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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 485, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) are the most commonly used scales to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in population-based epidemiologic studies. However, their comparison on which is best suited to assess cognition is scarce in samples from multiple regions of China. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 4923 adults aged ≥55 years from the Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases. Objective cognition was assessed by Chinese versions of MMSE and MoCA, and total score and subscores of cognitive domains were calculated for each. Education-specific cutoffs of total score were used to diagnose MCI. Demographic and health-related characteristics were collected by questionnaires. Correlation and agreement for MCI between MMSE and MoCA were analyzed; group differences in cognition were evaluated; and multiple logistic regression model was used to clarify risk factors for MCI. RESULTS: The overall MCI prevalence was 28.6% for MMSE and 36.2% for MoCA. MMSE had good correlation with MoCA (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.8374, p < 0.0001) and moderate agreement for detecting MCI with Kappa value of 0.5973 (p < 0.0001). Ceiling effect for MCI was less frequent using MoCA versus MMSE according to the distribution of total score. Percentage of relative standard deviation, the measure of inter-individual variance, for MoCA (26.9%) was greater than for MMSE (19.0%) overall (p < 0.0001). Increasing age (MMSE: OR = 2.073 for ≥75 years; MoCA: OR = 1.869 for≥75 years), female (OR = 1.280 for MMSE; OR = 1.163 for MoCA), living in county town (OR = 1.386 and 1.862 for MMSE and MoCA, respectively) or village (OR = 2.579 and 2.721 for MMSE and MoCA, respectively), smoking (OR = 1.373 and 1.288 for MMSE and MoCA, respectively), hypertension (MMSE: OR = 1.278; MoCA: OR = 1.208) and depression (MMSE: OR = 1.465; MoCA: OR = 1.350) were independently associated with greater likelihood of MCI compared to corresponding reference group in both scales (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MoCA is a better measure of cognitive function due to lack of ceiling effect and with good detection of cognitive heterogeneity. MCI prevalence is higher using MoCA compared to MMSE. Both tools identify concordantly modifiable factors for MCI, which provide important evidence for establishing intervention measures.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt A): 127095, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523498

RESUMO

As the single largest chlorine source of plastics, hazardous polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has become an increasing environmental concern with the rapid microplastics accumulation. An advanced separation method is advocated to purify waste PVC plastics, optimize physical recycling, and protect aquatic and terrestrial environment safety. In this study, we proposed a novel scheme for the flotation separation of PVC plastics with diverse plasticizer contents (PVCs) via regulating hydrophilicity based on a selective ferric deposition. Rigid PVCs were prone to loading ferric ions and generating hydrophilic shells than flexible PVCs. Plasticizers can diffuse freely through the interior and surface of PVC plastics. Abundant plasticizers thereby overlaid the surface of flexible PVC and shielded PVC matrix from ferric ions. By regulating the ferric concentration, the wettability of PVCs was adjusted to separate rigid and flexible PVCs by froth flotation. Waste PVCs could also be separated from each other through the compound process of ferric deposition and flotation, further confirming its feasibility and stability. Thus far, this study supplies distinctive insights into the wettability regulation of plasticizer-doping PVC surfaces, contributes a pioneering hydrophilization method to PVCs separation and recycling, and mitigates hazardous PVC microplastics by source control.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578974

RESUMO

Studies on the intraindividual double burden of malnutrition (DBM) among Chinese children and adolescents were lacking. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of intraindividual DBM defined as the coexistence of overweight/obesity and dietary micronutrient intake insufficiency and investigate dietary micronutrient intake in Chinese children and adolescents. Using data from the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), 1555 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years were selected as the subjects. We referred to China Food Composition to calculate the intakes of 11 selected dietary micronutrients from diet data collected by consecutive three days of 24 h recalls combined with household weighing of seasonings. We used the Chinese estimated average requirement (EARs) as a cutoff to define the dietary micronutrients deficiency, and applied the body-mass-index-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) of World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards to define the category of body weight. Among the subjects in present study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 15.43% and 11.06%, respectively, and 26.24% of the subjects had undergone intraindividual DBM. The results suggest that the prevalence of intraindividual DBM and dietary micronutrients deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents is high.

