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1.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(3): 101679, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578256

RESUMO

Ticks and tick-borne rickettsial diseases have been gaining greater attention in China over the past decade. However, most published studies to date have occurred in Northern China, with limited investigations occurring in China's southern provinces. As part of larger surveillance efforts, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in six sites at Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan investigating rickettsial infection in ticks. A total of 581 ticks were collected from hosts and screened via PCR, targeting rrs, gltA, ompB, sca4, and ompA gene fragments. Two of 12 Haemaphysalis formosensis ticks were infected with novel Rickettsia strain GD01, which was closest phylogenetically (97.3-98.9 % identity) to Rickettsia tamurae strain AT-1, but not within the same clade. Another detected strain (GD02) shared similar identity, 99-100 % across four gene targets, to recently detected Candidatus Rickettsia longicornii isolate ROK-HL727, with an overall prevalence of 12.5 % (71/569). The presence of such pathogens calls for increased public health attention and active surveillance in patients reporting recent tick bites.

2.
J Med Entomol ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399212

RESUMO

Spotted fever group rickettsiae, mainly maintained and transmitted by ticks, are important etiological agents of (re)emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. It is of great significance to investigate spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks in different areas for the prevention and control of rickettsioses. In this study, a total of 305 ticks were collected from wild and domestic animals in Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi provinces of southwestern China during 2017-2019 and examined for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR with primers targeting the partial gltA, ompA, rrs, and htrA genes. Results showed that two spotted fever group rickettsiae species, including the pathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia jingxinensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) and a potential novel species Rickettsia sp. sw (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), were identified. The Ca. R. jingxinensis sequences were recovered from Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Haemaphysalis longicornis (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks and phylogenetically clustered with previous Ca. R. jingxinensis, Ca. R. longicornii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and Rickettsia sp. XY118 (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) strains. Rickettsia sp. sw was detected in Amblyomma geoemydae (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Rh. microplus. Interestingly, as far as we know, this was the first report of Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in A. geoemydae. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that this potential novel species was closely related to R. aeschlimannii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with gltA and ompA genes and grouped in a cluster composed of R. montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. raoultii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. aeschlimannii, R. massiliae (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and R. rhipicephali (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with htrA, while formed a separate clade with rrs. The pathogenicity of Rickettsia sp. sw should be further confirmed. These results expand the knowledge of the geographical distribution and vector distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae in China and are useful for assessing the potential public health risk.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347789

RESUMO

Background: Tick-borne bacteria and protozoa can cause a variety of human and animal diseases in China. It is of great importance to monitor the prevalence and dynamic variation of these pathogens in ticks in ever-changing natural and social environment. Materials and Methods: Ticks were collected from Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces of northeastern China during 2018-2019 followed by morphological identification. The presence of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. was examined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The obtained sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis through Mega 7.0. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0. Results: A total of 250 ticks from 5 species of 3 genera were collected. Ixodes and Haemaphysalis ticks carried more species of pathogens than Dermacentor, and the pathogens detected in Haemaphysalis japonica varied significantly among different sampling sites. The infection rates of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. were 41.2%, 0, 2.0%, 7.2%, 1.2%, and 7.2%, respectively. Twelve pathogens were identified, among which Rickettsia raoultii (29.6%), Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae (9.2%), and Theileria equi (4.4%) were the three most common ones. Rickettsia had its dominant vector, that is, R. raoultii had high infection rates in Dermacentor nuttalli and Dermacentor silvarum, Ca. R. tarasevichiae in Ixodes persulcatus, and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis in H. japonica. Interestingly, unclassified species were observed, including a Rickettsia sp., an Ehrlichia sp., a Borrelia sp., and a Babesia sp. Coinfections with different pathogens were identified in 9.2% of all tested ticks, with I. persulcatus most likely to be coinfected (23.8%) and Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. as the most common combination (16.7%). Conclusions: The results of this study reflect high diversity and complexity of pathogens in ticks, which are useful for designing more targeted and effective control measures for tick-borne diseases in China.

