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1.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(3): 101679, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578256

RESUMO

Ticks and tick-borne rickettsial diseases have been gaining greater attention in China over the past decade. However, most published studies to date have occurred in Northern China, with limited investigations occurring in China's southern provinces. As part of larger surveillance efforts, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in six sites at Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan investigating rickettsial infection in ticks. A total of 581 ticks were collected from hosts and screened via PCR, targeting rrs, gltA, ompB, sca4, and ompA gene fragments. Two of 12 Haemaphysalis formosensis ticks were infected with novel Rickettsia strain GD01, which was closest phylogenetically (97.3-98.9 % identity) to Rickettsia tamurae strain AT-1, but not within the same clade. Another detected strain (GD02) shared similar identity, 99-100 % across four gene targets, to recently detected Candidatus Rickettsia longicornii isolate ROK-HL727, with an overall prevalence of 12.5 % (71/569). The presence of such pathogens calls for increased public health attention and active surveillance in patients reporting recent tick bites.

2.
J Med Entomol ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399212

RESUMO

Spotted fever group rickettsiae, mainly maintained and transmitted by ticks, are important etiological agents of (re)emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. It is of great significance to investigate spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks in different areas for the prevention and control of rickettsioses. In this study, a total of 305 ticks were collected from wild and domestic animals in Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Guangxi provinces of southwestern China during 2017-2019 and examined for the presence of spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR with primers targeting the partial gltA, ompA, rrs, and htrA genes. Results showed that two spotted fever group rickettsiae species, including the pathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia jingxinensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) and a potential novel species Rickettsia sp. sw (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), were identified. The Ca. R. jingxinensis sequences were recovered from Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Haemaphysalis longicornis (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks and phylogenetically clustered with previous Ca. R. jingxinensis, Ca. R. longicornii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and Rickettsia sp. XY118 (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) strains. Rickettsia sp. sw was detected in Amblyomma geoemydae (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Rh. microplus. Interestingly, as far as we know, this was the first report of Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) in A. geoemydae. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that this potential novel species was closely related to R. aeschlimannii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with gltA and ompA genes and grouped in a cluster composed of R. montanensis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. raoultii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), R. aeschlimannii, R. massiliae (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and R. rhipicephali (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) with htrA, while formed a separate clade with rrs. The pathogenicity of Rickettsia sp. sw should be further confirmed. These results expand the knowledge of the geographical distribution and vector distribution of spotted fever group rickettsiae in China and are useful for assessing the potential public health risk.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347789

RESUMO

Background: Tick-borne bacteria and protozoa can cause a variety of human and animal diseases in China. It is of great importance to monitor the prevalence and dynamic variation of these pathogens in ticks in ever-changing natural and social environment. Materials and Methods: Ticks were collected from Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces of northeastern China during 2018-2019 followed by morphological identification. The presence of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. was examined by PCR and Sanger sequencing. The obtained sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis through Mega 7.0. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 24.0. Results: A total of 250 ticks from 5 species of 3 genera were collected. Ixodes and Haemaphysalis ticks carried more species of pathogens than Dermacentor, and the pathogens detected in Haemaphysalis japonica varied significantly among different sampling sites. The infection rates of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., and Theileria spp. were 41.2%, 0, 2.0%, 7.2%, 1.2%, and 7.2%, respectively. Twelve pathogens were identified, among which Rickettsia raoultii (29.6%), Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae (9.2%), and Theileria equi (4.4%) were the three most common ones. Rickettsia had its dominant vector, that is, R. raoultii had high infection rates in Dermacentor nuttalli and Dermacentor silvarum, Ca. R. tarasevichiae in Ixodes persulcatus, and Rickettsia heilongjiangensis in H. japonica. Interestingly, unclassified species were observed, including a Rickettsia sp., an Ehrlichia sp., a Borrelia sp., and a Babesia sp. Coinfections with different pathogens were identified in 9.2% of all tested ticks, with I. persulcatus most likely to be coinfected (23.8%) and Rickettsia spp. and Borrelia spp. as the most common combination (16.7%). Conclusions: The results of this study reflect high diversity and complexity of pathogens in ticks, which are useful for designing more targeted and effective control measures for tick-borne diseases in China.

