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1.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 149: 217-224, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078899

RESUMO

R2R3-MYB transcription factors are important regulators of the growth and development of plants. Here, CmMYB8 a chrysanthemum gene encoding an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, was isolated and functionally characterized. The gene was transcribed throughout the plant, but most strongly in the stem. When CmMYB8 was over-expressed, a number of genes encoding components of lignin synthesis were down-regulated, and the plants' lignin content was reduced. The composition of the lignin in the transgenic plants was also altered, and its S/G ratio was reduced. A further consequence of the over-expression of CmMYB8 was to lessen the transcript abundance of key genes involved in flavonoid synthesis, resulting in a reduced accumulation of flavonoids. The indication is that the CmMYB8 protein participates in the negative regulation of both lignin and flavonoid synthesis.

2.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053722

RESUMO

The importance of ticks in veterinary and medical science has received much attention. The dominant tick species in northeastern China, Ixodes persulcatus tick can transmit various pathogens to humans and animals and there are some studies on the microbiome composition of this tick. Our study characterized the bacterial communities in I. persulcatus by 16S amplicon pyrosequencing and described the differences of microorganisms in male and female tick and assessed the variation of microorganisms in the development stages in northeastern China. We mainly found the following bacteria genera: Pseudomonas (Pseudomonadales: Pseudomonadaceae), Citrobacter (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Rickettsia is common and harmful pathogen transmitted by ticks. Meanwhile, we found there were differences between male and female tick of microbiomes, and the diversity of microbiome increased from engorged female ticks to eggs, but decreased when the eggs were molting into larvae. Our data showed that male ticks exhibited greater microbial diversity than female I. persulcatus tick and larvae presented with a different bacterial community compared to engorged female tick and hatched eggs. These findings may be useful for further understanding the interaction between I. persulcatus and microbiome biology.

3.
Infect Immun ; 88(4)2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907196

RESUMO

Spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR) can cause mild to fatal illness. The early interaction between the host and rickettsia in skin is largely unknown, and the pathogenesis of severe rickettsiosis remains an important topic. A surveillance of SFGR infection by PCR of blood and skin biopsy specimens followed by sequencing and immunohistochemical (IHC) detection was performed on patients with a recent tick bite between 2013 and 2016. Humoral and cutaneous immunoprofiles were evaluated in different SFGR cases by serum cytokine and chemokine detection, skin IHC staining, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 111 SFGR cases were identified, including 79 "Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae," 22 Rickettsia raoultii, 8 Rickettsia sibirica, and 2 Rickettsia heilongjiangensis cases. The sensitivity to detect SFGR in skin biopsy specimens (9/24, 37.5%) was significantly higher than that in blood samples (105/2,671, 3.9%) (P < 0.05). As early as 1 day after the tick bite, rickettsiae could be detected in the skin. R. sibirica infection was more severe than "Ca Rickettsia" and R. raoultii infections. Increased levels of serum interleukin-18 (IL-18), IP10, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) and decreased levels of IL-2 were observed in febrile patients infected with R. sibirica compared to those infected with "Ca Rickettsia." RNA-seq and IHC staining could not discriminate between SFGR-infected and uninfected tick bite skin lesions. However, the type I interferon (IFN) response was differently expressed between R. sibirica and R. raoultii infections at the cutaneous interface. It is concluded that skin biopsy specimens were more reliable for the detection of SFGR infection in human patients although the immunoprofile may be complicated by immunomodulators induced by the tick bite.

