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1.
Microbiologyopen ; : e1004, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045512

RESUMO

Environment has a potential effect on the animal symbiotic microbiome. Here, to study the potential relationship of the symbiotic microbiomes of wild amphibians with altitude, we collected the gut and skin samples from frogs (nine species) and the environmental samples (water and soil samples) from the Leshan Mountains (altitude: 360-410 m) and Gongga Mountains (altitude: 3340-3989 m) on the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Bufo gargarizans (Bg) samples were collected from both the Leshan and Gongga mountain regions (Bg was the only species sampled on both mountains). The DNA extracted from each sample was performed high-throughput sequencing (MiSeq) of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. High relative abundance of Caulobacteraceae and Sphingomonadaceae was found in skin samples from both Bg and the other high-altitude amphibians (nine species combined). High relative abundance of Coxiellaceae and Mycoplasmataceae was found in gut samples from both Bg and the other high-altitude amphibians. Furthermore, the alpha and beta diversities of skin and gut samples from Bg and the other amphibian species (nine species combined) were similar. In terms of the symbiotic microbial community, the low-altitude samples were less diverse and more similar to each other than the high-altitude samples were. We speculated that extreme high-altitude environments and host phylogeny may affect the amphibian microbiome. Despite the distinct microbial community differences between the skin and gut microbiomes, some functions were similar in the Bg and combined high-altitude samples. The Bg and high-altitude skin samples had higher oxidative stress tolerance and biofilm formation than the low-altitude skin samples. However, the opposite results were observed for the Bg and high-altitude gut samples. Further study is required to determine whether these characteristics favor high-altitude amphibian adaptation to extreme environments.

2.
Zool Res ; : 1-6, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957371

RESUMO

Exploring species richness patterns across space and time can help in understanding species distribution and in formulating conservation strategies. Among taxa, amphibians are of utmost importance as they are highly sensitive to environmental changes due to their unique life histories (Zhong et al., 2018). Here, we investigated the spatial and temporal patterns of amphibian species richness on Tianping Mountain in China. Specifically, we established 10 transects at low to high elevations, and sampled amphibians in April, June, August, and October 2017. Our results demonstrated that amphibian species composition and richness varied significantly at both spatial and temporal scales and were associated with gradients of environmental change in microhabitats on Tianping Mountain.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(2)2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31979140

RESUMO

Genetic adaptation to extremes is a fascinating topic. Nevertheless, few studies have explored the genetic adaptation of closely related species respectively inhabiting distinct extremes. With deep transcriptome sequencing, we attempt to detect the genetic architectures of tadpoles of five closely related toad species adapted to the Tibetan Plateau, middle-altitude mountains and karst caves. Molecular evolution analyses indicated that not only the number of fast evolving genes (FEGs), but also the functioning coverage of FEGs, increased with elevation. Enrichment analyses correspondingly revealed that the highland species had most of the FEGs involved in high-elevation adaptation, for example, amino acid substitutions of XRCC6 in its binding domains might improve the capacity of DNA repair of the toad. Yet, few FEGs and positively selected genes (PSGs) involved in high-elevation adaptation were identified in the cave species, and none of which potentially contributed to cave adaptation. Accordingly, it is speculated that in the closely related toad tadpoles, genetic selection pressures increased with elevation, and cave adaptation was most likely derived from other factors (e.g., gene loss, pseudogenization or deletion), which could not be detected by our analyses. The findings supply a foundation for understanding the genetic adaptations of amphibians inhabiting extremes.