4.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(11): 817-824, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749919

RESUMO

Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in China. A few systematic reports on Babesia spp. was involved with ticks, especially in the human babesiosis endemic areas in Northeastern China. Materials and Methods: Ticks were collected from 30 individual waypoints along 2.0 km transects in two recreational forests. Babesia spp. infection in ticks was screened by amplifying the partial 18s rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between tick infection and related environmental risk factors. Cluster analyses were performed using SaTScan v6.0 software to identify any geographical cluster of infected ticks. Results: A total of 2380 Ixodes persulcatus and 461 Haemaphysalis concinna ticks were collected. Of the 0.97% of I. persulcatus ticks that tested positive, five Babesia species were identified, including B. bigemina (n = 6), B. divergens (n = 2), B. microti (n = 3), B. venatorum (n = 11), and one novel strain HLJ-8. Thirteen (2.92%) H. concinna ticks tested positive for B. bigemina (n = 1), B. divergens (n = 1), three genetic variants of Babesia represented by HLJ-874, which was closely related to Babesia sp.MA#361-1, and eight other Babesia variants represented by HLJ242, which were similar to B. crassa. Each study site had 5-6 different Babesia spp. One waypoint was more likely to yield B. venatorum (relative risk = 15.36, p = 0.045) than all other waypoints. Conclusions: There exists a high genetic diversity of Babesia spp. across a relatively small sampled region. Further study is needed to understand the risks these variants pose to human health.

5.
Cell ; 182(5): 1328-1340.e13, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814014

RESUMO

Among arthropod vectors, ticks transmit the most diverse human and animal pathogens, leading to an increasing number of new challenges worldwide. Here we sequenced and assembled high-quality genomes of six ixodid tick species and further resequenced 678 tick specimens to understand three key aspects of ticks: genetic diversity, population structure, and pathogen distribution. We explored the genetic basis common to ticks, including heme and hemoglobin digestion, iron metabolism, and reactive oxygen species, and unveiled for the first time that genetic structure and pathogen composition in different tick species are mainly shaped by ecological and geographic factors. We further identified species-specific determinants associated with different host ranges, life cycles, and distributions. The findings of this study are an invaluable resource for research and control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(10): 755-762, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679008

RESUMO

As one of the important tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Anaplasma has both veterinary and public health significance. Here, we performed a survey of Anaplasma infection in the goats from a farm in Beijing, China, and found 44.6% (41/92) were infected with Anaplasma capra, and 22.8% (21/92) were infected with Anaplasma sp. This Anaplasma sp. bacterium was close to a recently emerging Anaplasma platys strain based on gltA and groEL gene phylogenetic analysis. As to further understand the characteristics of Anaplasma sp., we raised a couple of positive goats (n = 2) in the laboratory with tick-free settings. We observed inappetence, vomiting, high fever, and weakness of limbs in the goat's offspring (n = 3). In addition, the blood samples from all offspring were all positive of this Anaplasma spp. We did not see any intracellular morulae in neutrophils, monocytes, and erythrocytes, but we identified some in the platelets of the blood smears from the positive goats by light microscopy. We named it A. platys-like and suggested it may infect platelets and be transmitted vertically through the placenta of goats. These findings deserve further evaluation.

7.
Nature ; 583(7815): 282-285, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218527

RESUMO

The ongoing outbreak of viral pneumonia in China and across the world is associated with a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-21. This outbreak has been tentatively associated with a seafood market in Wuhan, China, where the sale of wild animals may be the source of zoonotic infection2. Although bats are probable reservoir hosts for SARS-CoV-2, the identity of any intermediate host that may have facilitated transfer to humans is unknown. Here we report the identification of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica) seized in anti-smuggling operations in southern China. Metagenomic sequencing identified pangolin-associated coronaviruses that belong to two sub-lineages of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses, including one that exhibits strong similarity in the receptor-binding domain to SARS-CoV-2. The discovery of multiple lineages of pangolin coronavirus and their similarity to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that pangolins should be considered as possible hosts in the emergence of new coronaviruses and should be removed from wet markets to prevent zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Eutérios/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/classificação , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Genômica , Humanos , Malásia , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Recombinação Genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
8.
J Med Entomol ; 57(4): 1270-1276, 2020 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053722

RESUMO

The importance of ticks in veterinary and medical science has received much attention. The dominant tick species in northeastern China, Ixodes persulcatus tick can transmit various pathogens to humans and animals and there are some studies on the microbiome composition of this tick. Our study characterized the bacterial communities in I. persulcatus by 16S amplicon pyrosequencing and described the differences of microorganisms in male and female tick and assessed the variation of microorganisms in the development stages in northeastern China. We mainly found the following bacteria genera: Pseudomonas (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Citrobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Rickettsia is common and harmful pathogen transmitted by ticks. Meanwhile, we found there were differences between male and female tick of microbiomes, and the diversity of microbiome increased from engorged female ticks to eggs, but decreased when the eggs were molting into larvae. Our data showed that male ticks exhibited greater microbial diversity than female I. persulcatus tick and larvae presented with a different bacterial community compared to engorged female tick and hatched eggs. These findings may be useful for further understanding the interaction between I. persulcatus and microbiome biology.