4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 146: 31-41, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726380

RESUMO

Genes of the ICE (Inducer of CBF Expression) family play a key role in cold and freezing stresses response via the CBF regulatory pathway. In this work, we identified the ICE family gene, CmICE2, from Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba'. CmICE2 encodes a 451-amino acid protein with a conserved nuclear localization domain, a bHLH domain and ACT domain. CmICE2 is expressed in abundance in leaves and flowers, and the expression of CmICE2 is induced by freezing and drought stresses. CmICE2 localized to the nucleus, and has transcriptional activity in yeast cells. After a 24-hour 4 °C acclimation, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing CmICE2 were more tolerant to freezing stress (-9 °C for 6 h) than the Col-0. When exposed to -9 °C for 6 h, the expression levels of genes such as AtCBF1, AtCBF2, AtCBF4, AtCOR 6.6A, AtCOR 414 and AtKIN1 were up-regulated significantly in CmICE2 overexpression plant lines compared to wild type. The proline contents, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) were also increased in plants overexpressing CmICE2. In summary, CmICE2 confers to plant response to freezing stress.

5.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(2): 88-92, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453762

RESUMO

Background: To date, there have been few investigations on Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae in rodents carried out in China. In this study, we conducted surveillance for Candidatus R. tarasevichiae infection in rodents. A total of 463 rodents were captured at five survey sites in Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang province, where Candidatus R. tarasevichiae patients have been reported. PCR targeting citrate synthase and outer membrane protein genes was performed and positive amplicons were sequenced. Result: Candidatus R. tarasevichiae was detected in 1.29% of the 463 rodents sampled from the five survey sites in Mudanjiang, Heilongjiang province. Only 2 out of 13 (15.38%) Rattus norvegicus and 4 out of 80 (5%) Clethrionomys rufocanus collected from Dashigou forestry were positive for the gltA and ompA genes of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae DNA. The detected Candidatus R. tarasevichiae was in the same clade of sequences from patients in Mudanjiang based on phylogenetic analysis. Conclusion: Rodents are major host of ticks and also serve as reservoirs of spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia. Although this is the first confirmation of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae detected in rodents in China, further investigations are needed to clarify the distribution of Candidatus R. tarasevichiae in rodents elsewhere and what role they play as reservoirs.

6.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 11(1): 101316, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677968

RESUMO

Anaplasma and Ehrlichia are tick-borne bacterial pathogens that cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, and are severe threats to livestock economies like Mongolia. In this study, ticks were collected, identified, and pooled (n = 299) from three distinct environments across central Mongolia. Each pool was initially tested for Anaplasma/Ehrlichia using a 16S rRNA PCR assay that detects both genera, and specific PCR testing was done to identify those positive samples. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of infection rates of ticks collected from the environment in Selenge aimag (province) found infection rates of Ixodes persulcatus ticks to be 2.0% (95% CI: 0.7, 4.3%) for A. phagocytophilum and 0.8% (95% CI: 0.1, 2.5%) for both nonspecific Ehrlichia and Anaplasma. Ehrlichia muris was only detected in I. persulcatus ticks collected from the Selenge aimag, where the MLE was 1.2% (95% CI: 0.1, 2.5%). The calculated MLE infection rate of Anaplasma spp. in questing Dermacentor nuttalli ticks ranged from 1.9% (95% CI: 1.1, 9.1%) in the Tov aimag to 2.3% (95% CI: 1.3, 10.8%) in the Selenge aimag. However, when examining MLE in ticks removed from livestock, estimates increase substantially, ranging from 7.8% (95% CI: 4.2, 13.3%) in Dornogovi to 22.5% (95% CI: 14.3, 34.3%) in Selenge, suggesting that livestock play a key role in disease maintenance. Considering the collective economic losses that can result from these pathogens and the potential for illness in nomadic herdsmen, these results highlight the need for enhanced TBD surveillance and prevention measures within Mongolia.

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878242

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that 20 mM sucrose promotes the upper axillary bud outgrowth in two-node stems of Chrysanthemum morifolium. In this study, we aimed to screen for potential genes involved in this process. Quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR analysis of sugar-related genes in the upper axillary bud of plants treated with 20 mM sucrose revealed the specific expression of the gene CmSWEET17. Expression of this gene was increased in the bud, as well as the leaves of C. morifolium, following exogenous sucrose treatment. CmSWEET17 was isolated from C. morifolium and a subcellular localization assay confirmed that the protein product was localized in the cell membrane. Overexpression of CmSWEET17 promoted upper axillary bud growth in the two-node stems treatment as compared with the wild-type. In addition, the expression of auxin transporter genes CmAUX1, CmLAX2, CmPIN1, CmPIN2, and CmPIN4 was upregulated in the upper axillary bud of CmSWEET17 overexpression lines, while indole-3-acetic acid content decreased. The results suggest that CmSWEET17 could be involved in the process of sucrose-induced axillary bud outgrowth in C. morifolium, possibly via the auxin transport pathway.

