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1.
Food Chem ; 308: 125650, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655477

RESUMO

This study aimed at investigating the formation and accumulation of 16 reactive aldehydes in clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) during oil frying in both the tissue and the oil using an HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodology. After processing, the accumulation of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, pentanal, trans-2-hexenal, hexanal, trans, trans-2,4-heptadienal, heptanal, nonanal, trans, trans-2,4-decadienal and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was most noticeable in both fried clam and frying oil. Most of the aldehyde species showed a time- and temperature-dependent manner of formation and accumulation during frying due to continuous oxidative degradation under conditions employed. However, several species of aldehyde such as acrolein and trans-2-pentenal slightly decreased at higher temperatures and/or longer frying times, which may be due to the imbalance toward disappearance of aldehydes resulting from their evaporation under the extreme conditions. Presence of natural polyphenols in bamboo leaves significantly prevented the formation of aldehydes in both fried clam and frying oil due to their antioxidant activity (P < 0.05).

2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747719

RESUMO

Based on multiple studies in animal models, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy appears to be an innovative intervention approach with tremendous potential for the management of kidney disease. However, the clinical therapeutic effects of MSCs in either acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) are still under debate. Hurdles originate from the harsh microenvironment in vivo that decreases the cell survival rate, paracrine activity and migratory capacity of MSCs after transplantation, which are believed to be the main reasons for their limited effects in clinical applications. Melatonin is traditionally regarded as a circadian rhythm-regulated neurohormone but in recent years has been found to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Because inflammation, oxidative stress, thermal injury, and hypoxia are abnormally activated in kidney disease, application of melatonin preconditioning to optimize the MSC response to the hostile in vivo microenvironment before transplantation is of great importance. In this review, we discuss current knowledge concerning the beneficial effects of melatonin preconditioning in MSC-based therapy for kidney disease. By summarizing the available information and discussing the underlying mechanisms, we aim to improve the therapeutic effects of MSC-based therapy for kidney disease and accelerate translation to clinical application.

4.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691337

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in children and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in certain genes influence risk of ALL. Although FOXO3 had been demonstrated to be involved leukemia, the role of FOXO3 polymorphisms was still not clear. In the present study, we explored the association of FOXO3 SNPs with ALL risk in Chinese children. We genotyped four polymorphisms (rs17069665 A>G, rs4945816 T>C, rs4946936 C>T, and rs9400241 A>C) of FOXO3 in 425 ALL cases and 1339 health controls. The associations were estimated by odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Further analyses were performed to explore associations of rs17069665 and rs9400241 with ALL susceptibility in terms of age, gender, immunophenotype, minimal residual disease (MRD), and other clinical characteristics. We found rs17069665 related to the increased ALL risk (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.02-3.04), rs9400241 related to decreased ALL risk (OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.64-0.99). The effects of rs17069665 on ALL risk were more predominant in males and children < 10 years, and patients with lower rates of platelet or neutrophil. As for rs9400241, the effects were more predominant in children < 10 years, and in patients with pre B ALL, positive MRD, anemia, or hepatomegaly. In conclusion, FOXO3 gene polymorphisms influence the risk of ALL in children and might be a potential biomarker for ALL susceptibility.

5.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(44): 9573-9577, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687733

RESUMO

A series of chiral bisphosphine ligands were designed and synthesized based on single-handed quinoline oligoamide foldamers. The bisphosphine ligands can coordinate with Rh(cod)2BF4 in a 1 : 1 stoichiometry and the resulted chiral Rh(i) catalysts were applied in the asymmetric hydrogenation of α-dehydroamino acid esters, in which excellent conversions and promising levels of enantioselectivity were achieved.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584496

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One of the main problems concerning the design of clinical trials in critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis (AC) is the lack of validated, well-established scoring systems to stratify the severity of patient disease states. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHE IV) scoring system in patients over 65 years with AC. METHODS: All patients over 65 years of age admitted to our hospital for treatment of AC in the intensive care unit between January 2013 and January 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 443 consecutive patients with AC were enrolled in this study. As for the patients over 65 years, the survivors had lower APACHE IV scores and lower risk of death than nonsurvivors (P<0.01). The discrimination of the APACHE IV score prediction was good, with an area under the curve of 0.850 (95% confidence interval, 0.780-0.932). The APACHE IV models were well-calibrated with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test (P=0.635). Similar results were obtained for patients over 85 years of age. CONCLUSION: The APACHE IV model was good at predicting hospital mortality in elderly patients with AC, which would be helpful to make clinical and therapeutic decisions in the future.