4.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113626, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488105

RESUMO

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polycarbonate (PC) microplastics are major sources of hazardous chlorine and bisphenol A, threatening the ecosystem and environment. Plastic recycling can control the source of microplastics pollution, but the recycling of PVC and PC will be prevented by invalid separation. We established a novel and clean flotation method to separate PVC and PC microplastics by using aluminum coating. Trace amounts of Al(OH)3 can selectively coat the PVC microplastics surface due to its strong affinity for PVC. The contact angle of PVC decreases by 24° due to abundant hydroxyl groups of Al(OH)3 coating, whereas PC remained hydrophobic. Response surface methodology (RSM) combining Box-Behnken design (BBD) is used to optimize modification. A quadratic model is established to predict PC purity, explore the interaction between pH, aluminum chloride concentration, and ultrasonic duration. The recovery and purity of microplastics can exceed 99.65% with parameter optimization. The effects of multi-component, brand, shape, size, and mass ratio of plastics are utilized to evaluate the application potential. The suitable situations and limits of this method are disclosed. The aluminum coating offers significant benefits over other modifications in terms of reaction temperature, treatment time, and pollution prevention. Flotation based on aluminum coating provides a new insight for separating and recycling microplastics.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Polivinila , Eliminação de Resíduos , Alumínio , Ecossistema , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Cimento de Policarboxilato
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149668, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426325

RESUMO

Boron pollution in the aquatic environment has a hazardous effect on human health and the ecosystem as a metalloid pollutant, and few researchers have focused on the potential interaction between boron and microplastics. We investigated the adsorption of boron on four types of microplastics (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), aged PVC, polystyrene (PS), and aged PS). The adsorption behavior was explored by kinetics, isotherm models, and several aqueous factors, including pH, humic acid, ionic strength (Na+), metal ion types (Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, and Al3+), and the seawater environment. The adsorption capacities on microplastics were followed: aged PVC (0.91 mg/g) > aged PS (0.197 mg/g) > virgin PVC (0.1 mg/g) > virgin PS (0.005 mg/g). The adsorption kinetics and isotherm models suggested monolayer adsorption and chemisorption. Humic acid and high pH significantly inhibited the adsorption due to the complexation and hydrolysis of boric acid (B(OH)3), respectively. The presence of metal ions may enhance or hinder adsorption, depending on the boron species, ion concentration, ion type, and microplastics categories. The unique interaction mainly depended on surface complexations of B(OH)3 with oxygen-containing groups on microplastics surface. Because aged microplastics have more oxygen-containing groups, they can combine more B(OH)3, and PVC can adsorb more boron due to the CCl bond and surface diffusion. In the aquatic environment, however, metal ions may occupy these binding sites, and the electrostatic force between borate ([B(OH)4]-) and microplastics will take precedence. In the simulated intestines of warm-blooded animals, we achieved the greatest boron desorption ratio on microplastics. This work explored the adsorption characteristics of boron by microplastics and revealed potential environmental risks of metalloid enrichment.

6.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(4): 578-585, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the basic nutrition working status in Chinese CDCs. METHODS: The questionnaire of nutritional working ability of CDC was designed for investigation. The questionnaire was filled in by all disease control institutions of 31 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps(excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan). Data was inputted by each institution through a questionn aire-survey platform called 'wenjuanxing& apos; , and the quality control was carried out by the provincial CDCs according to their jurisdiction. RESULTS: A total of 3150 valid questionnaires were collected. 35.97% of the institutions surveyed had never undertaken nutrition-related work, and only 4.19% of them had set up an independent department for nutrition-related work. The average number of people engaged in nutrition work was 2.5(P50=1.0); The average number of full-time staff was 0.2(P50=0.0). The average number of full-time staff in provincial, municipal and county CDCs was 3.6, 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. In terms of the nutrition work, by 2020 the China Nutrition and Health Surveillance and the National Food Nutrition Surveillance have covered 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Besides Shanghai, Zhejiang and Fujian, provincial CDCs implemented the Nutrition Improvemeat Program for Compulsory Education Students in Rural Area. As to the scientific research, only 9.08% of the institutions have carried out nutrition-related projects in the past five years. Particularly, there were little nutrition-related scientific research funds for municipal and county disease control institutions, while 96.57% of the institutions do not have special funds for nutrition work. From 2015 to 2019, the proportion of the institutions that published nutrition-related papers, published nutrition-related books, won nutrition-related awards, and participated in the formulation of nutrition-related standards was 3.81%, 1.27%, 5.65% and 0.70%, respectively. With regard to the implementation of the six major actions of the National Nutrition Plan(2017-2030), only 29.81% of CDCs have organized and carried out related actions. CONCLUSION: Disease control institutions are short of nutrition professional posts, professional personnel, nutrition work funds and scientific research investment, lack of regular nutrition work tasks. Therefore, the nutrition capacity of the CDCs needs to be strengthened, and more efforts will be needed to meet the requirements of the National Nutrition Plan(2017-2030) and the Healthy China Action(2019-2030)-Healthy Diet Campaign.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , China , Cidades , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148345, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153770