4.
Exp Gerontol ; 130: 110786, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760082

RESUMO

Citrus is a group of popular fruit that includes oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruit but research of its peel on hyperlipidemia and its mechanism is rare reported. We examined the effect of pure total flavonoids from peel of Citrus (PTFC), an extract from the peel of Citrus Changshan-huyou which is a popular fruit in China, on hamsters with hyperlipoidemia induced by high-fat diet (HFD). We found that PTFC significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and improved levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which associated with liver function in golden hamsters. Liver pathological results confirmed that the liver pathological section of golden hamster treated with PTFC was significantly improved compared with that of HFD group. The content of main cholesterol metabolic enzymes Cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in liver was obviously recovered with PTFC treatment. Further studies shown that PTFC attenuated oxidative stress and free radical damage through superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) tests and inflammatory injury by levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) both in serum and hepatocyte of golden hamsters. Moreover, PTFC increased levels of RNA and protein expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and PPAR-γ in liver, fat and skeletal muscle of hyperlipidemia golden hamster, significantly. Our results suggested that PTFC could play a hypolipidemic role through improvement of liver function by antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in hyperlipoidemia hamsters, its mechanism of action may through activating of PPARα and PPARγ.

5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 144: 106701, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811937

RESUMO

Understanding the process of speciation and the factors driving the geographical distribution patterns of species is of great interest in ecology and evolutionary biology. Herein, we investigated the phylogeographic patterns, speciation, demographic history and genetic structure of the widespread endemic Odorrana graminea sensu lato in Southern China and adjacent areas. A total of 439 specimens from 68 localities were sequenced and analyzed for both mitochondrial (12S and 16S rRNA) and nuclear markers (RAG-1 and ten microsatellite loci). Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated mtDNA data revealed five major highly divergent lineages within the O. graminea sensu lato in Southern China, and these divergent lineages were highly concordant with five geographical regions. The nuclear data showed a discordant genetic structure compared to the mtDNA lineages (Clades A, B, and C) for O. graminea sensu stricto, with an admixed pattern in the RAG-1 data and two structure clusters in the microsatellite data. The species delimitation analyses, based on three methods, supported the species status of Odorrana zhaoi and Odorrana rotodora, and revealed the existence of putative cryptic species in the O. graminea sensu stricto. In addition, one statistically significant gene flow event was detected from Clade B to Clade C based on mtDNA and RAG-1 data, and the microsatellite data suggested gene flow within the O. graminea sensu stricto. Bayesian skyline plotting analyses and ecological niche modeling supported demographic and range expansions during the LGM for Clades A and C of the O. graminea sensu stricto. In addition, ecological niche models suggested the existence of ecological divergence among the three Clades (Clades A, B and C) of the O. graminea sensu stricto. The intense uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the Quaternary climate oscillations, and drainage changes may have driven the speciation, genetic structure and phylogeoraphic patterns of the O. graminea sensu lato.

6.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835875

RESUMO

: The giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) exhibits sex dimorphism between the male and female individuals. To date, the molecular mechanism governing gonadal development was unclear, and limited data were available on the gonad transcriptome of M. rosenbergii. Here, we conducted comprehensive gonadal transcriptomic analysis of female (ZW), super female (WW), and male (ZZ) M. rosenbergii for gene discovery. A total of 70.33 gigabases (Gb) of sequences were generated. There were 115,338 unigenes assembled with a mean size of 1,196 base pair (bp) and N50 of 2,195 bp. Alignment against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant nucleotide/protein sequence database (NR and NT), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, SwissProt database, Protein family (Pfam), Gene ontology (GO), and the eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) database, 36,282 unigenes were annotated at least in one database. Comparative transcriptome analysis observed that 10,641, 16,903, and 3,393 genes were significantly differentially expressed in ZW vs. ZZ, WW vs. ZZ, and WW vs. ZW samples, respectively. Enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) resulted in 268, 153, and 42 significantly enriched GO terms, respectively, and a total of 56 significantly enriched KEGG pathways. Additionally, 23 putative sex-related genes, including Gtsf1, IR, HSP21, MRPINK, Mrr, and other potentially promising candidate genes were identified. Moreover, 56,241 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified. Our findings provide a valuable archive for further functional analyses of sex-related genes and future discoveries of underlying molecular mechanisms of gonadal development and sex determination.