9.
Infect Immun ; 88(4)2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907196

RESUMO

Spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) can cause mild to fatal illness. The early interaction between the host and rickettsia in skin is largely unknown, and the pathogenesis of severe rickettsiosis remains an important topic. A surveillance of SFGR infection by PCR of blood and skin biopsy specimens followed by sequencing and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection was performed on patients with a recent tick bite between 2013 and 2016. Humoral and cutaneous immunoprofiles were evaluated in different SFGR cases by serum cytokine and chemokine detection, skin IHC staining, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 111 SFGR cases were identified, including 79 "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae," 22 Rickettsia raoultii, 8 Rickettsia sibirica, and 2 Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cases. The sensitivity to detect SFGR in skin biopsy specimens (9/24, 37.5%) was significantly higher than that in blood samples (105/2,671, 3.9%) (P < 0.05). As early as 1 day after the tick bite, rickettsiae could be detected in the skin. R. sibirica infection was more severe than "Ca Rickettsia" and R. raoultii infections. Increased levels of serum interleukin-18 (IL-18), IP10, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) and decreased levels of IL-2 were observed in febrile patients infected with R. sibirica compared to those infected with "Ca Rickettsia." RNA-seq and IHC staining could not discriminate between SFGR-infected and uninfected tick bite skin lesions. However, the type I interferon (IFN) response was differently expressed between R. sibirica and R. raoultii infections at the cutaneous interface. It is concluded that skin biopsy specimens were more reliable for the detection of SFGR infection in human patients although the immunoprofile may be complicated by immunomodulators induced by the tick bite.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/análise , Rickettsia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/patologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/patologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Biópsia , Citocinas/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/imunologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia
10.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(2): 88-92, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453762

RESUMO

Background: To date, there have been few investigations on Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae in rodents carried out in China. In this study, we conducted surveillance for Candidatus R. tarasevichiae infection in rodents. A total of 463 rodents were captured at five survey sites in Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang province, where Candidatus R. tarasevichiae patients have been reported. PCR targeting citrate synthase and outer membrane protein genes was performed and positive amplicons were sequenced. Result: Candidatus R. tarasevichiae was detected in 1.29% of the 463 rodents sampled from the five survey sites in Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang province. Only 2 out of 13 (15.38%) Rattus norvegicus and 4 out of 80 (5%) Clethrionomys rufocanus collected from Dashigou forestry were positive for the gltA and ompA genes of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae DNA. The detected Candidatus R. tarasevichiae was in the same clade of sequences from patients in Mudanjiang based on phylogenetic analysis. Conclusion: Rodents are major host of ticks and also serve as reservoirs of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia. Although this is the first confirmation of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae detected in rodents in China, further investigations are needed to clarify the distribution of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae in rodents elsewhere and what role they play as reservoirs.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 317-324, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus called Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) was recently identified, variants of which were detected in a non-human primate host and fatal patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. We investigated its infectivity and pathogenicity for humans. METHODS: We obtained skin-biopsy, blood and serum samples from patients with tick bites, and used high-throughput sequencing, in situ hybridisation, and serologic testing to diagnose and ascertain the cases of JMTV infection. FINDINGS: A JMTV strain was isolated from the tick Amblyomma javanense into an embryo-derived tick cell line. We obtained sustained passage of JMTV, and revealed that it was able to accumulate in salivary glands of experimentally infected ticks. Four JMTV-infected patients were identified by high-throughput sequencing of skin biopsies and blood samples. The virus replication in skin tissue was visualised by in situ hybridisation. The four patients all had an itchy or painful eschar at the site of tick bite, with or without lymphadenopathy. Immunohistochemical examination revealed remarkable local inflammation manifested as infiltration by neutrophils. Eight patients were identified by serological testing and showed more severe clinical manifestations. Two Ixodes persulcatus ticks detached from patients were positive for JMTV. All JMTV strains identified in this study formed a well-supported sub-lineage, distinct from those previously reported in China. Interpretation The public significance of JMTV should be highly concerning due to its potential pathogenicity for humans and efficient transmission by potential ticks. FUND: China Natural Science Foundation, State Key Research Development Programme, and United Kingdom Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Flavivirus , Biomarcadores , China , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Flavivirus/classificação , Flavivirus/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Flavivirus/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos , Pele/patologia , Picadas de Carrapatos
12.
Parasitology ; 146(2): 161-167, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066666