7.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 520(2): 420-427, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607480

RESUMO

Irradiation induces severe damage in the hematopoietic system, which leads to bone marrow hyperplasia, pancytopenia, and aggravated tissue formation in bone marrow. Studies have shown that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has a protective effect against irradiation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a TLR4 knockout (TLR4-/-) mouse irradiation model and found that the white blood cell and platelet counts in the peripheral blood of TLR4-/- mice recovered slowly after irradiation, with bone marrow hyperplasia and increased mortality. Additionally, we found that the proportion of CD11b+Gr1+ granulocytes in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of TLR4-/- mice was lower than that of wild-type mice after irradiation. Further, we found that the expression of NADPH Oxidases (NOXs) in the bone marrow was down-regulated after irradiation of TLR4-/- mice, and administration of the NOXs inhibitor VAS2870 reduced the proportion of CD11b+Gr1+ cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of wild-type mice after irradiation. Irradiation induced severe marrow adipocytes accumulation in TLR4-/- mice, TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide promoted proliferation and inhibited adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells. In summary, our data suggest that TLR4 promotes myeloid hyperplasia by up-regulating the expression of NOXs after irradiation, prohibits marrow adipogensis and increases the tolerance of mice to irradiation.

8.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 16(10): 950-962, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest on Cognitive Impairment (CI) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but evidence is conflicting regarding the association between CI and glycemic control. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of CI in patients with T2DM from northern rural China in order to determine whether cognitive dysfunction is related to glycemic control. METHODS: First, we conducted a study with a cross-sectional design. We performed cluster random sampling of 1848 residents who were aged 60 years or older and lived in the countryside in China. All eligible participants with and without T2DM were interviewed and screened for cognitive function status. Diagnoses for dementia and Cognitive Impairment No Dementia (CIND) were based on the standard criteria. Second, on the basis of the results of the cross-sectional survey, we conducted a case-control study. In the T2DM group, we identified cases of T2DM with Cognitive Impairment (T2DM-CI), as well as cases of T2DM with normal cognition (T2DM-NC) to be used as controls. The effects of specific diabetes-related variables were examined. After matching for sex, age, and education level in the T2DM-CI and T2DM-NC groups, multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for T2DM-CI. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional study, the prevalence of T2DM with CIND and dementia were 28.3% (95% CI: 23.5-33.2) and 9.5% (95% CI: 6.3-12.6), respectively. Compared with subjects without DM, the prevalence of CI in T2DM patients was more frequent than the prevalence of CI in the general population in almost every age group. In the case-control study, the multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that variables, including duration from diabetes onset, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c level (HbA1c), and severe hypoglycemia history, were significantly associated with an increased risk of CI in patients with T2DM (odds ratios [ORs] [95%CIs]: 1.67 [1.03-2.70], 1.40 [1.15-1.72], and 2.72 [1.02- 7.21], respectively [P <0.05]). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of CI in patients with T2DM among the elderly population of rural China. Glycemic control, including HbA1c and exposure to severe hypoglycemia, affected cognitive function in patients with T2DM.

9.
Nanoscale ; 11(43): 20507-20513, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657410

RESUMO

Semiconductor nanowire heterostructures have been shown to provide appealing properties for optoelectronics and solid-state energy harvesting by thermoelectrics. Among these nanoarchitectures, coaxial core-shell nanowires have been of primary interest due to their electrical functionality, as well as intriguing phonon localization effects in the surface-dominated regime predicted via atomic simulations. However, experimental studies on the thermophysical properties of III-V semiconductor core-shell nanowires remain scarce regardless of the ubiquitous nature of these compounds in solid-state applications. Here, we present thermal conductivity measurements of the arrays of GaAs nanowires coated with AlAs shells. We unveil a strong suppression in thermal transport facilitated by the AlAs shells, up to ∼60%, producing a non-monotonous dependence of thermal conductivity on the shell thickness. Such translation of the novel heat transport phenomena to macroscopic nanowire arrays paves the way for rational thermal design in nanoscale applications.