7.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 886, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genome topology network (GTN) is a new approach for studying the phylogenetics of bacterial genomes by analysing their gene order. The previous GTN tool gives a phylogenetic tree and calculate the different degrees (DD) of various adjacent gene families with complete genome data, but it is limited to the gene family level. RESULT: In this study, we collected 51 published complete and draft group B Streptococcus (GBS) genomes from the NCBI database as the case study data. The phylogenetic tree obtained from the GTN method assigned the genomes into six main clades. Compared with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based method, the GTN method exhibited a higher resolution in two clades. The gene families located at unique node connections in these clades were associated with the clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional categories of "[G] Carbohydrate transport and metabolism,", "[L] Replication, recombination, and repair" and "[J] translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis". Thus, these genes were the major factors affecting the differentiation of these six clades in the phylogenetic tree obtained from the GTN. CONCLUSION: The modified GTN analyzes draft genomic data and exhibits greater functionality than the previous version. The gene family clustering algorithm embedded in the GTN tool is optimized by introducing the Markov cluster algorithm (MCL) tool to assign genes to functional gene families. A bootstrap test is performed to verify the credibility of the clades when allowing users to adjust the relationships of the clades accordingly. The GTN tool gives additional evolutionary information that is a useful complement to the SNP-based method. Information on the differences in the connections between a gene and its adjacent genes in species or clades is easily obtained. The modified GTN tool can be downloaded from https://github.com/0232/Genome_topology_network.

8.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686318

RESUMO

Temperature is important to determine physiological status of ectotherms. However, it is still not fully understood how amphibians and their symbiotic microbiota acclimate to ambient temperature. In this study, we investigated the changes of gut microbiota of Xenopus tropicalis at different temperatures under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that microbial communities were distinct and shared only a small overlap among froglet guts, culture water and food samples. Furthermore, the dominant taxa harbored in the gut exhibited low relative abundance in water and food. It indicates that bacterial taxa selected by amphibian gut were generally of low abundance in the external environment. Temperature could affect beta-diversity of gut microbiota in terms of phylogenetic distance, but it did not affect alpha diversity. The composition of gut microbiota was similar in warm and cool treatments. However, signature taxa in different temperature environments were identified. The relationships between temperature, gut microbiota and morphology traits of X. tropicalis revealed in this study help us to predict the consequences of environmental changes on ectothermic animals.

9.
Zootaxa ; 4624(4): zootaxa.4624.4.7, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716201

RESUMO

A new species of the microhylid frog genus Microhyla is described from the Fanjing Mountain of Guizhou Province, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on DNA sequences of the the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and COI genes supported the new species as an independent lineage, closely related to M. beilunensis, M. mixtura and M. okinavensis. The uncorrected genetic distance on 16S rRNA gene between the new species and its closest congeners M. beilunensis, M. mixtura and M. okinavensis are 3.5%, 4.6% and 4.6% respectively. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological characters: (1) body of medium size (SVL 19.0-22.7 mm in males and 22.5-23.0 mm in females); (2) disk and dorsal median longitudinal groove on finger tips absent; (3) toe with rudimentary webbing at base; (4) disk with dorsal median longitudinal groove present at toe tips except for the toe I; (5) two metatarsal tubercles on palm; (6) tibiotarsal articulation reaching the level between eye to nostril when leg stretched forward; (7) a distinct V-shaped white stripe on the upper midsection. The new species is known only from the type locality, and thus the finding of it has contributed to the endemic species diversity of China. It is needed to take strategy to protect the species and habitats due to the increased threats of environmental changes.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
11.
Front Zool ; 16: 42, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754367