8.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883436

RESUMO

For a flowering plant, the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive growth is probably the most critical developmental switch. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the product of BBX7, group II member of BBX family, acts to delay floral transition. In this study, a presumed chrysanthemum homolog of a second group gene AtBBX8, designated CmBBX8, had been isolated and characterized. The transcription of CmBBX8 followed a diurnal rhythm as the chrysanthemum floral transition regulator. Overexpression of CmBBX8 accelerated flowering, while its (artificial microRNAs) amiR-enabled knockdown delayed flowering in plants grown under both long- and short-day conditions. Global expression analysis revealed that genes associated with photoperiod were down-regulated in amiR-CmBBX8 lines compared with the wild type, which were verified to be up-regulated in overexpressing lines (OX-CmBBX8) by RT-PCR. A number of in vitro assays were used to show that CmBBX8 targets CmFTL1. Furthermore, the function of CmFTL1 as a floral inducer under long-day conditions was confirmed by the behaviour of engineered summer-flowering chrysanthemum plants. The conclusion is that the BBX8-FT regulatory module is an important determinant of reproductive development in summer-flowering chrysanthemum.

9.
Hortic Res ; 6: 109, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666962

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is a leading flower with applied value worldwide. Developing new chrysanthemum cultivars with novel characteristics such as new flower colors and shapes, plant architectures, flowering times, postharvest quality, and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance in a time- and cost-efficient manner is the ultimate goal for breeders. Various breeding strategies have been employed to improve the aforementioned traits, ranging from conventional techniques, including crossbreeding and mutation breeding, to a series of molecular breeding methods, including transgenic technology, genome editing, and marker-assisted selection (MAS). In addition, the recent extensive advances in high-throughput technologies, especially genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics, which are collectively referred to as omics platforms, have led to the collection of substantial amounts of data. Integration of these omics data with phenotypic information will enable the identification of genes/pathways responsible for important traits. Several attempts have been made to use emerging molecular and omics methods with the aim of accelerating the breeding of chrysanthemum. However, applying the findings of such studies to practical chrysanthemum breeding remains a considerable challenge, primarily due to the high heterozygosity and polyploidy of the species. This review summarizes the recent achievements in conventional and modern molecular breeding methods and emerging omics technologies and discusses their future applications for improving the agronomic and horticultural characteristics of chrysanthemum.

10.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(520)2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776287

RESUMO

Recent Ebola virus disease outbreaks affirm the dire need for treatments with proven efficacy. Randomized controlled clinical trials remain the gold standard but, during disease outbreaks, may be difficult to conduct due to ethical concerns and challenging field conditions. In the absence of a randomized control group, statistical modeling to create a control group could be a possibility. Such a model-based reference control would only be credible if it had the same mortality risk as that of the experimental group in the absence of treatment. One way to test this counterfactual assumption is to evaluate whether reasonable similarity exists across nonrandomized control groups from different clinical studies, which might suggest that a future control group would be similarly homogeneous. We evaluated similarity across six clinical studies conducted during the 2013-2016 West Africa outbreak of Ebola virus disease. These studies evaluated favipiravir, the biologic ZMapp, the antimalarial drug amodiaquine, or administration of convalescent plasma or convalescent whole blood. We compared the nonrandomized control groups of these six studies comprising 1147 individuals infected with Ebola virus. We found considerable heterogeneity, which did not disappear after statistical modeling to adjust for prognostic variables. Mortality risk varied widely (31 to 66%) across the nonrandomized control arms of these six studies. Models adjusting for baseline covariates (age, sex, and cycle threshold, a proxy for viral load) failed to sufficiently recalibrate these studies and showed that heterogeneity remained. Our findings highlight concerns about making invalid conclusions when comparing nonrandomized control groups to cohorts receiving experimental treatments.