10.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605569

RESUMO

Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their contents are involved in the development of human malignancies. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), enriched in EVs, can regulate diverse cellular processes by acting as microRNA (miRNA) sponges or through other mechanisms. In the present study, we explored the potential roles of circRNAs in EVs in the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). First, plasma was obtained from patients with PDAC (n = 8) and healthy volunteers (n = 8), and EVs were isolated by the ultracentrifugation method. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy confirmed the size and form of the isolated EVs. The circRNA expression profiles of EVs were investigated by high-throughput whole transcriptome sequencing. We then further validated the accuracy of the circRNA sequencing data by quantitative real-time PCR analysis using plasma samples and PC cell lines, and subsequently performed bioinformatics analysis to reveal the potential functional roles of the differentially expressed circRNAs and to construct a circRNA-miRNA interaction network to predict the target miRNAs of these circRNAs. Our work provides novel targets for further studies concerning the pathogenesis of PDAC.

11.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(8): 695-701, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638566

RESUMO

Objective To accurately and rapidly detect and type five classical Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) by array-ELISA using a combination of a chip and ELISA. Methods SEs were prepared by prokaryotic expression and affinity chromatography. Hybridoma cells were injected intraperitoneally into mice to prepare ascites. A monoclonal antibody was obtained by ascites purification. The sensitivity and specificity of the antibody were evaluated by ELISA. The antibody was printed in one cell, and the sensitivity and specificity of array-ELISA were evaluated. Results Except for the detection limit of Staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) being 10 ng/mL, 0.0001 ng/mL SEs could be detected by array-ELISA in PBS. The detection limit was 0.001-10 ng/mL for SEs in milk. The specificity was 100% in both PBS and milk. No cross reaction was observed between SEs. Additionally, no cross reaction was observed between SEB and botulinum toxin. Conclusion Array-ELISA has been successfully established, and it can simultaneously detect and discriminate five classical SEs within one sample sensitively and specifically.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Química Analítica , Enterotoxinas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Staphylococcus aureus , Animais , Técnicas de Química Analítica/métodos , Técnicas de Química Analítica/normas , Enterotoxinas/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/normas , Limite de Detecção , Camundongos , Leite/química , Staphylococcus aureus/química
12.
Hemoglobin ; : 1-4, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645145

RESUMO

In this study, we report on a compound heterozygote for variants in the key erythroid transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 1 (KLF1) gene in a patient who presented with severe, transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemia. The red cells were normochromic and normocytic, and resembled those seen in patients with congenital nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA). Next generation sequencing (NGS) revealed that the patient was a compound heterozygote for the KLF1 frameshift variant c.519_525dup (p.Gly176ArgfsTer179) and a missense variant c.1012C>A (p.Pro338Thr). This report adds to the wide clinical spectrum of KLF1 gene variants. We suggest that loss of KLF1 should be considered in otherwise unexplained cases of congenital hemolytic anemia.

13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 519(1): 134-140, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477271

RESUMO

Tumor microenvironment is composed of biological, chemical and physical factors. Mechanical factors are more and more focused these years. Therefore, mimicking mechanical factors' contribution to cancer cell malignancy will greatly improve the advance in this field. Although the induced malignant behaviors are present under many stimuli such as growth or inflammatory factors, the cell key physical migration mechanisms are still missing. In this study, we identify that low shear stress significantly promotes the formation of needle-shaped membrane protrusions, which is called filopodia and important for the sense and interact of a cell with extracellular matrix in the tumor microenvironment. Under low shear stress, the migration is promoted while it is inhibited in the presence of ROCK inhibitor Y27632, which could abolish the F-actin network. Using cell imaging, we further unravel that key to these protrusions is Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) dependent. After Cdc42 activation, the filopodia is more and longer, acting as massagers to pass the information from a cell to the microenvironment for its malignant phenotype. In the Cdc42 inhibition, the filopodia is greatly reduced. Moreover, small GTPases Cdc42 rather than Rac1 and Rho directly controls the filopodia formation. Our work highlights that low shear stress and Cdc42 activation are sufficient to promote filopodia formation, it not only points out the novel structure for cancer progression but also provides the experimental physical basis for the efficient drug anti-cancer strategies.