RESUMO

Background: Fat storage is required for the life cycle of many organisms. The primary fat depot for most vertebrates is white adipose tissue. However, in primitive vertebrates (e.g., agnathan group and elasmobranchs), the liver is usually responsible for fat storage. Among the vertebrates, amphibians have a unique status, as their larvae live in the water and exhibit some primitive traits that are similar to fish. Although it has been recognized that adult frogs use their abdominal white adipose tissue as a primary fat depot, how tadpoles store their fat is still inconclusive. The metabolic traits and physiological functions of primitive fat depots may have wide-ranging implications on the pathology of abnormal lipid deposition in mammals and the evolution of fat storage. Results: Rana omeimontis tadpoles used their liver as the primary fat depot. In sufficiently fed tadpoles at stage 30-31, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) reached up to 7%, and triglycerides (TG) accounted for 15% of liver weight. Their liver resembled white adipose tissue in histological morphology, characterized by polygonal hepatocytes filled with fat. Their liver metabolic composition was unique, characterized by the dominance of maltotriose, arachidonic acid and dipeptides in soluble carbohydrates, free fatty acids and amino acids. Hepatic fat was the major metabolic fuel of fasted R. omeimontis tadpoles, which had similar reserve mobilization and allocation patterns as mammals. From a developmental perspective, hepatic fat was important to fuel late metamorphic climax. Interestingly, starvation induced accelerated metamorphosis in tadpoles with high HSI (4.96 ± 0.21%). However, this phenomenon was not observed in tadpoles with low HSI (2.71 ± 0.16%), even though they had similar initial body weight and developmental stage. Hepatic fat abundance was the most prominent difference between the two groups. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that liver can be the primary fat depot in vertebrates with higher evolutionary status than bony fish. The unique hepatic histological and metabolic traits likely either guard their liver against lipotoxicity or make their hepatocytes adapt to fat accumulation. This fatty liver could be a primitive counterpart of mammalian white adipose tissue (WAT). In addition, our study showed that the hepatic reserves of tadpoles, especially TG content, may provide body condition signals to modulate metamorphosis.

12.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(5): 741-748, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646328

RESUMO

Rodent MrgC receptor (Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor subtype C) shares 65% sequence homology and similarities in terms of expression pattern and binding profile with human Mas-related gene X receptor 1 (hMrgX1). Therefore, researchers generally explore the role of hMrgX1 by studying the function of MrgC receptor. Murine MrgC receptor is uniquely expressed in small-diameter neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia (TG), which is closely related to the transmission process of pain. This review summarizes the analgesic effects of intrathecal activation of MrgC receptors in pathological pain and morphine tolerance.


Assuntos
Tolerância a Medicamentos , Morfina/farmacologia , Dor , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/fisiologia , Animais , Gânglios Espinais , Humanos , Camundongos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Gânglio Trigeminal
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109794, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629188

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are widely-used agricultural chemicals, bringing potential detriments to aquatic organisms. Currently, our understanding of sublethal effects and underlying toxicologic mechanisms of GBHs are still limited, especially in amphibians. Here, the sublethal effects of a commercial GBH (KISSUN®) on tadpoles of a farmland dwelling frog, Microhyla fissipes, were investigated. The 10-d LC50 of "KISSUN®" GBH was 77.5 mg/L. Tadpoles exposed to 60-120 mg/L showed increased preference to higher temperature. After 10 days exposure, obvious growth suppression was observed in survived GBH-stressed tadpoles, characterized by dosage depended decrement in body mass, body width, total length, etc. GBH-stressed tadpoles also showed decreased tail length/snout-vent length ratio and smaller tail muscle fiber diameter. Comparative transcriptomics (control, 60 mg/L and 90 mg/L groups) was conducted to analyze the underlying molecular processes. GBH-stressed tadpoles showed downregulated transcription of ribosomal proteins and cytoskeleton proteins, which could explain their suppressed whole body and tail muscle growth. Moreover, GBH-stressed tadpoles showed transcriptional downregulation of carbohydrate and lipid catabolism, but upregulation of amino acid catabolism. It suggested a metabolic switch from carbohydrate and lipid to amino acid in these tadpoles. Accordingly, there was a trade-off between protein synthesis and energy production in respect to amino acid allocation, and it provided a metabolic explanation for why protein synthesis was downregulated and growth was suppressed in GBH-stressed tadpoles. In combination with existing literatures, we speculated that GBH might directly target the enzymes in carbohydrate and lipid catabolism, and this metabolic effect of GBH might be common to fish and amphibians. In conclusion, our study provided a systematic insight into the sublethal symptoms of GBH-stressed tadpoles, and a metabolic switch from carbohydrate and lipid to amino acid likely underlay some common toxic symptoms of GBHs on both fish and tadpoles.