12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 144: 480-487, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655346

RESUMO

Members of the B Box (BBX) family of proteins are known to be important for directing the growth and development of the Arabidopsis thaliana plant. Here, an analysis of a newly isolated chrysanthemum gene encoding a BBX family member implied that it was a likely ortholog of AtBBX13. The gene (designated CmBBX13) was most actively transcribed in the leaves and stem apex. CmBBX13 transcription was arrhythmic under either continuous darkness or continuous light, so the observed diurnal variation in its transcription appeared not to respond to the circadian clock. The outcome of transiently expressing CmBBX13 in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmBBX13 protein localized to the nucleus. Both a yeast- and a protoplast-based assay showed that the protein has transactivational activity. When CmBBX13 was constitutively expressed in A. thaliana, flowering was delayed under both short and long day conditions. The presence of the transgene also down-regulated a number of genes known to promote flowering, including APETALA1 (AP1), SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and FD, while simultaneously up-regulating the floral inhibitor-encoding genes FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and TARGET OF EAT 2 (TOE2). The data suggested that CmBBX13 regulates flowering time independently of the photoperiod pathway.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
Hortic Res ; 6: 84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645945

RESUMO

MYB transcription factors are widely involved in the development of and physiological processes in plants. Here, we isolated the chrysanthemum R2R3-MYB family transcription factor CmMYB15, a homologous gene of AtMYB15. It was demonstrated that CmMYB15 expression was induced by aphids and that CmMYB15 could bind to AC elements, which usually exist in the promoter of lignin biosynthesis genes. Overexpression of CmMYB15 in chrysanthemum enhanced the resistance of aphids. Additionally, the content of lignin and the expression of several lignin biosynthesis genes increased. In summary, the results indicate that CmMYB15 regulates lignin biosynthesis genes that enhance the resistance of chrysanthemum to aphids.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569563

RESUMO

Both the presence of, and the important contribution to growth and development made by TCP transcription factors, have been established in various plant species. Here, a TCP4 homolog isolated from Chrysanthemum nankingense was shown to be more strongly transcribed in the diploid than in the autotetraploid form of the species. CnTCP4 was shown to encode a member of the class II TCP family and to be transcribed most strongly in the leaf and ligulate flowers. Its transcription was found to be substantially inhibited by spraying the plant with the synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine. The transient expression of CnTCP4 in onion epidermal cells showed that its product localized to the nucleus, and a yeast one hybrid assay suggested that its product had transcriptional activation ability. The constitutive expression of CnTCP4 in fission yeast suppressed cell proliferation, inducing the formation of longer and a higher frequency of multinuclated cells. Its constitutive expression in Arabidopsis thaliana reduced the size of the leaves. The presence of the transgene altered the transcription of a number of cell division-related genes. A yeast one hybrid assay identified a second TCP gene (CnTCP2) able to interact with the CnTCP4 promoter. A transient expression experiment in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that CnTCP2 was able to activate the CnTCP4 promoter. Like CnTCP4, CnTCP2 was shown to encode a member of the class II TCP family, to be transcribed most strongly in the leaf and ligulate flowers, and to be suppressed by exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine treatment. The CnTCP2 protein also localized to the nucleus, but had no transcriptional activation ability. Its constitutive expression in A. thaliana had similar phenotypic consequences to those induced by CnTCP4.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Divisão Celular/genética , Chrysanthemum/genética , Expressão Gênica , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Leveduras/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/classificação , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Transcriptoma , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/metabolismo
15.
Plant Sci ; 285: 165-174, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203881