RESUMO

Increasing microplastics (MPs) cause significant threats to the ecosystem and society. The tremendous advances concerning the sources, occurrence, chemical behavior, toxicology, and ecological effects contribute to the emerging MPs removal. Based on the intrinsic hydrophobicity of MPs, froth flotation can remove MPs from water environments via bubble attachment on hydrophobic surfaces. This study comprehensively investigated plastic, aqueous, and operating variables in the flotation removal of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) MPs, assisted by numerous bench-scale experiments and a first-order model with rectangular distribution of floatability. Froth flotation performed better to remove MPs with higher density, larger size, and lower concentration. K+ (0-50 mM), Na+ (0-150 mM), and Ca2+ (0-10 mM) did not affect the flotation recovery of MPs. MPs particles could be thoroughly removed by froth flotation when humic acid (HA) and Al3+ concentrations were less than 30 mg/L and 0.05 mM, respectively. 100% of MPs could be removed at a rapid flotation rate under aeration volume of 5.4 mL/min and frother dosage of 28 mg/L. Non-covalent interactions and near-surface water film might favor the adhesion of hydrophilic species and obstruct the flotation removal of MPs. The froth flotation-based MPs removal had potential application in multiple flow systems due to its simplicity and continuity.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Plásticos , Ecossistema , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 448-453, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074367

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the status and long-term trends in dietary vitamin intakes from 1989 to 2015 in adults aged 18 to 35 in 15 provinces(autonomous regions, municipalities) of China. METHODS: Based on the data of "China Health and Nutrition Surveys" from 1989 to 2015 and "cohort study on the changes of nutritional status of Chinese residents" in 2015, covering 15 provinces(autonomous regions, municipalities) in China. Adults aged 18 to 35 were selected as study subjects. Nonparametric statistical method was used to analyze the trend of dietary vitamin intake with years. Comparing the dietary vitamin intake with the dietary reference intakes, the trend of the proportion of people at risk of insufficient dietary vitamin intake was analyzed by Cochran Armitage trend test. According to the different demographic characteristics in 2015, the vitamin intake status and the proportion of people with insufficient dietary vitamin intake were analyzed. RESULTS: From 1989 to 2015, the overall dietary vitamin intake of adults aged 18-35 in 15 provinces(autonomous regions, municipalities) of China showed a downward trend. The median vitamin intake of adults in 2015 were vitamin A 361. 28 µg RAE/d(based on vitamin A activity equivalent), vitamin B_1 0. 75 mg/d, vitamin B_2 0. 67 mg/d, nicotinic acid 13. 61 mg/d, vitamin C 56. 41 mg/d and vitamin E 21. 04 mg α-TE/d. In 2015, there were significant differences in dietary vitamin A, vitamin B_2, niacin and vitamin C intakes between the North and the South and the distribution of education level, in which the intakes of vitamin A, vitamin B_2, niacin and vitamin C in the South were significantly higher than those in the North; the intakes of dietary vitamin B_1 in the low education level group were significantly lower than those in the middle and high education level; the intakes of dietary vitamin B_1 in urban areas were significantly higher than those in the North. The intakes of vitamin A, vitamin B_2, niacin and vitamin E were significantly higher than those in rural areas. From 1989 to 2015, the proportion of people with insufficient intake of vitamin B_2 remained above 80%, and the proportion of adults with the risk of insufficient intake of dietary vitamin A, vitamin B_1 and vitamin C showed an increasing trend year by year. In 2015, the proportion of people at risk of insufficient intake of dietary vitamin A, vitamin B_2 and vitamin C in northern China was significantly higher than that in southern China. CONCLUSION: From 1989 to 2015, there was a risk of insufficient intake of micronutrients in adults aged 18-35 in 15 provinces(autonomous regions, municipalities) in China, and the problem of insufficient calcium intake was serious.