Assuntos
Anuros/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Glicina/toxicidade , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Dose Letal Mediana , Biossíntese de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Phytomedicine ; 64: 153082, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citrus flavonoids, consisting of naringin, narirutin, neohesperidine, etc., have therapeutic activities for the treatment of lipometabolic disorders. The peel of Citrus changshan-huyou (Qu Zhi Ke, QZK) is a new source of flavonoids, but attracted little attention so far. HYPOTHESIS: QZK should possess therapeutic effects against lipometabolic disorders due to the flavonoids it contains. STUDY DESIGN: In this study, we extracted and purified the flavonoids of QZK (TFCH) and established an obesity-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) model of rats. TFCH was given orally for 8 weeks, and its anti-NAFLD effects and potential mechanism were evaluated. METHODS: The flavonoid chemoprofile of TFCH was determined by using HPLC. High-fat diet was employed to induce NAFLD model in rats, and six groups were set up: negative control group, reference treatment group, model group, low-dose TFCH (25 mg/kg), intermediate-dose TFCH (50 mg/kg), and high-dose TFCH (100 mg/kg). Serum and liver levels of inflammatory cytokines and NAFLD markers were measured biochemically. The relative mRNA expressions of liver T-bet, GATA3, and TNF-α were tested by real time PCR (qPCR) analysis. The protein expression of p38 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB, ERK1/2, and p38 in liver were tested by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The histopathological observation showed that TFCH attenuated hepatic lesions with significantly decreased NAFLD activity scores. The biochemical data showed that TFCH significantly suppressed both systemic and intrahepatic inflammation by inhibiting IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, and the qPCR analysis revealed a Th1/Th2 related anti-inflammatory mechanism of TFCH. Western blot results clarified that TFCH exerted hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of phosphorylated NF-κB and MAPKs, indicating a mechanism associated with NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: QZK is a new source of Citrus flavonoids for therapeutic use, and TFCH is a promising representative of Citrus flavonoids for anti-NAFLD therapy.

15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 119: 109429, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505422

RESUMO

Asthma is a common obstructive airway disease characterized by inflammation and remodeling with a progressive decline in lung function. Fangxiao Formula (FXF) is an herbal medicine that has achieved significant clinical benefits toward asthma patients, but the relevant mechanism has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of FXF on airway inflammation and remodeling, and investigate the activities of TGF­ß/Smads signaling pathway in the rat asthma model. Rats were sensitized by ovalbumin (OVA) for six weeks to establish the asthma experimental model. OVA-challenged animals were randomly divided into 5 groups and received different concentrations of FXF or dexamethasone. The animals in blank control group received saline only. Lung tissues were collected and analyzed for determining the inflammatory cells infiltration, HE and PAS staining, airway wall thickness and collagen deposition. The productions of inflammatory cytokine productions were analyzed by ELISA in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to measure the expression of α-SMA and PCNA in lung tissue after the treatment of FXF. The levels of TGF-ß were assessed by both immunohistology and western blotting, and the expression of p-Smad2/3 proteins were determined by western blotting analysis. Our results indicated that FXF attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, decreased the production of Th2 cytokines and simultaneously increased the levels of Th1 cytokine in the asthma rat model. In addition, FXF reduced allergen-induced increased airway wall thickness, goblet cell hyperplasia and collagen deposition. Furthermore, the expression levels of TGF-ß and p-Smad3 were obviously reduced after the treatment of FXF. These results indicate that FXF alleviates airway inflammation and remodeling by restoring the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines and the TGF-ß/Smad-3 pathway, therefor providing potential therapeutic approach for asthmatic patients.