4.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(11): 817-824, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749919

RESUMO

Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in China. A few systematic reports on Babesia spp. was involved with ticks, especially in the human babesiosis endemic areas in Northeastern China. Materials and Methods: Ticks were collected from 30 individual waypoints along 2.0 km transects in two recreational forests. Babesia spp. infection in ticks was screened by amplifying the partial 18s rRNA gene with subsequent sequencing. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between tick infection and related environmental risk factors. Cluster analyses were performed using SaTScan v6.0 software to identify any geographical cluster of infected ticks. Results: A total of 2380 Ixodes persulcatus and 461 Haemaphysalis concinna ticks were collected. Of the 0.97% of I. persulcatus ticks that tested positive, five Babesia species were identified, including B. bigemina (n = 6), B. divergens (n = 2), B. microti (n = 3), B. venatorum (n = 11), and one novel strain HLJ-8. Thirteen (2.92%) H. concinna ticks tested positive for B. bigemina (n = 1), B. divergens (n = 1), three genetic variants of Babesia represented by HLJ-874, which was closely related to Babesia sp.MA#361-1, and eight other Babesia variants represented by HLJ242, which were similar to B. crassa. Each study site had 5-6 different Babesia spp. One waypoint was more likely to yield B. venatorum (relative risk = 15.36, p = 0.045) than all other waypoints. Conclusions: There exists a high genetic diversity of Babesia spp. across a relatively small sampled region. Further study is needed to understand the risks these variants pose to human health.

5.
Cell ; 182(5): 1328-1340.e13, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814014

RESUMO

Among arthropod vectors, ticks transmit the most diverse human and animal pathogens, leading to an increasing number of new challenges worldwide. Here we sequenced and assembled high-quality genomes of six ixodid tick species and further resequenced 678 tick specimens to understand three key aspects of ticks: genetic diversity, population structure, and pathogen distribution. We explored the genetic basis common to ticks, including heme and hemoglobin digestion, iron metabolism, and reactive oxygen species, and unveiled for the first time that genetic structure and pathogen composition in different tick species are mainly shaped by ecological and geographic factors. We further identified species-specific determinants associated with different host ranges, life cycles, and distributions. The findings of this study are an invaluable resource for research and control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.

6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(10): 755-762, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679008

RESUMO

As one of the important tick-borne zoonotic pathogens, Anaplasma has both veterinary and public health significance. Here, we performed a survey of Anaplasma infection in the goats from a farm in Beijing, China, and found 44.6% (41/92) were infected with Anaplasma capra, and 22.8% (21/92) were infected with Anaplasma sp. This Anaplasma sp. bacterium was close to a recently emerging Anaplasma platys strain based on gltA and groEL gene phylogenetic analysis. As to further understand the characteristics of Anaplasma sp., we raised a couple of positive goats (n = 2) in the laboratory with tick-free settings. We observed inappetence, vomiting, high fever, and weakness of limbs in the goat's offspring (n = 3). In addition, the blood samples from all offspring were all positive of this Anaplasma spp. We did not see any intracellular morulae in neutrophils, monocytes, and erythrocytes, but we identified some in the platelets of the blood smears from the positive goats by light microscopy. We named it A. platys-like and suggested it may infect platelets and be transmitted vertically through the placenta of goats. These findings deserve further evaluation.