14.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 20(9): 31-41, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483573

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the fixed-jaw intensity-modulated radiotherapy (F-IMRT) and tangential partial volumetric modulated arc therapy (tP-VMAT) treatment plans for synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC). MATERIALS AND METHOD: Twelve SBBC patients with pTis-2N0M0 stages who underwent whole-breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery were planned with F-IMRT and tP-VMAT techniques prescribing 42.56 Gy (2.66 Gy*16f) to the breast. The F-IMRT used 8-12 jaw-fixed tangential fields with single (sF-IMRT) or two (F-IMRT) isocenters located under the sternum or in the center of the left and right planning target volumes (PTVs), and tP-VMAT used 4 tangential partial arcs with two isocenters located in the center of the left and right PTVs. Plan evaluation was based on dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis. Dosimetric parameters were calculated to evaluate plan quality; total monitor units (MUs), and the gamma analysis for patient-specific quality assurance (QA) were also evaluated. RESULTS: For PTVs, the three plans had similar Dmean and conformity index (CI) values. F-IMRT showed a slightly better target coverage according to the V100% values and demonstrated an obvious reduction in V105% and Dmax compared with the values observed for sF-IMRT and tP-VMAT. Compared with tP-VMAT, sF-IMRT was slightly better in terms of V100% , V105% and Dmax . In addition, F-IMRT achieved the best homogeneity index (HI) values for PTVs. Concerning healthy tissue, tP-VMAT had an advantage in minimizing the high dose volume. The MUs of the tP-VMAT plan were decreased approximately 1.45 and 1 times compared with the sF-IMRT and F-IMRT plans, respectively, and all plans passed QA. For the lungs, heart and liver, F-IMRT achieved the smallest values in terms of Dmean and showed a significant difference compared with tP-VMAT. Simultaneously, sF-IMRT was also superior to tP-VMAT. For the coronary artery, tP-VMAT achieved the lowest Dmean , while the value for F-IMRT was 2.24% lower compared with sF-IMRT. For all organs at risk (OARs), tP-VMAT was superior at the high dose level. In contrast, sF-IMRT and F-IMRT were obviously superior at the low dose level. The sF-IMRT and F-IMRT plans showed consistent trends. CONCLUSION: All treatment plans for the provided techniques were of high quality and feasible for SBBC patients. However, we recommend F-IMRT with a single isocenter as a priority technique because of the tremendous advantage of local hot spot control in PTVs and the reduced dose to OARs at low dose levels. When the irradiated dose to the lungs and heart exceed the clinical restriction, two isocenter F-IMRT can be used to maximize OAR sparing. Additionally, tP-VMAT can be adopted for improving cold spots in PTVs or high-dose exposure to normal tissue when the interval between PTVs is narrow.