16.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 871, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427976

RESUMO

Objective: The impact of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to damage the small intestine has been well known. Mica, one kind of natural clay, has been widely marketed in China for the treatment of gastric diseases. However, the role and mechanism of mica in small intestinal injure is still unknown. The study was designed to declare the effects of mica on intestinal injury induced by diclofenac in rats. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into control, model, PAR-2 agonist group (SLIGRL-NH2group), control peptide group (LRGILS-NH2 group), and ERK blocker group (eight mice per group). Morphological changes of mucous membrane of small intestine were observed, and the expression of tryptase, PAR-2, and p-ERK1/2 was measured by immunohistochemistry and western blot. PAR-2 mRNA was tested by qRT-PCR. Rats were also randomly divided into control, model, and mica group (eight mice per group). Morphological changes of mucous membrane were observed. The expression of tryptase, PAR-2, and p-ERK1/2 was measured by immunohistochemistry. Results: The expression of trypsin, PAR-2, and p-ERK1/2 was increased in model group compared with control. The expression of PAR-2 and p-ERK1/2 was increased in SLIGRL-NH2 group compared with model, but not LRGILS-NH2 group. The expression of PAR-2 was down-regulated in ERK blocker group compared with SLIGRL-NH2 group. Macroscopically visible lesions of mucous membrane were positively correlated with the expression of PAR-2 and p-ERK1/2. Furthermore, we also found that mica could inhibit small intestinal injure, as evidenced by the improvement of macroscopic damage. Tryptase, PAR-2, and p-ERK1/2 expression was down-regulated in mica group compared with model group. Conclusion: Mica inhibit small intestinal injury induced by NSAIDs via ERK signaling pathway.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220629, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369641

RESUMO

We have sequenced the whole genomes of eight proven Holstein bulls from the four half-sib or full-sib families with extremely high and low estimated breeding values (EBV) for milk protein percentage (PP) and fat percentage (FP) using Illumina re-sequencing technology. Consequently, 2.3 billion raw reads were obtained with an average effective depth of 8.1×. After single nucleotide variant (SNV) calling, total 10,961,243 SNVs were identified, and 57,451 of them showed opposite fixed sites between the bulls with high and low EBVs within each family (called as common differential SNVs). Next, we annotated the common differential SNVs based on the bovine reference genome, and observed that 45,188 SNVs (78.70%) were located in the intergenic region of genes and merely 11,871 SNVs (20.67%) located within the protein-coding genes. Of them, 13,099 common differential SNVs that were within or close to protein-coding genes with less than 5 kb were chosen for identification of candidate genes for milk compositions in dairy cattle. By integrated analysis of the 2,657 genes with the GO terms and pathways related to protein and fat metabolism, and the known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for milk protein and fat traits, we identified 17 promising candidate genes: ALG14, ATP2C1, PLD1, C3H1orf85, SNX7, MTHFD2L, CDKN2D, COL5A3, FDX1L, PIN1, FIG4, EXOC7, LASP1, PGS1, SAO, GPLD1 and MGEA5. Our findings provided an important foundation for further study and a prompt for molecular breeding of dairy cattle.

18.
Gut ; 68(9): 1676-1687, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Several types of chronic liver disease predispose to HCC, and several different signalling pathways have been implicated in its pathogenesis, but no common molecular event has been identified. Ca2+ signalling regulates the proliferation of both normal hepatocytes and liver cancer cells, so we investigated the role of intracellular Ca2+ release channels in HCC. DESIGN: Expression analyses of the type 3 isoform of the inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR3) in human liver samples, liver cancer cells and mouse liver were combined with an evaluation of DNA methylation profiles of ITPR3 promoter in HCC and characterisation of the effects of ITPR3 expression on cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The effects of de novo ITPR3 expression on hepatocyte calcium signalling and liver growth were evaluated in mice. RESULTS: ITPR3 was absent or expressed in low amounts in hepatocytes from normal liver, but was expressed in HCC specimens from three independent patient cohorts, regardless of the underlying cause of chronic liver disease, and its increased expression level was associated with poorer survival. The ITPR3 gene was heavily methylated in control liver specimens but was demethylated at multiple sites in specimens of patient with HCC. Administration of a demethylating agent in a mouse model resulted in ITPR3 expression in discrete areas of the liver, and Ca2+ signalling was enhanced in these regions. In addition, cell proliferation and liver regeneration were enhanced in the mouse model, and deletion of ITPR3 from human HCC cells enhanced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence that de novo expression of ITPR3 typically occurs in HCC and may play a role in its pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/deficiência , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Regeneração Hepática/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(6): 657-664, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270043