7.
Nature ; 583(7815): 282-285, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218527

RESUMO

The ongoing outbreak of viral pneumonia in China and across the world is associated with a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-21. This outbreak has been tentatively associated with a seafood market in Wuhan, China, where the sale of wild animals may be the source of zoonotic infection2. Although bats are probable reservoir hosts for SARS-CoV-2, the identity of any intermediate host that may have facilitated transfer to humans is unknown. Here we report the identification of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica) seized in anti-smuggling operations in southern China. Metagenomic sequencing identified pangolin-associated coronaviruses that belong to two sub-lineages of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses, including one that exhibits strong similarity in the receptor-binding domain to SARS-CoV-2. The discovery of multiple lineages of pangolin coronavirus and their similarity to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that pangolins should be considered as possible hosts in the emergence of new coronaviruses and should be removed from wet markets to prevent zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Eutérios/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/classificação , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Genômica , Humanos , Malásia , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Recombinação Genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
8.
J Med Entomol ; 57(4): 1270-1276, 2020 07 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053722

RESUMO

The importance of ticks in veterinary and medical science has received much attention. The dominant tick species in northeastern China, Ixodes persulcatus tick can transmit various pathogens to humans and animals and there are some studies on the microbiome composition of this tick. Our study characterized the bacterial communities in I. persulcatus by 16S amplicon pyrosequencing and described the differences of microorganisms in male and female tick and assessed the variation of microorganisms in the development stages in northeastern China. We mainly found the following bacteria genera: Pseudomonas (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Citrobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Rickettsia is common and harmful pathogen transmitted by ticks. Meanwhile, we found there were differences between male and female tick of microbiomes, and the diversity of microbiome increased from engorged female ticks to eggs, but decreased when the eggs were molting into larvae. Our data showed that male ticks exhibited greater microbial diversity than female I. persulcatus tick and larvae presented with a different bacterial community compared to engorged female tick and hatched eggs. These findings may be useful for further understanding the interaction between I. persulcatus and microbiome biology.

9.
Infect Immun ; 88(4)2020 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907196

RESUMO

Spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) can cause mild to fatal illness. The early interaction between the host and rickettsia in skin is largely unknown, and the pathogenesis of severe rickettsiosis remains an important topic. A surveillance of SFGR infection by PCR of blood and skin biopsy specimens followed by sequencing and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection was performed on patients with a recent tick bite between 2013 and 2016. Humoral and cutaneous immunoprofiles were evaluated in different SFGR cases by serum cytokine and chemokine detection, skin IHC staining, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 111 SFGR cases were identified, including 79 "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae," 22 Rickettsia raoultii, 8 Rickettsia sibirica, and 2 Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cases. The sensitivity to detect SFGR in skin biopsy specimens (9/24, 37.5%) was significantly higher than that in blood samples (105/2,671, 3.9%) (P < 0.05). As early as 1 day after the tick bite, rickettsiae could be detected in the skin. R. sibirica infection was more severe than "Ca Rickettsia" and R. raoultii infections. Increased levels of serum interleukin-18 (IL-18), IP10, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) and decreased levels of IL-2 were observed in febrile patients infected with R. sibirica compared to those infected with "Ca Rickettsia." RNA-seq and IHC staining could not discriminate between SFGR-infected and uninfected tick bite skin lesions. However, the type I interferon (IFN) response was differently expressed between R. sibirica and R. raoultii infections at the cutaneous interface. It is concluded that skin biopsy specimens were more reliable for the detection of SFGR infection in human patients although the immunoprofile may be complicated by immunomodulators induced by the tick bite.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/análise , Rickettsia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/patologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/patologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Biópsia , Citocinas/sangue , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/imunologia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia
10.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(2): 88-92, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453762

RESUMO

Background: To date, there have been few investigations on Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae in rodents carried out in China. In this study, we conducted surveillance for Candidatus R. tarasevichiae infection in rodents. A total of 463 rodents were captured at five survey sites in Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang province, where Candidatus R. tarasevichiae patients have been reported. PCR targeting citrate synthase and outer membrane protein genes was performed and positive amplicons were sequenced. Result: Candidatus R. tarasevichiae was detected in 1.29% of the 463 rodents sampled from the five survey sites in Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang province. Only 2 out of 13 (15.38%) Rattus norvegicus and 4 out of 80 (5%) Clethrionomys rufocanus collected from Dashigou forestry were positive for the gltA and ompA genes of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae DNA. The detected Candidatus R. tarasevichiae was in the same clade of sequences from patients in Mudanjiang based on phylogenetic analysis. Conclusion: Rodents are major host of ticks and also serve as reservoirs of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia. Although this is the first confirmation of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae detected in rodents in China, further investigations are needed to clarify the distribution of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae in rodents elsewhere and what role they play as reservoirs.

