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1.
Zool Res ; 43(1): 129-146, 2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939375

RESUMO

The Hengduan Mountains Region (HMR) is the largest "evolutionary frontier" of the northern temperate zone, and the origin and maintenance of species in this area is a research hotspot. Exploring species-specific responses to historical and contemporary environmental changes will improve our understanding of the role of this region in maintaining biodiversity. In this study, mitochondrial and microsatellite diversities were used to assess the contributions of paleogeological events, Pleistocene climatic oscillations, and contemporary landscape characteristics to the rapid intraspecific diversification of Liangshantriton taliangensis, a vulnerable amphibian species endemic to several sky-island mountains in the southeastern HMR. Divergence date estimations suggested that the East Asian monsoon, local uplifting events (Xigeda Formation strata), and Early-Middle Pleistocene transition (EMPT) promoted rapid divergence of L. taliangensis during the Pleistocene, yielding eight mitochondrial lineages and six nuclear genetic lineages. Moreover, population genetic structures were mainly fixed through isolation by resistance. Multiple in situ refugia were identified by ecological niche models and high genetic diversity, which played crucial roles in the persistence and divergence of L. taliangensis during glacial-interglacial cycles. Dramatic climatic fluctuations further promoted recurrent isolation and admixing of populations in scattered glacial refugia. The apparent mitonuclear discordance was likely the result of introgression by secondary contact and/or female-biased dispersal. Postglacial expansion generated two major secondary contact zones (Ganluo (GL) and Chuhongjue (CHJ)). Identification of conservation management units and dispersal corridors offers important recommendations for the conservation of this species.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Salamandridae , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Salamandridae/genética
2.
Zool Res ; 43(1): 40-51, 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821085

RESUMO

Mountain systems harbor an evolutionarily unique and exceptionally rich biodiversity, especially for amphibians. However, the associated elevational gradients and underlying mechanisms of amphibian diversity in most mountain systems remain poorly understood. Here, we explored amphibian phylogenetic and functional diversity along a 2 600 m elevational gradient on Mount Emei on the eastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in southwestern China. We also assessed the relative importance of spatial (area) and environmental factors (temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, normalized difference vegetation index, and potential evapotranspiration) in shaping amphibian distribution and community structure. Results showed that the phylogenetic and functional diversities were unimodal with elevation, while the standardized effect size of phylogenetic and functional diversity increased linearly with elevation. Phylogenetic net relatedness, nearest taxon index, and functional net relatedness index all showed a positive to negative trend with elevation, indicating a shift from clustering to overdispersion and suggesting a potential change in key processes from environmental filtering to competitive exclusion. Overall, our results illustrate the importance of deterministic processes in structuring amphibian communities in subtropical mountains, with the dominant role potentially switching with elevation. This study provides insights into the underlying assembly mechanisms of mountain amphibians, integrating multidimensional diversity.


Assuntos
Altitude , Anfíbios , Distribuição Animal , Biodiversidade , Filogenia , Animais , China , Tibet
3.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 11578-11585, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34874791

RESUMO

Adenomyoepithelioma (AME) of the breast is a rare tumor that is composed of proliferating epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The pathogenesis of AME remains unclear, and no breast cancer cells have been identified in such tumor tissues. In this study, we established patient-derived breast cancer organoids from the surgical tumor samples of an elderly Chinese woman with an AME of the breast. Our findings confirmed the successful establishment of organoids from an AME of the breast of this patient. A short tandem repeat analysis revealed that the DNA signature of the AME of the breast organoids matched the DNA signature of the original tumor specimen. Moreover, diameter assay confirmed that the organoids from the breast AME showed sensitivity to paclitaxel and doxorubicin treatments, which was similar to, but lesser than that of primary culture cells. In conclusion, we established an efficient 3-dimensional breast cancer organoid culture platform from an AME of the breast. This platform can be effectively used for exploring clinicopathological and genomic characteristics of AME of the breast to identify possible treatments and increase awareness about this disease entity.

4.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(11): 1001-1012, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34856748

RESUMO

Introduction: Tadpole tail develops from the tailbud, an apparently homogenous mass of cells at the posterior of the embryo. While much progress has been made in understanding the origin and the induction of the tailbud, the subsequent outgrowth and differentiation have received much less attention, particularly with regard to global gene expression changes. Methods: By using RNA-seq with SMRT and further analyses, we report the transcriptome profiles at four key stages of tail development, from a small tailbud to the onset of feeding (S18, S19, S21 and S28) in Microhyla fissipes, an anuran with a number of advantages for developmental and genetic studies. Results: We obtained 48,826 transcripts and discovered 8807 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs, q < 0.05) among these four developmental stages. We functionally classified these DETs by using GO and KEGG analyses and revealed 110 significantly enriched GO categories and 6 highly enriched KEGG pathways (Protein digestion and absorption; ECM-receptor interaction; Pyruvate metabolism; Fatty acid degradation; Valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation; and Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism) that are likely critically involved in developmental changes in the tail. In addition, analyses of DETs between any two individual stages demonstrated the involvement of distinct biological pathways/GO terms at different stages of tail development. Furthermore, the most dramatic changes in gene expression profile are those between S28 and any of the other three stages. The upregulated DETs at S28 are highly enriched in "myosin complex" and "potassium channel activity", which are important for muscle contraction, a critical function of the tail that the animal needs by the end of embryogenesis. Additionally, many DETs and enriched pathways discovered here during tail development, such as HDAC1, Hes1 and Hippo signaling pathway, have also been reported to be vital for the tissue/organ regeneration, suggesting conserved functions between development and regeneration. Conclusion: The present staudy provides a golbal overview of gene expression patterns and new insights into the mechanism involved in anuran tail development and regeneration.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 127968, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34894514