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of dietary sodium-intake on residual renal function in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). METHODS: Thirty-three patients on PD with stable dialysis were regularly followed up for 12 months. The daily sodium intake of the patients was calculated based on the 3-day dietary record. Based on the mean daily sodium intake, the patients enrolled were divided into low-salt group (sodium intake≤3.0 g/day, 19 patients) and high-salt group (sodium intake>3.0 g/day, 14 patients). The baseline data of the patients were recorded, and the indicators of residual renal function and peritoneal function were regularly tested. The patients were followed-up at 3-month intervals, and their urine volume, peritoneal ultrafiltration volume and other clinical indicators were recorded and the biochemical indexes were detected to evaluate the changes in the residual renal function and peritoneal function. RESULTS: There was a positive correlation between the total sodium excretion and dietary sodium intake in these patients (r=0.536, P=0.0013), and sodium excretion by dialysis was positively correlated with their sodium intake (r=0.901, P=0.000). Regression analysis suggested that the total sodium excretion was correlated with dietary sodium intake (ß=0.416, 95% CI: 0.170-0.666; P < 0.0018); sodium excretion by dialysis was associated with dietary sodium intake (ß=0.489, 95% CI: 0.395-0.582; P < 0.001). The residual renal function was reduced by 17.48±11.22 L /(w·1.73 m2) in the low-salt group, as compared to 30.20±18.30 L /(w·1.73 m2) in the high-salt group (P=0.032). The reduction in the residual renal function was correlated with sodium intake in the PD patients (r=0.409, P=0.018). Multivariate regression analysis showed that sodium intake was an independent factor contributing to the reduction of residual renal function (ß=14.646, 95% CI 7.426-21.866, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sodium excretion by PD in patients with continuous ambulatory PD is positively correlated with their dietary sodium intake, which contribute to the decrease of residual renal function. A high dietary sodium intake may accelerate the reduction of residual renal function in these patients.


Assuntos
Diálise Peritoneal , Humanos , Rim , Estudos Prospectivos , Sódio na Dieta
20.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 54(2): 223-227, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200021

RESUMO

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Nitrofurantoin (NIT), with high therapeutic concentrations in urine, is recommended as the first-line drug for both empiric treatment and chemoprophylaxis of UTIs. Although NIT resistance in K. pneumoniae is relatively high, the resistance mechanism is not well understood. This study collected a NIT-resistant K. pneumoniae [NRKP, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=128 mg/L] and investigated the resistance mechanism. Addition of efflux pump inhibitors increased the susceptibility of NRKP to NIT (MIC decreased from 128 to 32 mg/L), implying the important role of efflux pumps in NIT resistance. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that NRKP had >100-fold increased expression of ramA, which was demonstrated to be caused by ramR mutation. Deletion of ramA led to a four-fold decrease in the MIC of NIT, and the expression levels of efflux pumps acrB and oqxB were downregulated by four- to seven-fold. Complementation of ramA restored both the MIC value and the expression level of acrB and oqxB in the ramA mutant strain. In order to confirm the role of acrB and oqxB in NIT resistance, gene knockout strains were constructed. Deletion of acrB or oqxB alone led to a four-fold decrease in the MIC of NIT, and deletion of acrB and oqxB simultaneously led to a 16-fold decrease in the MIC of NIT. These results demonstrate that AcrAB and OqxAB contribute to NIT resistance in K. pneumoniae.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Nitrofurantoína/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos Urinários/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Deleção de Genes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nitrofurantoína/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
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