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1.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(8): 606-615, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474720

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk of cumulative exposure to Pb, Cd, Hg, and iAs through aquatic products consumed by Chinese people. Methods: Heavy metal concentration data were obtained from the national food contamination monitoring program during 2013-2017. Consumption data were derived from the China National Food Consumption Survey in 2014 and the relative potency factor (RPF) method was used to estimate cumulative exposure for neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Results: The results demonstrated that the cumulative exposure based on neurotoxicity was below the lower confidence limit on benchmark doses of lead (BMDL 01) for nephrotoxicity and the cumulative exposures were all lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of Cd. However, the margin of exposure values (MOEs) of the cumulative exposures for neurotoxicity in the 2-6 year-old group was close to 1 and the cumulative exposure level for nephrotoxicity accounted for 90.21 % of the PTMI. Conclusion: The cumulative exposures of the 2-6 year-old group to the four heavy metals did not reach (but came close to) the corresponding safety threshold for both neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Given that there are still other food sources of these four heavy metals, it is necessary to more closely study their cumulative health effects.


Assuntos
Arsênio/análise , Exposição Dietética/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
2.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 29(5): 365-73, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27353711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. METHODS: The BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 food categories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. RESULTS: It was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged ⋝2 years was 1.03 µg/kg bw per day and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 µg/kg bw per day). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. . CONCLUSION: The health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Dieta , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 217(6): 695-701, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24680371

RESUMO

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer used in food contact materials that has been reported as an endocrine disruptor. In the present study, DEHP concentrations were analyzed in foods in order to determine dietary exposure among the Chinese population, including the general population (aged 2-100) and four age group, that is children aged 2-6, adolescent aged 7-12, young people aged 13-17 and adults aged 18 years old and above. 1704 food samples were collected during 2011-2012 and categorized into 12 food groups which covered major foods in China. Food consumption data were taken from China National Nutrient and Health Survey which was performed in 2002 and includes data from 68,959 subjects. Mean concentrations of DEHP were combined with individual food consumption data to estimate dietary exposure. It was found that DEHP levels in foods ranged from not detected to 3.41 mg/kg, with highest mean values in meat (0.23 mg/kg) and vegetable oils (0.21 mg/kg). Mean dietary intakes of DEHP in the general population, children, and adults were 2.34, 4.51, 2.03 µg/kg bw per day, respectively. The 97.5% intakes in these populations were 5.22, 8.43, 3.64 µg/kg bw per day, respectively. The main food sources of DEHP dietary intake were cereals (39.44%), drinking water (16.94%) and meat (15.81%) in children, and cereals (44.57%), meat (15.70%) and drinking water (12.28%) for adults. These findings suggested that dietary exposure to DEHP among Chinese population was lower than tolerable daily intake of DEHP and there are no health concerns based on generally accepted exposure limits.


Assuntos
Dieta , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Plastificantes/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 25(3): 267-71, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22840576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this survey was to investigate the level of contamination of the most consumed foods in China with 16 rare earth elements (REEs), and to provide the basic data for establishing and revising food safety standards for REEs. METHODS: Sixteen REEs in foods were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the labs of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of four provinces and two municipalities, during 2009-2010. RESULTS: 1 231 samples were analyzed and 19 121 concentration data of 16 REEs were collected. The REEs levels in the investigated foods varied significantly. The concentrations of cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), and neodymium (Nd) were relatively high, while the remaining eleven REEs were at low levels. The mean values of total rare earth element oxides (REOs) in cereals, fresh vegetables, fresh aquatic products, fresh meats and eggs varied from 0.052 mg/kg to 0.337 mg/kg. CONCLUSION: 16 REEs in the major foods were at very low contamination levels in the investigated regions.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Carne/análise , Metais Terras Raras/química , Verduras/química , Animais , China , Ovos , Peixes , Moluscos , Suínos
5.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 22(2): 104-8, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19618686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the migration of melamine into foods from plastic food packaging materials and dairy product containers commonly used in China. METHODS: 37 samples were collected from the market. The EU migration testing conditions were adopted with distilled water, 3% acetic acid, n-hexane and 15% ethanol being chosen as the simulating solutions. The HPLC method was used to detect melamine. RESULTS: No melamine was detected in 15 dairy product containers. Among the 22 plastic samples, 16 of polypropylene, and polycarbonate types had no detectable amount melamine while a low level of melamine was found in 3 of the 6 melamine resin containers. CONCLUSION: Migration of melamine from food packaging materials in China market is in line with the requirements of EU.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Triazinas/química , Animais , Bovinos , China , Laticínios , Difusão , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Leite , Plásticos/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 304-6, 2008 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18844076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pollution level and development trend of lead in the preserved egg in our country. METHODS: By the national food contamination monitoring system and under the strict analysis quality control, the content of lead in the preserved eggs was analyzed according to the national standard method (GB/T 5009.12-2003) in fourteen provinces from 2000 to 2006. RESULTS: All 1358 data on contents of lead in the preserved eggs were obtained during seven years, the total average was 1.782 mg/kg, the maximum was 334.0 mg/kg, P90 was 3.50 mg/kg, P95 was 7.397 mg/kg and P97.5 was 12.01 mg/kg, all exceeded 2 mg/kg of the national limit standard, and the rate of violated samples exceeded 10.0%. Analyzing from time, contents of lead in the preserved eggs were depressive from 2.994 mg/kg to 1.138 mg/kg year after year. CONCLUSION: The lead contamination in preserved eggs was serious in whole country. It shows that the continuous work of monitoring and forewarning should be carried out to make the contamination of lead in preserved eggs to reduce year by year.


Assuntos
Ovos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Chumbo/análise , China , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Inspeção de Alimentos/métodos
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