Assuntos
Dieta , Vitaminas , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos de Coortes , Inquéritos Nutricionais
9.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 442-447, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of food intake from Chinese 15 provinces(autonomous regions, municipalities) adult aged 18 to 35. METHODS: Based on the data from 10 rounds follow-up survey conducted by China Health and Nutrition Survey between 1989 and 2015, adults aged 18 to 35 were selected according to the multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling method. Dietary surveys were conducted using 24-hour dietary recall in three consecutive days, and weighing accounting method was used to investigate the consumption of condiments. Wilcoxon rank sum trend was used to test the variation trend of food intake, Cochran-Armitage trend test and Spearman rank test were used to analyze the trend of different type of food intake and the recommended intakes of dietary pagoda for Chinese residents(2016). RESULTS: The intake of fruits, livestock and poultry meat, aquatic products, eggs, milk and dairy products, soybeans and nuts and sugar for adults aged 18-35 in China has been increasing. Cereals and potatoes, vegetables, edible oil, cooking salt, alcohols showed a downward trend. Compared with Chinese Dietary Guidelines(2016)-summary, the number of people whose milk and dairy products lower than EAR has always exceeded 99%. The number of people whose cereals, potatoes and vegetables lower than EAR has increased from 4. 1% and 42. 3% in 1989 to 19. 2% and 67. 0% in 2015, respectively. The proportion of people whose edible oil lower than EAR and whose cooking salt higher than EAR increased, whose livestock and poultry meat higher than EAR increased from 34. 10% in 1989 to 64. 49% in 2015. CONCLUSION: There is still a high proportion of Chinese adults aged 18 to 35 who consume overmuch fat but deficiency in dietary fiber. The proportion of whose consumed cereals, potatoes, vegetables and dairy products lower than EAR and exceed EAR of meat and cooking salt shows an increasing trend. The problem of unreasonable dietary structure is still serious.


Assuntos
Dieta , Verduras , Adulto , China , Cidades , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
10.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920687

RESUMO

Cognitive function is not generally associated with diet, and there is debate over that association. Moreover, little is known about such associations with the specific cognitive domains and subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed data of 4309 Chinese adults aged 55 and over from the Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases from 2018-2019. Dietary habits were assessed at inclusion using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive function of the participants was measured by using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Analyses were performed using multiple logistic regression and quantile regression with adjustment for socio-demographic, lifestyle, and health-related factors. Compared with normal cognition participants, those with a worse cognition state were characterized as being an older age and lower economic level. After adjustment for potential factors, participants with higher consumption of rice, legumes, fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, pork, poultry, fish, and nuts tended to have higher scores of global cognitive function and domains, and to have lower odds of MCI, while those with higher consumption levels of wheat and eggs had worse cognition, compared with the corresponding bottom consumption level of each food. Participants with a medium consumption level of beef or mutton had 57% (OR: 1.57, 95%CI: 1.07-2.32) higher odds of aMCI-SD, whereas they had 50% (OR: 0.50, 95%CI: 0.34-0.73) lower odds of naMCI-MD. Similarly, the highest consumption level of dairy was positively associated with the odds of aMCI-SD (OR:1.51, 95%CI:1.00-2.29), but inversely linked to the odds of naMCI-SD (OR: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.38-0.93) and naMCI-MD (OR: 0.49, 95%CI: 0.29-0.82). Most diet global cognitive benefits were observed to be associated with the preexisting higher consumption of rice, legumes, fresh vegetables, fresh fruit, meat, and nuts. In addition, the heterogeneity of associations between the consumption of certain foods and MCI subtypes was observed among Chinese adults aged over 55 years. These cross-sectional observations require validation in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Dieta/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923855

RESUMO

Poor dietary habits have been shown to be associated with a range of chronic diseases and can potentially be a major contributor to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) mortality. We therefore aimed to identify the prevailing dietary patterns among Chinese adults and to evaluate trends in dietary patterns from 1991 to 2015. We used data collected in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. We studied 29,238 adults aged 18 and above with complete demo-graphic and dietary data. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified: southern (high intakes of rice, vegetables, and pork), modern (high intakes of fruits, dairy products, cakes, cookies, and pastries), and meat (high intakes of organ meats, poultry, and other livestock meat). The southern pattern score decreased (mean ± SD scores in 1991: 0.11 ± 1.13; scores in 2015: -0.22 ± 0.93). The modern pattern score (mean ± SD scores in 1991: -0.44 ± 0.59; scores in 2015: 0.21 ± 1.01) and meat pattern score (mean ± SD scores in 1991: -0.18 ± 0.98; scores in 2015: 0.27 ± 0.91) increased. We observed that China has experienced a shift from traditional dietary patterns to western dietary patterns.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/etnologia , Dieta/tendências , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto Jovem
12.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(3): 208-14, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787162