11.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 11(1): 101316, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677968

RESUMO

Anaplasma and Ehrlichia are tick-borne bacterial pathogens that cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, and are severe threats to livestock economies like Mongolia. In this study, ticks were collected, identified, and pooled (n = 299) from three distinct environments across central Mongolia. Each pool was initially tested for Anaplasma/Ehrlichia using a 16S rRNA PCR assay that detects both genera, and specific PCR testing was done to identify those positive samples. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of infection rates of ticks collected from the environment in Selenge aimag (province) found infection rates of Ixodes persulcatus ticks to be 2.0% (95% CI: 0.7, 4.3%) for A. phagocytophilum and 0.8% (95% CI: 0.1, 2.5%) for both nonspecific Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Ehrlichia muris was only detected in I. persulcatus ticks collected from the Selenge aimag, where the MLE was 1.2% (95% CI: 0.1, 2.5%). The calculated MLE infection rate of Anaplasma spp. in questing Dermacentor nuttalli ticks ranged from 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1, 9.1%) in the Tov aimag to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.3, 10.8%) in the Selenge aimag. However, when examining MLE in ticks removed from livestock, estimates increase substantially, ranging from 7.8% (95% CI: 4.2, 13.3%) in Dornogovi to 22.5% (95% CI: 14.3, 34.3%) in Selenge, suggesting that livestock play a key role in disease maintenance. Considering the collective economic losses that can result from these pathogens and the potential for illness in nomadic herdsmen, these results highlight the need for enhanced TBD surveillance and prevention measures within Mongolia.

12.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(520)2019 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776287

RESUMO

Recent Ebola virus disease outbreaks affirm the dire need for treatments with proven efficacy. Randomized controlled clinical trials remain the gold standard but, during disease outbreaks, may be difficult to conduct due to ethical concerns and challenging field conditions. In the absence of a randomized control group, statistical modeling to create a control group could be a possibility. Such a model-based reference control would only be credible if it had the same mortality risk as that of the experimental group in the absence of treatment. One way to test this counterfactual assumption is to evaluate whether reasonable similarity exists across nonrandomized control groups from different clinical studies, which might suggest that a future control group would be similarly homogeneous. We evaluated similarity across six clinical studies conducted during the 2013-2016 West Africa outbreak of Ebola virus disease. These studies evaluated favipiravir, the biologic ZMapp, the antimalarial drug amodiaquine, or administration of convalescent plasma or convalescent whole blood. We compared the nonrandomized control groups of these six studies comprising 1147 individuals infected with Ebola virus. We found considerable heterogeneity, which did not disappear after statistical modeling to adjust for prognostic variables. Mortality risk varied widely (31 to 66%) across the nonrandomized control arms of these six studies. Models adjusting for baseline covariates (age, sex, and cycle threshold, a proxy for viral load) failed to sufficiently recalibrate these studies and showed that heterogeneity remained. Our findings highlight concerns about making invalid conclusions when comparing nonrandomized control groups to cohorts receiving experimental treatments.


