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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804606

RESUMO

Renal fibrosis is considered as the pathway of almost all kinds of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) to the end stage of renal diseases (ESRD). Ganoderic acid (GA) is a group of lanostane triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum, which has shown a variety of pharmacological activities. In this study we investigated whether GA exerted antirenal fibrosis effect in a unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model. After UUO surgery, the mice were treated with GA (3.125, 12.5, and 50 mg· kg-1 ·d-1, ip) for 7 or 14 days. Then the mice were sacrificed for collecting blood and kidneys. We showed that GA treatment dose-dependently attenuated UUO-induced tubular injury and renal fibrosis; GA (50 mg· kg-1 ·d-1) significantly ameliorated renal disfunction during fibrosis progression. We further revealed that GA treatment inhibited the extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the kidney by suppressing the expression of fibronectin, mainly through hindering the over activation of TGF-ß/Smad signaling. On the other hand, GA treatment significantly decreased the expression of mesenchymal cell markers alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin, and upregulated E-cadherin expression in the kidney, suggesting the suppression of tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) partially via inhibiting both TGF-ß/Smad and MAPK (ERK, JNK, p38) signaling pathways. The inhibitory effects of GA on TGF-ß/Smad and MAPK signaling pathways were confirmed in TGF-ß1-stimulated HK-2 cell model. GA-A, a GA monomer, was identified as a potent inhibitor on renal fibrosis in vitro. These data demonstrate that GA or GA-A might be developed as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of renal fibrosis.

2.
Anal Chem ; 91(23): 14936-14942, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670502

RESUMO

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a well-established method for studying macromolecular interactions and conformational changes within proteins. Such a method normally uses fluorescent proteins or chemical-labeling methods which are often only accessible to surface-exposed residues and risk-disturbing target protein structures. Here, we demonstrate that the genetic incorporation of a synthetic fluorescent amino acid, L-(7-hydroxycoumarin-4-yl) ethylglycine (Cou) and natural endogenous fluorophore Tryptophan (Trp) residues of a protein could serve as an efficient FRET pair to monitor protein interactions, using the signaling transducer ß-arrestin-1 as a model system. We used this technology to record the dynamic spectra in both binding and competition experiments of ß-arrestin-1, the contribution of each specific phosphate in ternary complex formation, in a rapid and efficient manner. The determined Kd value for the association between the active arrestin and Fab30 is 0.68 µM in the three-component interaction system. Moreover, we were able to determine the contributions of the site 3 phospho-site and the site 6 phospho-site binding, each contributing to the high affinity ternary complex assembly as 2.7 fold and 15.5 fold, respectively, which were never determined before. These results thus highlighted the potential usage of this new method in measurement of the allosteric-induced enhanced affinity with small amount proteins and in a fast manner and in a complex system. Collectively, our newly developed Trp:Cou FRET system based on genetic expansion technology has extended the molecular toolboxes available for biochemical and structural biology studies.

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