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the clinical efficacy of external fixation in the treatment of femoral neck fracture with two different pin layout. METHODS: From April 2000 to April 2018, 140 cases of femoral neck fracture were treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pin external fixation, among them 121 cases were followed up for more than 1 year, including 31 cases in traditional group, 12 males and 19 females, aged 45 to 74(65.4±8.4) years;90 cases in modified group, 39 males and 51 females, aged 12 to 75 (64.5±7.8) years. In traditional group, the first needle was put on the femoral talus, the second and third needles were put under the tension line, and the three needles were not on the same line in the lateral phase; in modified group, the first needle was drilled into the lateralcortex of the femur, obliquely penetrating the distal and proximal end of the femoral talus fracture, and the other two needles were drilled into the medial cortex of the femoral neck and the femoral talus, respectively. The operation time, hospital stay, postoperative ambulation time, femoral neck shortening rate, fracture healing time, fracture healing rate and femoral head necrosis rate of the two groups were observed and compared. Harris hip function score was used one year after operation. RESULTS: These 121 patients were followed-up, the follow up time of traditional group was 13 to 45(30.5±11.4) months;the follow-up time of modified group was 14 to 120(34.5±12.5) months. There was no significant difference in operation time, hospital stay and femoral head necrosis rate between two groups (P>0.05). There were significant differences between two groups in the time of going to the ground, shortening rate of femoral neck, fracture healing time, fracture healing rate and Harris functional score of the hip 1 year after operation (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with the traditional group, the modified group has the advantages of lower femoral neck shortening rate, shorter fracture healing time, higher fracture healing rate and higher Harris hip function score.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Colo Femoral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Fixadores Externos , Feminino , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Fixação de Fratura , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668801

RESUMO

Evidence shows time-of-day of energy intake are associated with health outcomes; however, studies of time-of-day energy patterns and their health implication are still lacking in the Asian population. This study aims to examine the time-of-day energy intake pattern of Chinese adults and to examine its associations with nutrient intakes, diet quality, and insulin resistance. Dietary data from three 24-h recalls collected during the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were analyzed (n = 8726, aged ≥ 18 years). Time-of-day energy intake patterns were determined by latent class analysis (LCA). General Linear Models and Multilevel Mixed-effects Logistic Regression Models were applied to investigate the associations between latent time-of-day energy intake patterns, energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, diet quality score, and insulin resistance. Three time-of-day energy intake patterns were identified. Participants in the "Evening dominant pattern" were younger, had higher proportions of alcohol drinkers and current smokers. The "Evening dominant pattern" was associated with higher daily energy intake and a higher percentage of energy from fat (%) (p < 0.001), as well as higher insulin resistance risk (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.40), after adjusting for multivariate covariates. The highest diet quality score was observed in participants with "Noon dominant pattern" (p < 0.001). A higher proportion of energy in the later of the day was associated with insulin resistance in free-living individuals.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais
14.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(2): 314-324, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive energy intake and unbalanced food choices are major health concerns associated with obesity and related chronic diseases. This study evaluates the levels of dietary energy intake and the energy contributions of macronutrients, major food sources, and various eating occasions and processed food among Chinese adults. METHODS: The study examined a cross-sectional sample from CHNS and CNTCS 2015 that used three 24 h recalls and calculated energy intake and food sources based on the China Food Composition Table. After excluding extreme values, the analyses included 11,974 subjects aged 18-64. RESULTS: The estimated energy intake was 2063.3 kcal/d (2243.8 kcal/d for males and 1902.4 kcal/d for females), and 39.1% of subjects met the gender-age-PA-based Estimated Energy Requirement. The proportion of energy from fats was 35.8% without significant age or gender differences. Adults of lower socioeconomic statuses, indicated by lower education levels and lower household incomes per capita, consumed lower percentages of energy from fats and higher percentages from carbohydrates. The study population as a whole reported an average energy density of 1.88 kcal/g and an energy contribution from restaurant foods of 1.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The study reports a lower energy intake level than CHNS 2009. Adults living in southern China or urban areas, which are relatively developed regions, or with higher socioeconomic statuses consumed less energy from carbohydrates, moderate amounts from proteins, and more from fats, indicating a need for dietary guidelines or interventions that take into account socio-demographic factors.