Assuntos
Grupos Controle , Surtos de Doenças , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
13.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 317-324, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus called Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) was recently identified, variants of which were detected in a non-human primate host and fatal patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. We investigated its infectivity and pathogenicity for humans. METHODS: We obtained skin-biopsy, blood and serum samples from patients with tick bites, and used high-throughput sequencing, in situ hybridisation, and serologic testing to diagnose and ascertain the cases of JMTV infection. FINDINGS: A JMTV strain was isolated from the tick Amblyomma javanense into an embryo-derived tick cell line. We obtained sustained passage of JMTV, and revealed that it was able to accumulate in salivary glands of experimentally infected ticks. Four JMTV-infected patients were identified by high-throughput sequencing of skin biopsies and blood samples. The virus replication in skin tissue was visualised by in situ hybridisation. The four patients all had an itchy or painful eschar at the site of tick bite, with or without lymphadenopathy. Immunohistochemical examination revealed remarkable local inflammation manifested as infiltration by neutrophils. Eight patients were identified by serological testing and showed more severe clinical manifestations. Two Ixodes persulcatus ticks detached from patients were positive for JMTV. All JMTV strains identified in this study formed a well-supported sub-lineage, distinct from those previously reported in China. Interpretation The public significance of JMTV should be highly concerning due to its potential pathogenicity for humans and efficient transmission by potential ticks. FUND: China Natural Science Foundation, State Key Research Development Programme, and United Kingdom Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Flavivirus , Biomarcadores , China , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Flavivirus/classificação , Flavivirus/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Flavivirus/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos , Pele/patologia , Picadas de Carrapatos
14.
Parasitology ; 146(2): 161-167, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30066666

RESUMO

Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anaplasmose/sangue , Anaplasmose/diagnóstico , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/diagnóstico , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/sangue , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Doença de Lyme/sangue , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/sangue , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/epidemiologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Picadas de Carrapatos/patologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/sangue , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2771, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524397

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a serious public health problem in Shandong Province, China. We conducted an epizootiologic investigation and phylogeographic and phylodynamic analyses to infer the phylogenetic relationships of hantaviruses in space and time, and gain further insights into their evolutionary dynamics in Shandong Province. Our data indicated that the Seoul virus (SEOV) is distributed throughout Shandong, whereas Hantaan virus (HTNV) co-circulates with SEOV in the eastern and southern areas of Shandong. Their distribution showed strong geographic clustering. In addition, our analyses indicated multiple evolutionary paths, long-distance transmission, and demographic expansion events for SEOV in some areas. Selection pressure analyses revealed that negative selection on hantaviruses acted as the principal evolutionary force, whereas a little evidence of positive selection exists. We found that several positively selected sites were located within major functional regions and indicated the importance of these residues for adaptive evolution of hantaviruses.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 315, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is considered highly prevalent in West Africa. However, major gaps in surveillance exist in Sierra Leone. Although healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk for HBV infection, little is known about the prevalence and knowledge of hepatitis B among HCWs in Sierra Leone. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of all HCWs at the No. 34 Military Hospital located in Freetown, Sierra Leone, was conducted from March 20 to April 10, 2017. Whole blood was collected and screened for HBV markers using a one-step rapid immunochromatographic test with positive samples tested for HBV DNA. Additionally, questionnaires assessing self-reported knowledge of HBV infections were administered to all participants. Data were processed and analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0) software. RESULTS: A total of 211 HCWs were included in this study with a median age of 39.0 years (range: 18-59). Of the participating HCWs, 172 (81.5%) participants were susceptible (all markers negative), 21(10.0%) were current HBV (HBsAg positive) and nine (4.3%) were considered immune because of past infection (HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive; anti-HBs positive). Additionally, nine (4.3%) participants displayed immunity to the virus as a result of prior hepatitis B vaccination (only anti-HBs positive). Of the 21 HCWs with positive HBsAg, 13 (61.9%) had detectable HBV DNA. There was a significantly lower risk for current HBV infection among HCWs older than 39 years (OR 0.337, p = 0.046). In addition, only 14 (6.6%), 73 (34.6%) and 82 (38.9%) participants in this survey had adequate knowledge about the clinical outcome, routes of transmission, and correct preventive measures of HBV infection, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HCWs in Sierra Leone lacked adequate knowledge of the hepatitis B virus. Additionally, the low coverage rate of hepatitis B vaccination among HCWs fails to meet WHO recommendations, leaving many of the sampled HCWs susceptible to infection. This study reaffirms the need for more intensive training for HCWs in addition to strengthening vaccination programmes to protect HCWs against HBV in Sierra Leone.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 18(10): 563-566, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare investigation on tick-borne pathogens was carried out in Yunnan, China. In this study, we did a survey on Ehrlichia infection in small mammals and ticks. A total of 40 small mammals and 49 ticks were collected from Tengchong, Yunnan province. PCR targeting 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), citrate synthase, GroEL heat-shock protein operon, and major outer membrane protein genes was performed and positive amplicons were sequenced. RESULTS: The 40 small mammals were identified as 10 species, 2 (5.0%) of which were infected with Ehrlichia, 4 (10.0%) were infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum and another 2 (5.0%) were infected with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Six (12.2%) ticks were positive for Ehrlichia and another two (4.1%) were infected with A. phagocytophilum. Neither small mammals nor ticks had coinfection. The detected Ehrlichia was named as Ehrlichia sp. YN04, which was in the same clade of Ehrlichia sp. 360 by phylogenetic analysis. The sequences of the pathogen recovered from small mammals and ticks were identical with each other. CONCLUSION: The study reports one Ehrlichia species first detected from small mammals and ticks in mainland China. As Yunnan is a famous "Global Biodiversity Hotspot" in the world, we may expect much more tick-borne infectious pathogens existing and declare more public health attention in this region.