RESUMO

Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anaplasmose/sangue , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/sangue , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Doença de Lyme/sangue , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/sangue , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Picadas de Carrapatos/patologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/sangue , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 18(10): 563-566, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare investigation on tick-borne pathogens was carried out in Yunnan, China. In this study, we did a survey on Ehrlichia infection in small mammals and ticks. A total of 40 small mammals and 49 ticks were collected from Tengchong, Yunnan province. PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), citrate synthase, GroEL heat-shock protein operon, and major outer membrane protein genes was performed and positive amplicons were sequenced. RESULTS: The 40 small mammals were identified as 10 species, 2 (5.0%) of which were infected with Ehrlichia, 4 (10.0%) were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and another 2 (5.0%) were infected with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Six (12.2%) ticks were positive for Ehrlichia and another two (4.1%) were infected with A. phagocytophilum. Neither small mammals nor ticks had coinfection. The detected Ehrlichia was named as Ehrlichia sp. YN04, which was in the same clade of Ehrlichia sp. 360 by phylogenetic analysis. The sequences of the pathogen recovered from small mammals and ticks were identical with each other. CONCLUSION: The study reports one Ehrlichia species first detected from small mammals and ticks in mainland China. As Yunnan is a famous "Global Biodiversity Hotspot" in the world, we may expect much more tick-borne infectious pathogens existing and declare more public health attention in this region.


Assuntos
Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Filogenia
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(7): 1110-1119, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538646

RESUMO

Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging health problem in China. Methods: Babesia were identified in ticks, sheep, and humans in northeastern China using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by genetic sequencing. We enrolled residents who experienced a viral-like illness after recent tick bite or were healthy residents. We defined a case using the definition for babesiosis developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: A Babesia crassa-like agent was identified in Ixodes persulcatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks using PCR followed by sequencing. The agent was characterized through phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rRNA gene, the ß-tubulin gene, and the internal transcribed spacer region. We tested sheep as a possible reservoir and found that 1.1% were infected with the B. crassa-like agent. We screened 1125 human participants following tick bites using B. crassa-specific PCR and identified 31 confirmed and 27 suspected cases. All the patients were previously healthy except for 1 with an ovarian tumor. Headache (74%), nausea or vomiting (52%), and fever (48%) were the most common clinical manifestations of confirmed cases. Six of 10 cases remained PCR positive for B. crassa-like infection 9 months after initial diagnosis. Asymptomatic infections were detected in 7.5% of 160 local residents. Conclusions: We identified B. crassa-like infection in people in northeastern China that caused mild to moderate symptoms. The possibility of more severe disease in immunocompromised patients and of transmission through the blood supply due to asymptomatic infections justifies further investigation of this reported infection.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Babesia/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(2): 236-241, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350133

RESUMO

We conducted an investigation of Borrelia miyamotoi infections in humans and ticks in northeastern China. Of 984 patients reporting recent tick bites, 14 (1.4%) were found to be infected with B. miyamotoi by PCR and genomic sequencing. The 14 patients had nonspecific febrile manifestations, including fever, headache, anorexia, asthenia, and arthralgia. Rash, eschar, and regional lymphadenopathy were each observed in 1 patient. Four (28.6%) patients were hospitalized because of severe disease. B. miyamotoi was detected in 3.0% (19/627) of Ixodes persulcatus, 1 (2.8%) of 36 Haemaphysalis concinna, and none of 29 Dermacentor silvarum ticks. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of a nearly entire 16s rRNA gene, a partial flagellin gene, and the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase gene revealed that B. miyamotoi identified in patients and ticks were clustered in the group of the Siberian type. These findings indicate that B. miyamotoi is endemic in northeastern China and its public health significance deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Borrelia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Borrelia/microbiologia , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Ixodes/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Borrelia/genética , Criança , China/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Picadas de Carrapatos
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(10): e0005898, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Babesia, usually found in wild and domestic mammals worldwide, have recently been responsible for emerging malaria-like zoonosis in infected patients. Human B. microti infection has been identified in China, primarily in the Southwest along the Myanmar border but little direct surveillance of B. microti infection in rodents has been carried out here (Yunnan province). In this region, a diverse topographic range combined with tropical moisture sustains a high biodiversity of small mammals, which might play important role on Babesia transmission. METHODS: Small mammals were captured in 141 sample locations from 18 counties located Yunnan Province, and screened for B. microti-like parasites infection by a nested PCR to target 18S rRNA gene of Babesia, plus directly sequencing for positive samples. Univariate and multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to access the association between infections and some related risk factors. RESULTS: Infection with Babesia microti was confirmed in 2.4% (53/ 2204) of small mammals. Significant differences in prevalence rates of B. microti were observed based on variations in forest, agricultural, and residential landscapes. Furthermore, adult small mammals had higher prevalence rates than younger, pubertal mammals. The near full-length 18S rRNA gene revealed that there were two types of B. microti, Kobe and Otsu, which demonstrate the genetic diversity and regional distribution. CONCLUSIONS: There exists a wide distribution and genetic diversity of endemic B. microti in Southwestern China, warranting further investigations and monitoring of clinical disease in individuals presenting with Babesia like symptoms in these areas.