15.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 75(2): 247-252, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620907

RESUMO

Since the Opening of China, the country's economy has continuously and rapidly improved. Various economic, educational, and health policies have been implemented to shape the development of society, which may have greatly affected the Chinese diet and related malnutrition issues. The objective of the present review was to comprehensively review long-term trends in dietary intakes, nutrition status, and subsequent health challenges among Chinese adults. The data sources were mainly the 1982, 1992, 2002, and 2010-2012 China National Nutrition Surveys (CNNS) and reports and the 1989-2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Over decades, there have been significant changes in the dietary structure of Chinese adults, characterized as decreased intake of cereals and vegetables and increased intake of animal foods with pork dominating. Intakes of eggs, fish, and dairy has reminded at a low level, with only a small increase over time. Consumption of cooking oil and salt was substantively far above the recommendations. A great proportion of fat-to-energy intake and "hidden hunger" was still prominent. Despite nutrition deficiency, there have been some modest improvements in related diseases, but overweight and obesity has become a prominent issue, with the prevalence in adults increasing from 16.4% and 3.6% in 1982 to 30.1% and 11.9% in 2012, respectively. In conclusion, this review sheds light on some salient problems with nutrition and malnutrition status in China, especially the dual challenges of undernutrition and overnutrition. Dynamic monitoring of nutritional characteristics in China should be strengthened, and effective strategies to improve nutrition need to be targeted at the national, societal, family, and individual levels.

16.
Waste Manag ; 118: 471-480, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979778

RESUMO

Waste polystyrene (PS) and polycarbonate (PC) are crucial components arising from mixtures of plastic products, whose recycling is significantly limited by separation efficiency. In this work, to assist the flotation separation of PC and PS, we proposed a novel modification technology of surface alkoxylation pretreatment (SAP) where PC surface reacted with glycerol and urea. The SAP could selectively transform the hydrophobic PC into hydrophilic plastic, while the PS remained its hydrophobic surface owing to the exclusion from SAP process. Benefiting from the hydrophilic PC, the separation efficiency of PS and PC could reach the maximum of 99.34% under optimum conditions (urea dosage of 5 g, pretreatment temperature of 130 °C, pretreatment time of 10 min, flotation time of 2.5 min, frother concentration of 16.5 mg/L, and airflow rate of 7.2 mL/min). The mechanism of SAP was systematically analyzed by wettability, surface morphology, molecular weight, and chemical reactions. Compared with PS plastic, the pretreated PC presented better wettability, rougher surface, and significantly reducing molecular weight. The improvement of PC hydrophilicity can be attributed to the cleavage of ester bonds on backbone chains and the introduction of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups. The effective SAP process proves that chemical recycling of waste plastic can provide a novel strategy for surface modification and flotation separation of PS and PC.


Assuntos
Poliestirenos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Plásticos , Cimento de Policarboxilato
17.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937736

RESUMO

Few studies have focused on quantifying the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) phenomenon in China. We aimed to clarify the prevalence of DBM among Chinese adults as well as to examine whether usual daily dietary micronutrient status varies by body mass index (BMI) categories. In this study, a sample of 6602 adults aged 18-59 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) was analyzed. Information was obtained on dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. Dietary intakes of 11 micronutrients were estimated based on the data collected by three consecutive days of 24 h recalls combined with the weighing of household seasonings. Dietary micronutrient deficiency was defined according to the cutoff of the Chinese estimated average requirement (EARs). 44% of Chinese adults faced the problem of DBM, of which nearly 40% experienced overweight/obesity and micronutrient deficiency simultaneously. Comparable percentages (>50%) of Chinese adults had dietary intake less than the Chinese EARs for key micronutrients including retinol, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, calcium, selenium, zinc, and magnesium, and the percentages varied by body weight status. More than 80% participants had at least two selected vitamin or mineral deficiencies in all BMI categories. These findings indicate that Chinese adults have a high DBM and micronutrient inadequacies prevail among and within gender and all BMI categories. All body weight groups need advice on the changing needs for dietary variety to ensure optimal health.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
18.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the associations of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A 2015 wave of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. PARTICIPANTS: Totally, 11 910 adults aged 18 to 64 years. RESULTS: Adjusted log binomial regression analyses showed that adults with higher income levels had higher fruit intake than those with low income levels (medium income group, risk ratio (RR): 1·28; 95 % CI: 1·16, 1·41; high income group, RR: 1·58; 95 % CI: 1·43, 1·74). Current smokers had lower fruit intake than non-smokers (RR: 0·86; 95 % CI: 0·77, 0·96). Adults living in southern China had higher vegetable intake (RR: 1·88; 95 % CI: 1·76, 2·01) but lower fruit intake (RR: 0·85; 95 % CI: 0·79, 0·91) than adults in northern China. With increasing age, adults had higher fruit intake (50-64 years, RR: 1·20; 95 % CI: 1·09, 1·33; reference category 18-34 years) and higher vegetable intake (35-49 years, RR: 1·13; 95 % CI: 1·05, 1·22; 50-64 years, RR: 1·22; 95 % CI: 1·13, 1·31). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identify a range of sociodemographic and behavioural factors associated with fruit and vegetable consumption among Chinese adults. They also point to the need for public health nutrition interventions for socially disadvantaged populations in China.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(16): 9742-9756, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659077

