experiments were performed once per day for 7 consecutive days. Behavioral tests and pathological/biochemical assays were performed to evaluate LPS-induced hippocampal damage. USP8 attenuated LPS-induced cognitive and motor impairments in mice. Moreover, USP8 downregulated several pro-inflammatory cytokines [nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)] in the serum and brain, and the relevant protein factors [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)] in the brain. Furthermore, USP8 upregulated the anti-inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 in the serum and brain, and promoted a shift from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory microglial phenotypes. The LPS-induced microglial pro-inflammatory phenotype was abolished by TLR4 inhibitor and in TLR4-/- mice; these effects were similar to those of USP8 treatment. Mechanistically, we found that USP8 increased the expression of neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1 (Nrdp1), potently downregulated the expression of TLR4 and myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) protein, and inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) ß and kappa B-alpha (IκBα), thereby reducing nuclear translocation of p65 by inhibiting the activation of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in LPS-induced mice. Our results demonstrated that USP8 exerts protective effects against LPS-induced cognitive and motor deficits in mice by modulating microglial phenotypes via TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling.

11.
Qual Life Res ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253669

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Social isolation in older adults is a major public health problem and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There are limited data on the association between social isolation and physical function including gait speed. Hence, this study is to determine the prevalence of social isolation and its association with gait speed, frailty, cognition, depression and comorbidities amongst community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Social isolation, depression, frailty and perceived general health were assessed using 6-item Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS-6), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), FRAIL scale and EuroQol EQ-5D-5L questionnaire which includes EQ Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS), respectively. Cognition was assessed using the Chinese Mini Mental State Examination (cMMSE), while physical performance test included gait speed and short physical performance battery test. Binary logistic regression was performed to determine the influence of socio-demographic, medical, functional and cognitive variables on social isolation. RESULTS: Out of 202 participants, 27.7% were robust, 66.8% of participants were pre-frail, and 5.4% of participants were frail. Almost half (45.5%, n = 92) of the participants were found to be at risk of social isolation. A poor social network was negatively associated with mean gait speed (OR = 0.674, CI 0.464-0.979, p = 0.039), EQ-VAS (OR = 0.561, CI 0.390-0.806, p < 0.01) and cMMSE (OR = 0.630, 95% CI 0.413-0.960, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Almost half of older adults in the community are at risk of social isolation with a very significant association with gait speed, cMMSE and EQ-VAS scores.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314502

RESUMO

Constructing supramolecular materials with tunable properties and functions is a great challenge due to the complex competition between multiple assembly pathways. Herein, we report that dipeptides can self-assemble into aerogels with entirely different surface wettability through precisely controlling the assembly pathways. Charged groups or aromatic residues are selectively exposed on the surface of their nanoscale building blocks which results either in a superhydrophilic or highly hydrophobic surface. With this special property, single component dipeptide aerogels can play diverse roles in medical care applications. This study suggests great promise in the synthesis of supramolecular materials with different targeted functions from the same molecular unit.

13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 391-397, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237323

RESUMO

Ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem high field orbital trap mass spectrometry(UPLC-Orbitrap Elite-MS/MS) method was applied in this paper to analyze the metabolites of 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in rat plasma and urine after oral administration. A gradient elution was performed by using Thermo C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.9 µm), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Mass spectral data of biological samples were collected in negative ion mode. The data were extracted by Compound Discovery 2.1 software. Then the blank group samples and the drug samples were compared for exact molecular weight and the mass fragmentation information, and the secondary fragment fitting ratio was calculated to finally attribute the metabolites. As a result, 15 metabolites were detected in rat plasma, and 16 metabolites were detected in urine. The involving metabolic reactions included methylation, hydration, dehydration, reduction, glucuronide conjugation, and sulfation reaction. The metabolites in plasma and urine complemented each other and initially revealed the migration and excretion patterns of this compound in the body. A method for pre-processing biological samples, high-resolution LC-MS instrumentation data, and qualitative software was established in this study to identify metabolite structures, laying the foundation for the study of the active ingredients and in vivo pharmacodynamics forms of Chinese medicines.