Assuntos
Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Filogenia
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 67(7): 1110-1119, 2018 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538646

RESUMO

Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging health problem in China. Methods: Babesia were identified in ticks, sheep, and humans in northeastern China using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by genetic sequencing. We enrolled residents who experienced a viral-like illness after recent tick bite or were healthy residents. We defined a case using the definition for babesiosis developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: A Babesia crassa-like agent was identified in Ixodes persulcatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks using PCR followed by sequencing. The agent was characterized through phylogenetic analyses of the 18S rRNA gene, the ß-tubulin gene, and the internal transcribed spacer region. We tested sheep as a possible reservoir and found that 1.1% were infected with the B. crassa-like agent. We screened 1125 human participants following tick bites using B. crassa-specific PCR and identified 31 confirmed and 27 suspected cases. All the patients were previously healthy except for 1 with an ovarian tumor. Headache (74%), nausea or vomiting (52%), and fever (48%) were the most common clinical manifestations of confirmed cases. Six of 10 cases remained PCR positive for B. crassa-like infection 9 months after initial diagnosis. Asymptomatic infections were detected in 7.5% of 160 local residents. Conclusions: We identified B. crassa-like infection in people in northeastern China that caused mild to moderate symptoms. The possibility of more severe disease in immunocompromised patients and of transmission through the blood supply due to asymptomatic infections justifies further investigation of this reported infection.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Babesia/classificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 24(2): 236-241, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29350133

RESUMO

We conducted an investigation of Borrelia miyamotoi infections in humans and ticks in northeastern China. Of 984 patients reporting recent tick bites, 14 (1.4%) were found to be infected with B. miyamotoi by PCR and genomic sequencing. The 14 patients had nonspecific febrile manifestations, including fever, headache, anorexia, asthenia, and arthralgia. Rash, eschar, and regional lymphadenopathy were each observed in 1 patient. Four (28.6%) patients were hospitalized because of severe disease. B. miyamotoi was detected in 3.0% (19/627) of Ixodes persulcatus, 1 (2.8%) of 36 Haemaphysalis concinna, and none of 29 Dermacentor silvarum ticks. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of a nearly entire 16s rRNA gene, a partial flagellin gene, and the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase gene revealed that B. miyamotoi identified in patients and ticks were clustered in the group of the Siberian type. These findings indicate that B. miyamotoi is endemic in northeastern China and its public health significance deserves further investigation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Borrelia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Borrelia/microbiologia , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Ixodes/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Borrelia/genética , Criança , China/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Picadas de Carrapatos
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