RESUMO

The TPL/TPR co-repressor is involved in many plant signaling pathways, including those regulating the switch from vegetative to reproductive growth. Here, a TPL homolog (TPL 1-2) was isolated from chrysanthemum. Its product was found to be deposited in the nucleus. The abundance of TPL1-2 transcript varied across the plant, with its highest level being recorded in the stem apex, and its lowest in the root and stem. In the leaf, the abundance of TPL1-2 transcript was highest at dusk in plants exposed to long days, and at dawn in those exposed to short days. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to induce an N176H mutation in TPL1-2. The constitutive expression in Arabidopsis thaliana of the wild type and the mutated alleles of TPL1-2 had a contrasting effect on flowering time, with the mutant transgene expressors flowering later than the wild type transgene expressors. The flowering-related genes FT, TSF, FUL and AP1 were all more strongly transcribed in the mutant transgene expressors than in the wild type transgene expressors.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Arabidopsis , Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chrysanthemum/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Fatores de Tempo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
16.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 17(12): 2325-2340, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050173

RESUMO

The diversity of form of the chrysanthemum flower makes this species an ideal model for studying petal morphogenesis, but as yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying petal shape development remain largely unexplored. Here, a floral mutant, which arose as a bud sport in a plant of the variety 'Anastasia Dark Green', and formed straight, rather than hooked petals, was subjected to both comparative morphological analysis and transcriptome profiling. The hooked petals only became discernible during a late stage of flower development. At the late stage of 'Anastasia Dark Green', genes related to chloroplast, hormone metabolism, cell wall and microtubules were active, as were cell division-promoting factors. Auxin concentration was significantly reduced, and a positive regulator of cell expansion was down-regulated. Two types of critical candidates, boundary genes and adaxial-abaxial regulators, were identified from 7937 differentially expressed genes in pairwise comparisons, which were up-regulated at the late stage in 'Anastasia Dark Green' and another two hooked varieties. Ectopic expression of a candidate abaxial gene, CmYAB1, in chrysanthemum led to changes in petal curvature and inflorescence morphology. Our findings provide new insights into the regulatory networks underlying chrysanthemum petal morphogenesis.

17.
J Pineal Res ; 67(2): e12582, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012494

RESUMO

The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is a key developmental event in a plant's life cycle. The process is mediated by a combination of phytohormones, including melatonin (MT) and strigolactone (SL). Here, the Arabidopsis mutants, d14-1 and max4-1, which are compromised with respect to either SL synthesis or signaling, were shown to flower earlier than wild types. The tissue MT content in both mutants was higher than in wild types, as a result of the up-regulation of various genes encoding enzymes involved in MT synthesis. The abundance in the mutants of transcripts derived from each of the genes SPLs, AP1, and SOC1 was reduced with exogenously supplied MT, while FLC was induced. Plants exposed to a high concentration of MT did not flower earlier than wild types. The tissue MT content of a mutant unable to synthesize caffeic acid O-methyltransferase was less than that of wild type and flowered earlier than did wild types. The suggestion is that the flowering time of Arabidopsis is altered if the tissue content of MT is either higher than ~ 8 ng/g F.W, or lower than ~ 0.9 ng/g. Within this range, SL acts to determine flowering time by its regulation of SPL genes. The application of exogenous SL reduces tissue MT content. The flowering time of the flc-3 mutant was unaffected by exogenously supplying either MT or/and SL. It is proposed that MT acts downstream of SL to activate FLC, inducing a delay to flowering if its concentration lies outside a certain range.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Lactonas/farmacologia , Melatonina/biossíntese , Arabidopsis/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/genética , Metiltransferases/biossíntese , Metiltransferases/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
18.
EBioMedicine ; 43: 317-324, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus called Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) was recently identified, variants of which were detected in a non-human primate host and fatal patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever. We investigated its infectivity and pathogenicity for humans. METHODS: We obtained skin-biopsy, blood and serum samples from patients with tick bites, and used high-throughput sequencing, in situ hybridisation, and serologic testing to diagnose and ascertain the cases of JMTV infection. FINDINGS: A JMTV strain was isolated from the tick Amblyomma javanense into an embryo-derived tick cell line. We obtained sustained passage of JMTV, and revealed that it was able to accumulate in salivary glands of experimentally infected ticks. Four JMTV-infected patients were identified by high-throughput sequencing of skin biopsies and blood samples. The virus replication in skin tissue was visualised by in situ hybridisation. The four patients all had an itchy or painful eschar at the site of tick bite, with or without lymphadenopathy. Immunohistochemical examination revealed remarkable local inflammation manifested as infiltration by neutrophils. Eight patients were identified by serological testing and showed more severe clinical manifestations. Two Ixodes persulcatus ticks detached from patients were positive for JMTV. All JMTV strains identified in this study formed a well-supported sub-lineage, distinct from those previously reported in China. Interpretation The public significance of JMTV should be highly concerning due to its potential pathogenicity for humans and efficient transmission by potential ticks. FUND: China Natural Science Foundation, State Key Research Development Programme, and United Kingdom Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Flavivirus , Biomarcadores , China , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Flavivirus/classificação , Flavivirus/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Flavivirus/transmissão , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização In Situ , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes Sorológicos , Pele/patologia , Picadas de Carrapatos
19.
Plant Sci ; 280: 248-257, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824003