14.
Behav Brain Res ; 389: 112619, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348871

RESUMO

We attempted to establish a novel parameter of behaviour consistency to help determine the effect of age on physical activity. Using the speed of movement to quantify behaviour might not be sufficient to determine this effect. The slowing of motor activities that occurs with aging is related to the decline of the aging brain. Previous studies have found different running-related hippocampal theta rhythm responses in the aging and exercise model. Therefore, we hypothesized that a familiarity with the environment and physical strength affect behavioural consistency in rats during running exercises. For this study, we used a treadmill and 30-minute running test at constant speeds and compared changes in the triaxial accelerometer and hippocampal theta rhythm between adult and middle-aged rats. No significant differences in RR intervals, mean cross-correlations (MCCs), or the proportion of good correlation coefficient (PGCC) were observed between adult and middle-aged rats in awake states before running on the treadmill. The root mean square (RMS) of the triaxial acceleration vectors in middle-aged rats was higher than that in adult rats. In the treadmill running tests, the RMS observed in middle-aged rats was significantly lower than that observed in adult rats. MCC and PGCC, which indicate movement consistencies, were significantly higher in middle-aged rats than they were in adult rats during the entire running test. However, only the RMS of the adult rats showed a negative correlation with exercise duration. Both MCC and PGCC were positively correlated with exercise duration. By contrast, a similar phenomenon was not found in the changes or differences in hippocampal theta rhythms between these two groups. Therefore, we consider that the MCC and PGCC could distinguish age-related movement differences and indicate coordination/adaptation during exercise. Changes in physical activity and alterations in the hippocampal theta rhythm were not different between the groups.

15.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-6, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238201

RESUMO

We conducted a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT) to examine the effects of strawberry interventions on cardiovascular risk factors. We searched multiple databases including PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus to identify eligible studies published before 19 May 2019. The endpoints were blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TAG, fasting blood glucose, endothelial function and inflammatory factors. Pooled analyses were performed using random- or fixed-effects models according to a heterogeneity test. We also conducted sub-group analyses by baseline endpoint levels. We included eleven RCT in this meta-analysis (six for blood pressure, seven for lipid profile, seven for fasting blood glucose and six for C-reactive protein (CRP)). Overall, the strawberry interventions significantly reduced CRP levels by 0·63 (95 % CI -1·04, -0·22) mg/l but did not affect blood pressure, lipid profile or fasting blood glucose in the main analyses. Our analysis stratified by baseline endpoint levels showed the strawberry interventions significantly reduced TC among people with baseline levels >5 mmol/l (-0·52 (95 % CI -0·88, -0·15) mmol/l) and reduced LDL-cholesterol among people with baseline levels >3 mmol/l (-0·31 (95 % CI -0·60, -0·02) mmol/l). There was little evidence of heterogeneity in the analysis and no evidence of publication bias. In summary, strawberry interventions significantly reduced CRP levels and may improve TC and LDL-cholesterol in individuals with high baseline levels.

