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Biosci Rep ; 40(9)2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803252


OBJECTIVES: In the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA), tramadol, a common weak opioid, has become popular due to its effectiveness in inhibition of pain. In the present study, we aimed to explore the effect of tramadol on subchondral bone, especially changes in the microstructure and mechanical properties. METHODS: A mouse model of OA was established in the present study by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). A vehicle or drug was administered for 4 weeks. Specimens were harvested and analyzed radiologically and histologically using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and histological staining to evaluate the knee joints of mice undergoing different forms of intervention. RESULTS: In the early stages of OA induced by DMM, the subchondral bone volume fraction in the OA group was significantly higher than in the sham+vehicle (sham+veh) group, while the volume in the treatment groups was lower than in the DMM+vehicle (DMM+veh) and sham+veh groups. In addition, the elastic moduli in the treatment groups clearly decreased compared with the DMM+veh and sham+veh groups. Observations of the subchondral bone surface by SEM indicated serious destruction, principally manifesting as a decrease in lacunae and more numerous and scattered cracks. Histological staining demonstrated that there was no difference in the degeneration of either the articular cartilage or synovial cells whether tramadol was used or not. CONCLUSION: Although tramadol is effective in inhibiting pain in early OA, it negatively regulates the microstructure and mechanical properties of subchondral bone in joints.

J Orthop Translat ; 21: 146-152, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309140


Background: The microbiomechanical properties of the meniscus influence the cell response to the surrounding biomechanical environment â€‹and are beneficial to understand meniscus repairing and healing. To date, however, this information remains ambiguous. This study aims to characterise the microbiomechanical properties of the meniscus after degeneration in a rabbit anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model and to analyse the corresponding histology at the macroscale and chemical composition. Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were used. Menisci were collected from the knee joints 4 and 8 weeks after the ACLT and from those of the corresponding control groups. The central portions of both medial and lateral menisci were investigated using atomic force microscopy, histological study, and an energy-dispersive spectrometer. The evaluation was conducted regionally within the inner, middle, and outer sites from the top layer (facing the femoral surface) to the bottom layer (facing the tibial surface) in both the lateral and medial menisci to obtain the site-dependent properties. Results: At 4 weeks after surgery, the dynamic elastic modulus at the microlevel increased significantly at both the top and bottom layers compared with the intact meniscus (P â€‹= â€‹0.021). At 8 weeks after surgery, the stiffening occurred in all regions (P â€‹= â€‹0.030). The medial meniscus showed greater change than the lateral meniscus. All these microbiomechanical alterations occurred before the histological findings at the macroscale. Conclusion: The microbiomechanical properties in the meniscus changed significantly after ACLT and were site dependent. Their alterations occurred before the histological changes of degeneration were observed. The Translational Potential of this Article: The results of our study indicated that degeneration promoted meniscus stiffening. Thus, they provide a better understanding of the disease process affecting the meniscus. Our results might be beneficial to understand how mechanical forces distribute throughout the healthy and pathologic joint. They indicate the possibility of early diagnosis using a minimally invasive arthroscopic tool, as well as they might guide treatment to the healthy and pathologic meniscus and joint.

Connect Tissue Res ; 61(5): 445-455, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274342


PURPOSE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease. Sensory nerves play an important role in bone metabolism and in the progression of inflammation. This study explored the effects of sensory nerve on OA progression at early stage in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OA was induced via destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) in C57BL/6 mice. Sensory denervation was induced by subcutaneous injection of capsaicin (90 mg/kg) one week prior to DMM. One week after capsaicin injection, sensory denervation in the tibia was confirmed by immunofluorescent staining. Four weeks after DMM, micro-CT scans, histological analysis, and RT-PCR tests were performed to evaluate OA progression. RESULTS: Subcutaneous injection of capsaicin successfully induced sensory denervation in tibia. The Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) score and synovitis score of the capsaicin+DMM group were significantly higher than the score of the vehicle+DMM group. The BV/TV of the tibial subchondral bone in the capsaicin+DMM group was significantly lower than in the vehicle+DMM group. In addition, the level of expression of inflammatory factors in the capsaicin+DMM group was significantly higher than in the vehicle+DMM group. CONCLUSIONS: Capsaicin-induced sensory denervation accelerated OA progression at early stage in mice. To put it another way, sensory nerve protects from OA progression at early stage in mice.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 19(1): 308, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153821


BACKGROUND: Cervical spine fixation or immobilization has become a routine treatment for spinal fracture, dislocation, subluxation injuries, or spondylosis. The effects of immobilization of intervertebral discs of the cervical spine is unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-segment in-situ immobilization of intervertebral discs of the caudal vertebra, thereby simulating human cervical spine immobilization. METHODS: Thirty-five fully grown, male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups: Group A, which served as controls, and Groups B, C, D, and E, in which the caudal vertebrae were in-situ immobilized using a custom-made external device that fixed four caudal vertebrae (Co7-Co10). After 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks of in-situ immobilization, the caudal vertebrae were harvested, and the disc height, the T2 signal intensity of the discs, disc morphology, the gene expression of discs, and the structure and the elastic modulus of discs was measured. RESULTS: The intervertebral disc height progressively decreased, starting at the 6th week. At week 6 and week 8, disc degeneration was classified as grade III, according to the modified Pfirrmann grading system criteria. Long-segment immobilization altered the gene expression of discs. The nucleus pulposus showed a typical cell cluster phenomenon over time. The annulus fibrosus inner layer began to appear disordered with fissure formation. The elastic modulus of collagen fibrils within the nucleus pulposus was significantly decreased in rats in group E compared to rats in group A (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the elastic modulus within the annulus was significantly increased in rats in group E compared to rats in group A (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Long-segment in-situ immobilization caused target disc degeneration, and positively correlated with fixation time. The degeneration was not only associated with changes at the macroscale and microscale, but also indicated changes in collagen fibrils at the nanoscale. Long-segment immobilization of the spine (cervical spine) does not seem to be an innocuous strategy for the treatment of spine-related diseases and may be a predisposing factor in the development of the symptomatic spine.

Imobilização/efeitos adversos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Disco Intervertebral/ultraestrutura , Animais , Imobilização/métodos , Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/etiologia , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley