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1.
Arthroscopy ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812917

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study seeks to evaluate the biomechanical relationship between the severity of rotator cable tears and the function of the rotator cuff. METHODS: Twelve cadaveric shoulders with intact rotator cuff, existing rotator cable and a critical shoulder angle below 35° were included. For each shoulder, a posterosuperior rotator cuff tear (PSRCT) [model 2] in the crescent area was formed. Then anterior insertion detached [model 3], anterior insertion detached together with the middle cable tear [model 4] and the whole rotator cable tear [model 5] were subsequently created. The rotator cuff that lay above the humeral head rotation centre was detached as a global tear control [model 6], along with the primitive status as the intact control [model 1]. Glenohumeral abduction was initiated by simulating deltoid and remaining rotator cuff force. Functioning of the remaining rotator cuff was evaluated using the middle deltoid force (MDF), as required for abduction. RESULTS: No statistically- significant differences in peak MDF values were seen between the four PSRCT statuses (44.10 ± 7.30 N [model 2], P = 0.96; 45.50 ± 9.55 N [model 3], P = 0.86; 45.90 ± 3.53 N [model 4], P = 0.30; 44.20 ± 8.19N [model 5], P = 0.80) and intact control status (39.79 ± 7.65 N [model 1]). However, significant differences in peak MDF values were found between the four PSRCT statuses and the global tear control status (54.53 ± 7.46 N [model 6], P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The PSRCT, regardless of how severe the rotator cable tear, does not induce functionally-significant biomechanical impairment. Tear extension involving all rotator cuff tissue above the geometric rotation centre of the humeral head results in obvious functional impairment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: For PSRCT, the remaining rotator cuff tissue above the geometric rotation centre may contribute to the preservation of shoulder function in RCT patients.

2.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668539

RESUMO

Injection molding is a popular process for the mass production of polymer products, but due to the characteristics of the injection process, there are many factors that will affect the product quality during the long fabrication processes. In this study, an adaptive adjustment system was developed by C++ programming to adjust the V/P switchover point and injection speed during the injection molding process in order to minimize the variation of the product weight. Based on a series of preliminary experiments, it was found that the viscosity index and peak pressure had a strong correlation with the weight of the injection-molded parts. Therefore, the viscosity index and peak pressure are used to guide the adjustment in the presented control system, and only one nozzle pressure sensor is used in the system. The results of the preliminary experiments indicate that the reduction of the packing time and setting enough clamping force can decrease the variation of the injected weight without turning on the adaptive control system; meanwhile, the master pressure curve obtained from the preliminary experiment was used as the control target of the system. With this system, the variation of the product weight and coefficient of variation (CV) of the product weight can be decreased to 0.21 and 0.05%, respectively.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Developing the high-efficiency and low-risk small-molecule green-nematocide is the key of effective control of the nematodes. Paeonol, is a naturally occurring phenolic compound, isolated from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa and the whole plant of Cynanchum paniculatum. Due to its crucial phenolic ketone skeleton, modern biological science research has indicated that paeonol has a wide range of biological activities. The structural modification of paeonol into paeonol carbonyl hydrazone derivatives is a potential approach for the development of novel nematodes, which showed more toxicity than paeonol. However, there are no reports on the nematicidal activity of paeonol carbonyl hydrazone derivatives to control Heterodera glycines. RESULTS: We always endeavor to discover and develop biorational natural products-based pesticidal agents, 4 significant intermediates and 21 novel 3/5(3,5)-(di)nitro/chloropaeonol carbonyl hydrazone derivatives were prepared, and their structures well characterized by 1H NMR, HRMS, MS, and mp. Due to the steric hindrance, the substituents on the C=N double bond of all hydrazine compounds adopted E configuration. Results of nematicidal activity revealed that, among all compounds, especially 5-nitropaeonol (5) and 3,5-dinitropaeonol (7) displayed the most potent nematicidal activity H. glycines in vivo with LC50 values of 0.0323 and 0.0367 mg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSION: It suggested that for the 3/5(3,5)-(di)nitro/chloropaeonol carbonyl hydrazone derivatives, a nitro group introduced at C5 position of 1 was necessary for obtaining the potent compound as nematicidal agents. These preliminary results will pave the way for further modification of paeonol in the development of potential new nematicides.

4.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(7): 641-653, 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transient elastography (FibroScan) is a new and non-invasive test, which has been widely recommended by the guidelines of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) management for assessing hepatic fibrosis staging. However, some confounders may affect the diagnostic accuracy of the FibroScan device in fibrosis staging. AIM: To evaluate the diagnostic value of the FibroScan device and the effect of hepatic inflammation on the accuracy of FibroScan in assessing the stage of liver fibrosis in patients with HBV infection. METHODS: The data of 416 patients with chronic HBV infection who accepted FibroScan, liver biopsy, clinical, and biological examination were collected from two hospitals retrospectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to analyze the diagnostic performance of FibroScan for assessing the stage of liver fibrosis. Any discordance in fibrosis staging by FibroScan and pathological scores was statistically analyzed. Logistic regression and ROC analyses were used to analyze the accuracy of FibroScan in assessing the stage of fibrosis in patients with different degrees of liver inflammation. A non-invasive model was constructed to predict the risk of misdiagnosis of fibrosis stage using FibroScan. RESULTS: In the overall cohort, the optimal diagnostic values of liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using FibroScan for significant fibrosis (≥ F2), severe fibrosis (≥ F3), and cirrhosis (F4) were 7.3 kPa [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.863], 9.7 kPa (AUC = 0.911), and 11.3 kPa (AUC = 0.918), respectively. The rate of misdiagnosis of fibrosis stage using FibroScan was 34.1% (142/416 patients). The group of patients who showed discordance between fibrosis staging using FibroScan and pathological scores had significantly higher alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and a higher proportion of moderate to severe hepatic inflammation, compared with the group of patients who showed concordance in fibrosis staging between the two methods. Liver inflammation activity over 2 (OR = 3.53) was an independent risk factor for misdiagnosis of fibrosis stage using FibroScan. Patients with liver inflammation activity ≥ 2 showed higher LSM values using FibroScan and higher rates of misdiagnosis of fibrosis stage, whereas the diagnostic performance of FibroScan for different fibrosis stages was significantly lower than that in patients with inflammation activity < 2 (all P < 0.05). A non-invasive prediction model was established to assess the risk of misdiagnosis of fibrosis stage using FibroScan, and the AUC was 0.701. CONCLUSION: Liver inflammation was an independent risk factor affecting the diagnostic accuracy of FibroScan for fibrosis stage. A combination of other related non-invasive factors can predict the risk of misdiagnosis of fibrosis staging using FibroScan.

5.
J Anesth ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686465

RESUMO

Shoulder arthroscopy, a common intervention for severe rotator cuff injuries, is associated with severe postoperative pain. Upon performing cervical erector spinae plane (ESP) blocks at the C7 TP (tip or posterior tip) or the posterior tip of the C6 TP posterior tubercle in six patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy, sensory block was detectable in congruent cervico-thoracic dermatomes. Effective intraoperative and postoperative analgesia were consistently obtained for all six patients. This preliminary study illustrated that the cervical ESP block can be considered a potential simple regional anesthesia method for providing analgesia during shoulder arthroscopy with low risks of diaphragmatic paresis, upper extremity motor paresis, nerve injury and persistent hypotension.

6.
Bioorg Chem ; 110: 104789, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714760

RESUMO

TD-DFT quantum calculation was performed to predict and/or illustrate the electronic transition, the related absorption and emission maxima of some pyrrole-difluoroboron derivatives with different electron donor-acceptor unit or π-conjugated degree. Upon the calculated results, a new near infrared (NIR) fluorophore (abbreviated as TPBD-BP) was designed and fabricated through linking triphenylamine and pyrrole-difluoroboron units to benzothiadiazole (BTD) backbone. The fluorescence of TPBD-BP in solid state centered at 932 nm, which was 985 nm for TPBD-BP nanoparticles (TPBD-BP dots) encapsulated in PEG-6000. The fluorescence of TPBD-BP in both solid state and dots exhibited off-peak tail emission to NIR-II region (extended to 1300 nm). The TPBD-BP dots showed excellent water solubility, biocompatibility and aggregation induced emission (AIE), which was suitable to be applied in vivo imaging. NIR-II emission signal of TPBD-BP dots can be observed in the reproductive organ of normal nude mice after tail vein injection. This attractive combination of computational and experimental investigation would help to develop new-typed small-molecular NIR fluorophores.

7.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2001746, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694327

RESUMO

Tubular biological structures consisting of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and cells are basic functional units of all organs in animals and humans. ECM protein solutions at low concentrations (5-10 milligrams per milliliter) are abundantly used in 3D cell culture. However, their poor "printability" and minute-long gelation time have made the direct extrusion of tubular structures in bioprinting applications challenging. Here, this limitation is overcome and the continuous, template-free conversion of low-concentration collagen, elastin, and fibrinogen solutions into tubular structures of tailored size and radial, circumferential and axial organization is demonstrated. The approach is enabled by a microfabricated printhead for the consistent circumferential distribution of ECM protein solutions and lends itself to scalable manufacture. The attached confinement accommodates minute-long residence times for pH, temperature, light, ionic and enzymatic gelation. Chip hosted ECM tubular structures are amenable to perfusion with aqueous solutions and air, and cyclic stretching. Predictive collapse and reopening in a crossed-tube configuration promote all-ECM valves and pumps. Tissue level function is demonstrated by factors secreted from cells embedded within the tube wall, as well as endothelial or epithelial barriers lining the lumen. The described approaches are anticipated to find applications in ECM-based organ-on-chip and biohybrid structures, hydraulic actuators, and soft machines.

8.
J Nat Prod ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683883

RESUMO

Guttiferone F, a natural polyprenylated polycyclic acylphloroglucinol, was originally assigned as the 30-epimer of garcinol by NMR data analyses. Conversion of guttiferone F in the presence of acid afforded its cyclized form (2a), which was previously assigned as 30-epi-cambogin. However, the absolute configurations of guttiferone F and 2a have not been determined. Reinvestigation of the structures of those two compounds, using X-ray and NMR data analyses and chemical transformation, revealed that the original assignment of the C-30 absolute configuration in guttiferone F and 2a should be inverted. Guttiferone F is indeed garcinol, and 2a, which was previously identified as 30-epi-cambogin, is cambogin.

9.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 7(3): 904-915, 2021 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715366

RESUMO

The postoperative retear rate of direct repair of massive rotator cuff tear has risen up to 40% because of the dissatisfied tendon-to-bone healing and poor regenerative potential of remnant rotator cuff tissue. A biological scaffold that connects the remnant rotator cuff tissue and bone might be a promising substitute. In the present study, we have developed a macroporous three-dimensional scaffold poly(ester-urethane)urea (PEUU), with self-fitting capability employing thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) technique. The scaffold provides oriented connected macropores for cells migration, and promoted tendon-to-bone healing on the basis of surgical repair. The scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, stress-strain test and cell biocompatibility study. In vitro studies exhibited that PEUU scaffold with suitable elastic mechanical properties can better support proliferation and migration of rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells (RBMSCs). After three months postreconstruction of massive rotator cuff tear in a rabbit model using PEUU scaffold, there was complete regeneration of rotator cuff with physical tendon-to-bone interface and continuous tendon tissue, as observed from histological analysis. Further, biomechanical testing demonstrated that rotator cuff induced by PEUU scaffold had no significant difference as compared to normal rotator cuff. This macroporous, mechanically matched scaffold is potentially suitable for the application in massive rotator cuff repair. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the high efficiency of the macroporous 3D scaffold with self-fitting capability in facilitating rotator cuff regeneration.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719403

RESUMO

The rational design of advanced electrocatalysts and energy-saving electrolysis strategies is highly desirable for achieving high-efficiency electrochemical H2 generation yet challenging. In this work, we report highly branched Pd hydride nanodendrites (PdH-NDs) formed by a very facial solvothermal method and a succedent chemical H intercalation method in N,N-dimethylformamide. The electrocatalytic performance of PdH-NDs is experimentally and theoretically correlated with the morphology and composition, which has demonstrated substantially enhanced electrochemical activity and stability for formate oxidation reaction and hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline electrolyte compared with Pd nanodendrites. Density functional theory calculations suggest a downshift of the Pd d-band center of PdH-NDs due to the dominant Pd-H ligand effects that weaken the binding energies of the intermediate catalytic species and toxic carbon monoxide. The asymmetric formate electrolyzer based on bifunctional PdH-ND electrocatalysts is first constructed, which only requires a low voltage of 0.54 V at 10 mA cm-2 for continuous H2 generation. This study reveals significant insights about the morphology/composition-performance relationship for palladium hydrides with bifunctional electroactivity.

11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 988-995, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742895

RESUMO

The rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) caused by carbon inputs from crop rhizodeposits plays a key role in regulating the carbon emission flux and carbon balance of farmland soils. Due to frequent alternations between dry and wet conditions, CO2 and CH4 emissions and the RPE in paddy field ecosystems are significantly different to those of other ecosystems. Therefore, it is of great significance to determine the direction and intensity of the rice RPE under alternations of dry and wet to limit greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, using a 13C-CO2 continuous labeling method combined with a pot-based experiment, the response of rice growth and the RPE under alternating dry and wet and continuous flooding conditions was examined. The results showed that, compared with the continuous flooding treatment, the alternating dry and wet treatments significantly increased aboveground and root biomass and the root-to-root ratio, and also increased soil microbial biomass. Under continuous flooding conditions, fluxes of 13CO2 and 13CH4 increased with rice growth from 10.2 µg·(kg·h)-1 and 2.8 µg·(kg·h)-1 (63 d) to 16.0 µg·(kg·h)-1 and 3.2 µg·(kg·h)-1 (75 d), respectively. During the 12-day drying process, the emissions of 13CO2 and 13CH4 derived from rhizosphere deposited C decreased by 57.5% and 88.1%. Under continuous flooding conditions, the RPE for CO2 and CH4 were positive and increased with the growth of rice. Under the alternating dry and wet treatment, after 12 days of drying, the RPE for CO2 and CH4 was reduced from 0.29 mg·(kg·h)-1 and 12.3 µg·(kg·h)-1 (63 d) to -0.39 mg·(kg·h)-1 and 0.07 µg·(kg·h)-1 (75 d). Thus, alternating wet and dry treatment can effectively promote rice growth and reduce the cumulative emissions of CH4. Therefore, adopting appropriate field water management is of great significance for increasing rice yields and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Metano , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Rizosfera , Água , Abastecimento de Água
12.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550877

RESUMO

Eighteen novel 3/5(3,5)-(di)nitropaeonol hydrazone derivatives were prepared, and their structures well characterized by 1H NMR, HRMS, and mp. Due to the steric hindrance, the substituents on the C = N double bond of all hydrazine compounds (except E/Z = 4/1 for IV-1g, IV-1l, IV-2b, and E/Z = 3/2 for IV-1n, IV-3a) adopted E configuration. Among all compounds, four compounds 2, 4, IV-1j, and IV-1n exhibited potent nematicidal activity than their precursor paeonol, especially 5-nitropaeonol (2) and 3,5-dinitropaeonol (4) displayed the most potent nematicidal activity Heterodera glycines in vivo with LC50 values of 32.3307 and 36.7074 mg/L, respectively.

13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 257: 117642, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541666

RESUMO

Carrageenan (CRG) is a kind of linear sulfated polysaccharide that emerging as a promising substituent in food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. In recent years, biological properties of CRG polysaccharides such as antiviral, immunomodulatory, anticoagulant, antioxidant, and anticancer have been broadly studied, however, systematical summary of their structure-property relationships is scarce. Moreover, chemical modification is of great significance to explore biological and physiochemical properties of CRG polysaccharides which should be focused on. Chemical modification of CRG polysaccharides, e.g., carboxymethylation, thiolation, acetylation, phosphorylation, oversulfation, oxidization, and cationic or other derivatives, can improve their bioactivities and facilitate their applications in different biological systems. Hence, this review aims to elucidate structure-property relationships of CRG and its chemically modified derivatives with different structures and bioactivities, so as toxicity of CRG as food additive for the guidance of its clinical application.

14.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(3): 101679, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578256

RESUMO

Ticks and tick-borne rickettsial diseases have been gaining greater attention in China over the past decade. However, most published studies to date have occurred in Northern China, with limited investigations occurring in China's southern provinces. As part of larger surveillance efforts, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in six sites at Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan investigating rickettsial infection in ticks. A total of 581 ticks were collected from hosts and screened via PCR, targeting rrs, gltA, ompB, sca4, and ompA gene fragments. Two of 12 Haemaphysalis formosensis ticks were infected with novel Rickettsia strain GD01, which was closest phylogenetically (97.3-98.9 % identity) to Rickettsia tamurae strain AT-1, but not within the same clade. Another detected strain (GD02) shared similar identity, 99-100 % across four gene targets, to recently detected Candidatus Rickettsia longicornii isolate ROK-HL727, with an overall prevalence of 12.5 % (71/569). The presence of such pathogens calls for increased public health attention and active surveillance in patients reporting recent tick bites.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24321, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607766

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 induces severe infection, and it is responsible for a worldwide disease outbreak starting in late 2019. Currently, there are no effective medications against coronavirus. In the present study, we utilized a holistic bioinformatics approach to study gene signatures of SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected Calu-3 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Through the Gene Ontology platform, we determined that several cytokine genes were up-regulated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, including TNF, IL6, CSF2, IFNL1, IL-17C, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Differentially regulated pathways were detected by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, gene ontology, and Hallmark platform, including chemokines, cytokines, cytokine receptors, cytokine metabolism, inflammation, immune responses, and cellular responses to the virus. A Venn diagram was utilized to illustrate common overlapping genes from SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected datasets. An Ingenuity pathway analysis discovered an enrichment of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) and interleukin (IL)-17-related signaling in a gene set enrichment analysis. Downstream networks were predicted by the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery platform also revealed that TNF and TNF receptor 2 signaling elicited leukocyte recruitment, activation, and survival of host cells after coronavirus infection. Our discovery provides essential evidence for transcript regulation and downstream signaling of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
/genética , Quimiocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/biossíntese , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quimiocinas/genética , Citocinas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interleucina-17/biossíntese , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/biossíntese , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima
16.
Neurochem Res ; 46(3): 611-623, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534060

RESUMO

Diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction (DACD) characterized by hippocampal injury increases the risk of major cerebrovascular events and death. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and synaptic dysfunction play vital roles in the pathological process. At present, no specific treatment exists for the prevention and/or the therapy of DACD. We have recently reported that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exhibits therapeutic potential for DACD, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) has been shown to play a role in regulating the progression of diabetes and is also indispensable for memory formation and cognitive performance. Hence, the present study was performed to explore whether SIRT1 mediates the protective effect of H2S on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cognitive deficits, an in vivo rat model of DACD, via inhibiting hippocampal ER stress and synaptic dysfunction. The results showed that administration of NaHS (an exogenous H2S donor) increased the expression of SIRT1 in the hippocampus of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Then, results proved that sirtinol, a special blocker of SIRT1, abrogated the inhibition of NaHS on STZ-induced cognitive deficits, as appraised by Morris water maze test, Y-maze test, and Novel object recognition behavioral test. In addition, administration of NaHS eliminated STZ-induced ER stress as evidenced by the decreases in the expressions of ER stress-related proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, and cleaved caspase-12 in the hippocampus, while these effects of NaHS were also reverted by sirtinol. Furthermore, the NaHS-induced up-regulation of hippocampal synapse-related protein (synapsin-1, SYN1) expression in STZ-induced diabetic rats was also abolished by sirtinol. Taken together, these results demonstrated that SIRT1 mediates the protection of H2S against cognitive dysfunction in STZ-diabetic rats partly via inhibiting hippocampal ER stress and synaptic dysfunction.

17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(3): 4157-4181, 2021 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461170

RESUMO

According to cancer statistics reported in 2020, breast cancer constitutes 30% of new cancer cases diagnosed in American women. Histological markers of breast cancer are expressions of the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2. Up to 80% of breast cancers are grouped as ER-positive, which implies a crucial role for estrogen in breast cancer development. Therefore, identifying potential therapeutic targets and investigating their downstream pathways and networks are extremely important for drug development in these patients. Through high-throughput technology and bioinformatics screening, we revealed that coiled-coil domain-containing protein 167 (CCDC167) was upregulated in different types of tumors; however, the role of CCDC167 in the development of breast cancer still remains unclear. Integrating many kinds of databases including ONCOMINE, MetaCore, IPA, and Kaplan-Meier Plotter, we found that high expression levels of CCDC167 predicted poor prognoses of breast cancer patients. Knockdown of CCDC167 attenuated aggressive breast cancer growth and proliferation. We also demonstrated that treatment with fluorouracil, carboplatin, paclitaxel, and doxorubicin resulted in decreased expression of CCDC167 and suppressed growth of MCF-7 cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that CCDC167 has high potential as a therapeutic target for breast cancer.

18.
Chem Asian J ; 16(5): 364-377, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386691

RESUMO

Asymmetric gold catalysis has been rapidly developed in the past ten years. Breakthroughs have been made by rational design and meticulous selection of chiral ligands. This review summarizes newly developed gold-catalyzed enantioselective organic transformations and recent progress in ligand design (since 2016), organized according to different types of chiral ligands, including bisphosphine ligands, monophosphine ligands, phosphite-derived ligands, and N-heterocyclic carbene ligands for asymmetric gold(I) catalysis as well as heterocyclic carbene ligands and oxazoline ligands for asymmetric gold(III) catalysis.

19.
J Med Entomol ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399212

RESUMO

Spotted fever group rickettsiae, mainly maintained and transmitted by ticks, are important etiological agents of (re)emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. It is of great significance to investigate spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks in different areas for the prevention and control of rickettsioses. In this study, a total of 305 ticks were collected from wild and domestic animals in Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi provinces of southwestern China during 2017-2019 and examined for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR with primers targeting the partial gltA, ompA, rrs, and htrA genes. Results showed that two spotted fever group rickettsiae species, including the pathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia jingxinensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) and a potential novel species Rickettsia sp. sw (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), were identified. The Ca. R. jingxinensis sequences were recovered from Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Haemaphysalis longicornis (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks and phylogenetically clustered with previous Ca. R. jingxinensis, Ca. R. longicornii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and Rickettsia sp. XY118 (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) strains. Rickettsia sp. sw was detected in Amblyomma geoemydae (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Rh. microplus. Interestingly, as far as we know, this was the first report of Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in A. geoemydae. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that this potential novel species was closely related to R. aeschlimannii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with gltA and ompA genes and grouped in a cluster composed of R. montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. raoultii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. aeschlimannii, R. massiliae (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and R. rhipicephali (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with htrA, while formed a separate clade with rrs. The pathogenicity of Rickettsia sp. sw should be further confirmed. These results expand the knowledge of the geographical distribution and vector distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae in China and are useful for assessing the potential public health risk.

20.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(3): 162-171, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347789

RESUMO

Background: Tick-borne bacteria and protozoa can cause a variety of human and animal diseases in China. It is of great importance to monitor the prevalence and dynamic variation of these pathogens in ticks in ever-changing natural and social environment. Materials and Methods: Ticks were collected from Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces of northeastern China during 2018-2019 followed by morphological identification. The presence of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. was examined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The obtained sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis through Mega 7.0. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0. Results: A total of 250 ticks from 5 species of 3 genera were collected. Ixodes and Haemaphysalis ticks carried more species of pathogens than Dermacentor, and the pathogens detected in Haemaphysalis japonica varied significantly among different sampling sites. The infection rates of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. were 41.2%, 0, 2.0%, 7.2%, 1.2%, and 7.2%, respectively. Twelve pathogens were identified, among which Rickettsia raoultii (29.6%), Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae (9.2%), and Theileria equi (4.4%) were the three most common ones. Rickettsia had its dominant vector, that is, R. raoultii had high infection rates in Dermacentor nuttalli and Dermacentor silvarum, Ca. R. tarasevichiae in Ixodes persulcatus, and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis in H. japonica. Interestingly, unclassified species were observed, including a Rickettsia sp., an Ehrlichia sp., a Borrelia sp., and a Babesia sp. Coinfections with different pathogens were identified in 9.2% of all tested ticks, with I. persulcatus most likely to be coinfected (23.8%) and Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. as the most common combination (16.7%). Conclusions: The results of this study reflect high diversity and complexity of pathogens in ticks, which are useful for designing more targeted and effective control measures for tick-borne diseases in China.

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