16.
Circulation ; 141(18): 1463-1476, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apo (apolipoprotein) M mediates the physical interaction between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Apo M exerts anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective effects in animal models. METHODS: In a subset of PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) participants (n=297), we measured apo M by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). We also measured total S1P by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and isolated HDL particles to test the association between apo M and HDL-associated S1P. We confirmed the relationship between apo M and outcomes using modified aptamer-based apo M measurements among 2170 adults in the PHFS and 2 independent cohorts: the Washington University Heart Failure Registry (n=173) and a subset of TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial; n=218). Last, we examined the relationship between apo M and ≈5000 other proteins (SomaScan assay) to identify biological pathways associated with apo M in heart failure. RESULTS: In the PHFS, apo M was inversely associated with the risk of death (standardized hazard ratio, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.51-0.61]; P<0.0001) and the composite of death/ventricular assist device implantation/heart transplantation (standardized hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.58-0.67]; P<0.0001). This relationship was independent of HDL cholesterol or apo AI levels. Apo M remained associated with death (hazard ratio, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.69-0.88]; P<0.0001) and the composite of death/ventricular assist device/heart transplantation (hazard ratio, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.76-0.94]; P=0.001) in models that adjusted for multiple confounders. This association was present in both heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction and was replicated in the Washington University cohort and a cohort with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction only (TOPCAT). The S1P and apo M content of isolated HDL particles strongly correlated (R=0.81, P<0.0001). The top canonical pathways associated with apo M were inflammation (negative association), the coagulation system (negative association), and liver X receptor/retinoid X receptor activation (positive association). The relationship with inflammation was validated with multiple inflammatory markers measured with independent assays. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced circulating apo M is independently associated with adverse outcomes across the spectrum of human heart failure. Further research is needed to assess whether the apo M/S1P axis is a suitable therapeutic target in heart failure.

17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2020 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citrus fiber is a main component in the peel of citrus and contains natural dietary fiber. It is often used as a functional additive to improve the texture or nutritional property of food. It is also widely used to reduce the content of absorbable fat in sausages and other meat products, and to improve food stability as an emulsifier. In this research, the dynamic rheological properties (linear and non-linear) of citrus peel fiber/corn oil (CF/CO) emulsion system under high pressure homogenization (HPH) treatment was investigated. RESULT: Rheological results illustrated HPH treatment significantly increased the apparent viscosity of the emulsion, reduced the activation energy of the emulsion and distinctly improved the viscoelasticity of the emulsion. Meanwhile, HPH treatment increased the linear viscoelastic region of the sample, and the behavior of the emulsion converted from strain thinning (without HPH treatment) to weak strain overshoot (with HPH treatment). Lissajous curves indicated the viscosity of the sample increased first and then decreased with strain increasing and the third harmonic contributed much more to the first harmonic compared with the fifth harmonic. Chebyshev stress decomposition revealed that, as strain increased, the samples with HPH treatment showed internal-cycle strain hardening behavior first, then turned to internal-cycle softening behavior. CONCLUSION: HPH treatment can significantly improve the processing performance of CF/CO emulsion as well as the stability against large periodic oscillations in food processing. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6468, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277098

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

20.
Neuro Oncol ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Although the use of first-line temozolomide can reduce tumor growth, therapy-induced stress drives stem cells out of quiescence, leading to chemo-resistance and glioblastoma recurrence. The Sp1 transcription factor is known to protect glioblastoma cells against temozolomide; however, how tumor cells hijack this factor to gain resistance to therapy is not known. METHODS: Sp1 acetylation in temozolomide-resistant cells and stem-like tumorspheres was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting experiments. Effects of the HDAC/Sp1 axis on malignant growth were examined using cell proliferation-related assays and in vivo experiments. Furthermore, integrative analysis of gene expression with ChIP-seq and the recurrent glioblastoma omics data were also used to further determine the target genes of the HDAC/Sp1 axis. RESULTS: We identified Sp1 as a novel substrate of HDAC6, and observed that the HDAC1/2/6/Sp1 pathway promotes self-renewal of malignancy by upregulating BMI1 and hTERT, as well as by regulating G2/M progression and DNA repair via alteration of the transcription of various genes. Importantly, HDAC1/2/6/Sp1 activation is associated with poor clinical outcome in both glioblastoma and low-grade gliomas. However, treatment with azaindolylsulfonamide, a potent HDAC6 inhibitor with partial efficacy against HDAC1/2, induced G2/M arrest and senescence in both temozolomide-resistant cells and stem-like tumorspheres. CONCLUSIONS: Our study uncovers a previously unknown regulatory mechanism in which the HDAC6-Sp1 axis induces cell division and maintains the stem cell population to fuel tumor growth and therapeutic resistance.

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