RESUMO

Improper disposal of waste plastic has caused much environmental pollution, but plastic recycling can reduce the amount of new and residual waste plastic in the environment through source control. Plastic flotation can separate waste plastics with similar physical and chemical properties, which suggests its promising application in plastic recycling. With the help of the different hydrophilicities waste plastic can be separated by flotation, and hydrophilization can be accomplished by surface modifications. However, no systematic studies addressing these surface reactions have been published yet, and such modifications are a prerequisite for plastic flotation. In this critical review, we not only summarize the various modification mechanisms, including physical regulation, surface oxidation, surface degradation, dechlorination, and coating, but also have reasonably added additional information for some reactions covering surface reconstruction, plastic degradation, polymer stability, wastewater treatment, soil remediation, and chemical recycling of plastic. An entirely novel concept, the "plastic gene", is also proposed to elaborate on some contradictory results. Plastic flotation with clear surface reactions may promote plastic recycling and thereby control waste plastic at the source, save energy, and reduce microplastics. We also predict challenges for clean, efficient, and practical surface modifications and plastic flotation.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Polímeros , Reciclagem , Águas Residuárias
20.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(3): 345-356, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the changes in the awareness of nutritional knowledge in Chinese adults during 2004-2015. METHODS: The present study used data from "China Health and Nutrition Health" and selected those participated in surveys conducted in 2004-2015, with completed data of demographic characteristics and nutritional knowledge measurement and aged 18 years and above as subjects. We analyzed the awareness rates of Chinese Dietary Guidelines and various nutritional knowledges in adults from different provinces and adults of 9 provinces by characteristics, and evaluated the changes during 2004-2015. RESULTS: There were 9615, 9702, 9999, 12 990 and 15 958 subjects in waves of 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011 and 2015, respectively. Awareness of dietary guidelines in adults from 9 provinces significantly increased during 2004-2015(P<0. 0001), and the rate was 21. 1% in 2015, 2. 9 times as high as that in 2004. The awareness rates of all seven correct nutritional knowledges also displayed an increased trend during survey periods(P<0. 0001), and there was a considerable rise in 2006. Awareness on staple foods was lower in each wave, especially in 2004(0. 9%). The changes in the awareness of all five wrong nutritional knowledges were inconsistent during 2004-2015, in which the awareness on sugar, high fat foods and physical activity showed a decreased trend(P<0. 0001), and the awareness rate of physical activity was lower. Overall awareness of nutritional knowledges in adults tended to increase during 2004-2015(P<0. 0001), however, that in each wave was very low, and just 4. 0% in 2015. Awareness of dietary guidelines in adults from 3 municipalities in 2015 was higher than that in 2011(P<0. 0001), but the differences were opposite for most of nutritional knowledges. Moreover, awareness of dietary guidelines of 3 municipalities(Beijing, Shanghai and Chongqing)in 2011 and 2015 was higher than corresponding rate in 9 provinces or newly recruited 3 provinces. There were similar changes in the awareness of dietary guidelines and nutritional knowledges in adults from 9 provinces by age, gender, education level, residence area and location during 2004-2015 to that in total population, and there were differences in the awareness of nutritional knowledge by demographic characteristics in some survey waves. CONCLUSION: The awareness of dietary guidelines and overall awareness of nutritional knowledges were lower in Chinese adults, especially for the items on staple foods, meat and physical activity.


Assuntos
Dieta , Política Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Pequim , China , Cidades , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais
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