RESUMO

Chrysanthemum morifolium is one of the most popular ornamental species worldwide, with high ornamental and economic value. Petal size is an important factor that influences the ornamental value. CmTCP20 is a member of TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORs (TCPs) gene family, which is closely associated with the growth and development of plants. Our previous study found that the expression of CmTCP20 was obviously down-regulated during chrysanthemum petal elongation, but its function in petal elongation has not yet been revealed. We show here that the overexpression CmTCP20 in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum leads to similar phenotypes, including larger flower buds (or inflorescences) and longer petals. Interestingly, ectopic expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe yeast cells showed that CmTCP20 could repress cell division and promote cell elongation. Moreover, the yeast two-hybrid, BiFC and pull-down experimental results indicated that CmTCP20 may regulate petal size via interacting with CmJAZ1-like and inducing down-regulation of CmBPE2 gene expression. This study preliminarily clarifies the function of CmTCP20 on chrysanthemum petal elongation, providing the basic theory for improving the ornamental characteristic of chrysanthemum.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Divisão Celular , Chrysanthemum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação para Baixo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Schizosaccharomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
20.
Plant Mol Biol ; 99(4-5): 407-420, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701353

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: 81 SNPs were identified for three inflorescence-related traits, in which 15 were highly favorable. Two dCAPS markers were developed for future MAS breeding, and six candidate genes were predicted. Chrysanthemum is a leading ornamental species worldwide and demonstrates a wealth of morphological variation. Knowledge about the genetic basis of its phenotypic variation for key horticultural traits can contribute to its effective management and genetic improvement. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on two years of phenotype data and a set of 92,617 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a panel of 107 diverse cut chrysanthemums to dissect the genetic control of three inflorescence-related traits. A total of 81 SNPs were significantly associated with the three inflorescence-related traits (capitulum diameter, number of ray florets and flowering time) in at least one environment, with an individual allele explaining 22.72-38.67% of the phenotypic variation. Fifteen highly favorable alleles were identified for the three target traits by computing the phenotypic effect values for the stable associations detected in 2 year-long trials at each locus. Dosage pyramiding effects of the highly favorable SNP alleles and significant linear correlations between highly favorable allele numbers and corresponding phenotypic performance were observed. Two highly favorable SNP alleles correlating to flowering time and capitulum diameter were converted to derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) markers to facilitate future breeding. Finally, six putative candidate genes were identified that contribute to flowering time and capitulum diameter. These results serve as a foundation for analyzing the genetic mechanisms underlying important horticultural traits and provide valuable insights into molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in chrysanthemum breeding programs.


Assuntos
Alelos , Chrysanthemum/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inflorescência/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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