15.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(8): 589-93, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effect of early acupuncture treatment of limb paralysis in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and changes of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of TBI. METHODS: A total of 70 TBI inpatients were equally divided into a medication group and an acupuncture plus medication group according to a random number table. The medication contained intravenous drip of Mannitol Injection (125 mL, once every 8 h ) and Oxiracetam Injection (4 g, once a day). Starting 72 h after TBI, acupuncture therapy was applied to main points as Fenglong (ST40), Zusanli (ST36), Guanyuan (CV4), Baihui (GV20), Shuigou (GV26) and Fengchi (GB20), etc. The treatment was given once a day for total 28 days. Before and after the treatment, plasma IL-6, BDNF and NGF contents were detected using radioimmunoassay, the volume of the injured brain tissue was detected by using CT scan. The neurological deficit severity was evaluated by using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), and the degree of activity of daily living (ADL) ability was assessed by using simplified Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scale, and modified Barthel index (BI), separately. RESULTS: After the treatment, the GCS score on day 28, FMA and ADL-BI scores on day 28 and 60 were significantly increased in both medication and acupuncture plus medication groups in comparison with their own pre-treatment (P<0.05). The focal volume values of the injured brain were significantly decreased on day 14 and 28 in both groups compared with their own pre-treatment (P<0.05). The therapeutic effect of acupuncture plus medication was obviously superior to that of simple medication in lowering focal injured volume on day 14 and 28, and in increasing FMA and ADL-BI scores on day 28 and 60 (P<0.05). Compared with pre-treatment, the levels of plasma IL-6 on day 3, 7 and 14 were significant decreased, and those of plasma BDNF and NGF on day 3, 7 and 14 considerably increased in both groups in comparison with their own pre-treatment (P<0.05). The therapeutic effect of acupuncture plus medication was evidently superior to that of simple medication in lowering IL-6 on day 3 and 7, and in increasing BDNF and NGF levels on day 3, 7 and 14 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Early acupuncture treatment can significantly improve the TBI patient's limb motor function and daily life activities, which may be related with its effects in reducing the inflammation and increasing BDNF and NGF levels.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas , Paralisia/terapia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Paralisia/etiologia
16.
Curr Neurovasc Res ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dysregulation of miR-34a has been reported for its implication in neuronal development. This study aims to explore the effect and possible mechanism of miR-34a on neuron apoptosis induced by spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: SCI rats were established using Allen's weight-drop method and rats in the sham group were performed with laminectomy without weight-drop injury. Basso Bcattie Bresnahan (BBB) rating scale was applied to evaluate locomotor function of rats. Pathological changes of spinal cord tissues in SCI rats were observed after hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Rats were separately injected with miR-34a agomir, miR-34a agomir NC, si-CD47 and si-CD47 NC before their spinal cord tissues were collected for TUNEL staining. Expressions of miR-34a, si-CD47, apoptosis related proteins and AKT pathway related proteins were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. RESULTS: SCI rat models were successfully established evidenced by decreased BBB scores and HE staining. Injection of miR-34a agomir and/or si-CD47 could suppress neuron cell apoptosis, with deceased apoptotic index (AI) and pro-apoptotic protein (cleaved caspase-3 and Bax) levels, and increased expressions of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Mcl-1). Phosphorylated levels of PI3K and AKT were further increased in rats injected with miR-34a agomir and si-CD47, compared with miR-34a agomir or si-CD47 injection alone. CONCLUSION: MiR-34a can downregulate CD47 expression to activate PI3K/AKT signal pathway, and thus inhibit SCI induced spinal neuron apoptosis.

17.
Blood Adv ; 3(17): 2562-2570, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471325

RESUMO

We studied 1110 patients with ß-thalassemia major aged ≤25 years who received transplants with grafts from HLA-matched related (n = 677; 61%), HLA-mismatched related (n = 78; 7%), HLA-matched unrelated (n = 252; 23%), and HLA-mismatched unrelated (n = 103; 9%) donors between 2000 and 2016. Ninety percent of transplants were performed in the last decade. Eight-five percent of patients received ≥20 transfusions and 88% were inadequately chelated. All patients received myeloablative-conditioning regimen. Overall and event-free survival were highest for patients aged ≤6 years and after HLA-matched related and HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation. The 5-year probabilities of overall survival for patients aged ≤6 years, 7 to 15 years, and 16 to 25 years, adjusted for donor type and conditioning regimen were 90%, 84%, and 63%, respectively (P < .001). The corresponding probabilities for event-free survival were 86%, 80%, and 63% (P < .001). Overall and event-free survival did not differ between HLA-matched related and HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation (89% vs 87% and 86% vs 82%, respectively). Corresponding probabilities after mismatched related and mismatched unrelated donor transplantation were 73% vs 83% and 70% vs 78%. In conclusion, if transplantation is considered as a treatment option it should be offered early (age ≤6 years). An HLA-matched unrelated donor is a suitable alternative if an HLA-matched relative is not available.

18.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(4): 3065-3074, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432152