Assuntos
Babesia microti/genética , Babesia microti/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Animais , Babesia microti/classificação , Babesiose/parasitologia , China , Feminino , Masculino , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Filogenia
18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 6(9): e83, 2017 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28928415

RESUMO

The tick-borne bacterium Anaplasma ovis is a widely distributed pathogen affecting sheep, goats and wild ruminants. Here, the HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line was used to isolate A. ovis from PCR-positive sheep and goats in Heilongjiang Province, China. Two weeks after inoculation, morulae were observed in cytoplasmic vacuoles in four different HL-60 cultures. Confocal microscopy using a Cy3-labeled A. ovis-specific probe confirmed that the HL-60 cells were infected with A. ovis. Cells from the 6th HL-60 subculture displayed positive fluorescence when incubated with A. ovis antiserum in the indirect fluorescent antibody assay. PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA, groEL, gltA, msp2 and msp4 Anaplasma genes revealed that the four A. ovis culture isolates were identical. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequences clustered with other A. ovis strains but could clearly be distinguished from other Anaplasma species. When the 18th subculture of infected HL-60 cells was examined by electron microscopy, lysosomes were often observed near the vacuoles. After the 24th subculture, Giemsa staining and PCR indicated that the HL-60 cells were negative for A. ovis. Although A. ovis can infect HL-60 cells for only four months, the ability of the organism to infect and multiply in HL-60 cells provides a tool to study intra-erythrocytic Anaplasma and host cell interactions.


Assuntos
Anaplasma ovis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anaplasma ovis/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Anaplasma ovis/genética , Animais , Citoplasma/microbiologia , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Cabras/microbiologia , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/microbiologia
19.
J Infect Dis ; 215(7): 1107-1110, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498995

RESUMO

We performed Ebola virus disease diagnosis and viral load estimation for Ebola cases in Sierra Leone during the late stage of the 2014-2015 outbreak (January-March 2015) and analyzed antibody and cytokine levels and the viral genome sequences. Ebola virus disease was confirmed in 86 of 1001 (9.7%) patients, with an overall case fatality rate of 46.8%. Fatal cases exhibited significantly higher levels of viral loads, cytokines, and chemokines at late stages of infection versus early stage compared with survivors. The viruses converged in a new clade within sublineage 3.2.4, which had a significantly lower case fatality rate.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/genética , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Carga Viral , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(16): 4488-93, 2016 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27035948

RESUMO

Sierra Leone is the most severely affected country by an unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa. Although successfully contained, the transmission dynamics of EVD and the impact of interventions in the country remain unclear. We established a database of confirmed and suspected EVD cases from May 2014 to September 2015 in Sierra Leone and mapped the spatiotemporal distribution of cases at the chiefdom level. A Poisson transmission model revealed that the transmissibility at the chiefdom level, estimated as the average number of secondary infections caused by a patient per week, was reduced by 43% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30%, 52%] after October 2014, when the strategic plan of the United Nations Mission for Emergency Ebola Response was initiated, and by 65% (95% CI: 57%, 71%) after the end of December 2014, when 100% case isolation and safe burials were essentially achieved, both compared with before October 2014. Population density, proximity to Ebola treatment centers, cropland coverage, and atmospheric temperature were associated with EVD transmission. The household secondary attack rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.059 (95% CI: 0.050, 0.070) for the overall outbreak. The household SAR was reduced by 82%, from 0.093 to 0.017, after the nationwide campaign to achieve 100% case isolation and safe burials had been conducted. This study provides a complete overview of the transmission dynamics of the 2014-2015 EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone at both chiefdom and household levels. The interventions implemented in Sierra Leone seem effective in containing the epidemic, particularly in interrupting household transmission.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Modelos Biológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia
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