RESUMO

Human bone marrow­derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) have been revealed to be beneficial for the regeneration of tissues and cells in several diseases. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of hBMSC transplantation on neuron regeneration in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The hBMSCs were isolated, cultured and identified. A rat model of MCAO was induced via the modified Longa method. Neurological severity scores (NSS) were adopted for the evaluation of neuronal function in the model rats after cell transplantation. Next, the expression levels of nestin, ß­III­tubulin (ß­III­Tub), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), HNA and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) were examined, as well as the positive expression rates of human neutrophil alloantigen (HNA), nestin, NeuN, ß­III­Tub and GFAP. The NSS, as well as the mRNA and protein expression of nestin, decreased at the 1st, 2nd, 4 and 8th weeks, while the mRNA and protein expression of NeuN, ß­III­Tub and GFAP increased with time. In addition, after treatment, the MCAO rats showed decreased NSS and mRNA and protein expression of nestin, but elevated mRNA and protein expression of NeuN, ß­III­Tub and GFAP at the 2nd, 4 and 8th weeks, and decreased positive expression of HNA and nestin with enhanced expression of NeuN, ß­III­Tub and GFAP. Therefore, the present findings demonstrated that hBMSC transplantation triggered the formation of nerve cells and enhanced neuronal function in a rat model of MCAO.

19.
Insect Sci ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407465

RESUMO

The behavioral strategies and mechanisms by which some insects maintain monogamous mating systems are not well understood. We investigated the mating system of the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens, and identified several contributing mechanisms. Field and laboratory observations suggest the adults commonly form permanent bonds during host colonization. Moreover, it showed mated females that remained paired with males produced more offspring than mated females that were alone in galleries. In bioassays, a second female commonly entered a gallery constructed by a prior female. Videos show she commonly reached the location of the first female, but they did not engage in actual fighting. Rather, the second female typically departs to form her own gallery. Acoustic signaling likewise does not appear to influence female-female encounters, based on controlled muting experiments. Instead, the intruder appears to perceive the resident's presence by physical contact. Both acoustic signals and volatiles released by females during gallery constructing were shown to attract males. After a male joined a female in a gallery, the male-produced aggressive sounds, which were shown by playback to deter other males from entering the gallery. Unlike female-female interactions, resident males use their head and rear to push intruders out of galleries. Additionally, volatiles released by males during feeding repelled intruding males, discouraging them from entering the gallery. Males also construct plugs that block the entrance, which may prevent subsequent males and predators from entering the gallery. Thus, D. valens has evolved multifaceted mechanisms contributing to single pairings that confer benefits to both sexes.

20.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a well-known risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and it is commonly accompanied by T2DM. It is estimated that almost two thirds of the population with T2DM is also affected by hypertension. Elevated arterial blood pressure would increase the risk for diabetes development. Recently some studies indicated that a high-protein diet was effective for weight loss, and therefore we hypothesized that a high-protein diet could help control blood glucose, mitigate insulin resistance (IR) and improve blood pressure by weight management in T2DM patients. AIM: The study aimed to systematically review the effects of a high-protein diet on glycemic control, IR and blood pressure in T2DM patients. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases until May 1st 2018 and included all randomized clinical trials comparing a high-protein diet with other diets. Two reviewers independently identified the trials for inclusion and independently extracted data. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to combine the changes in each outcome from baseline to the end of the intervention. The meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: Twelve articles (thirteen studies) including 1138 T2DM patients met our inclusion criteria. Glycemic control was not significantly different between the high-protein diet and control group, with the changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (-0.13 (95% CI (-0.46, 0.19), p = 0.43) mmol/L) and HbA1c% (-0.05 (95% CI (-0.18, 0.08, p = 0.92))) from baseline to the end of intervention. However, the difference in IR between the two groups was statistically significant. Most changes in lipids profiles were favorable. The changes in HDL, LDL, TC, and TG were +0.03 (95% CI (-0.04,0.11), p = 0.35) mmol/L, -0.10 (95% CI (-0.18, -0.02), p = 0.02) mmol/L, -0.21 (95% CI (-0.31, -0.12), p < 0.01) mmol/L and -0.19 (95% CI (-0.33, -0.05), p < 0.01) mmol/L, respectively. The result of HOMA-IR was -0.27 (95% CI (-0.47, -0.06), p < 0.01). Additionally, the difference in blood pressure in terms of systolic blood pressure (-0.57 (95% CI (-2.45, 1.32), p = 0.55)) and diastolic blood pressure (-0.73 (95% CI (-2.48, 1.02), p = 0.41)) was not significant. CONCLUSION: This review showed that a high-protein diet does not significantly improve glycemic control and blood pressure, but can lower LDL, TC, TG and HOMA-IR levels in T2DM patients. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of a high-protein diet on glycemic control, IR and blood pressure control in T2DM patients.

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