RESUMO

The antibiotic pollution has become an emerging environmental problem worldwide, but the ecological outcomes remain to be elucidated, especially very little is known about the interactions between antibiotics and different ecological elements. In this study, the long-term influences of three representative antibiotics, i.e., tetracycline, erythromycin, and sulfamethoxazole, were investigated focusing on a simplified artificial freshwater system composed of amphibian tadpoles, gut and environmental bacterial and fungi communities, and water parameters. Results demonstrated that antibiotic exposure reduced tadpole's fitness with increased mortality and physiological abnormality, and altered the water quality, particularly the nitrogen homeostasis. Sequential analyses at organism, symbiont, and systematic levels revealed that antibiotics disrupted tadpole metabolome (e.g., tetrahydrobiopterin metabolism) directly by off-target effects. Antibiotics also reshaped the tadpole gut bacterial and fungi diversity and composition, which partly accounted for the tadpole's health condition. Moreover, changes of tadpole gut microbiome (i.e., Cyanobacteria and Basidiomycota OTUs) partly explained the variations of water parameters. In contrast, environmental microbiota and metagenome stayed relatively stable, and didn't contribute to the environmental variations. These results highlighted the pivotal role of gut microbiome in mediating the effects of antibiotics on the host and the environment, which would extend our understanding on the ecological outcomes caused by antibiotic pollution.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 728009, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34595194

RESUMO

Objective: This study aims to investigate the relationship between dietary salt intake and residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods: The daily salt intake of the patients was calculated based on a 3 day dietary record. Sixty-two patients were divided into three groups: 33 patients in the low salt intake group (salt intake <6.0 g/day), 17 in the medium salt intake group (salt intake 6.0 to <8.0 g/day), and 12 in the high salt intake group (salt intake ≥8.0 g/day). Regular follow-up was conducted every 3 months. Urine volume, peritoneal ultrafiltration volume, and other clinical indicators were recorded. Biochemical indexes were detected to evaluate the changes in residual renal function and peritoneal function during follow-up. Results: A positive correlation between dietary sodium intake and sodium excretion was found. During 12-month follow-up, a decrease of residual renal function showed a significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.041) (15.3 ± 27.5 vs. 12.5 ± 11.5 vs. 32.9 ± 18.4 L/W/1.73 m2 in the low-, medium-, and high salt intake groups, respectively). Consistently, a higher decline of residual renal function (adjusted ß, 20.37; 95% CI, 2.83, 37.91) was found in participants with high salt intake (salt intake ≥8 g/day) compared with those in non-high salt intake. Conclusion: Our study showed that the sodium excretion by peritoneal dialysis was positively correlated with dietary sodium intake in PD patients. The high salt intake diet (salt intake ≥8 g/day) may lead to a faster decline of residual renal function in PD patients.

7.
Transl Res ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673277

RESUMO

Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-produced metabolite, is accumulated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. It is well known to contribute to CKD-related cardiovascular complications. However, the effect of TMAO on peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that serum concentrations of TMAO were positively correlated with C-reactive protein levels, and the appearance rate of dialysate IL-6 and PAI-1, in PD patients. During the follow-up period of 28.3 ± 8.0 months, patients with higher TMAO levels (≥50 µM) had a higher risk of new-onset peritonitis (HR, 3.60; 95%CI, 1.18-10.99; P=0.025) after adjusting for sex, age, diabetes, PD duration, BUN, rGFR, C-reactive protein, BMI and ß2-M. In CKD rat models, TMAO significantly promoted peritoneal dialysate-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, inflammatory cytokines production in the peritoneum. In vitro study revealed that TMAO directly induced primary peritoneal mesothelial cell necrosis, together with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß. In addition, TMAO significantly increased TNF-α-induced P-selectin production in mesothelial cells, as well as high glucose-induced TNF-α and CCL2 expression in endothelial cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that higher levels of TMAO exacerbate peritoneal inflammation and might be a risk factor of incidence of peritonitis in PD patients.

8.
Integr Zool ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520122

RESUMO

Heterogeneous environment adaptation is critical to understand the species evolution and response to climate change. However, how narrow-range species adapt to micro-geographic heterogeneity has been overlooked, and there is a lack of insights from metabolism and commensal microbiota. Here, we studied the environmental adaptation for 3 geographic populations (>40 km apart) of Diploderma vela, a lizard endemic to dry-hot valleys of the Hengduan Mountain Region. The climatic boundary caused a cooler, droughtier, and barren environment for northernmost population (RM) than the middle (QZK) and southernmost populations (FS). Correspondingly, significant divergences in liver and muscle metabolism and commensal microbiota were detected between RM and QZK or FS individuals, but not between QZK and FS individuals. Phospholipid composition, coenzyme level (i.e. pyridoxal and NAD+ ), and cholesterol metabolism (e.g. androgen and estriol synthesis) constituted the major metabolic difference between RM and QZK/FS groups. FS and QZK individuals kept abundant Proteobacteria and antifungal strains, while RM individuals maintained more Firmicutes and Bacteroidota. Strong associations existed between varied host metabolite and gut microbes. How were these interpopulation variations associated to the environment adaptation were discussed. These results provided some novel insights into the environmental adaptation and implicated the consequence of climate change on narrow-range species.

9.
Ecol Evol ; 11(15): 10353-10368, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34367580

RESUMO

The studies of climatic-niche shifts over evolutionary time accompanied by key morphological innovations have attracted the interest of many researchers recently. We applied ecological niche models (ENMs), ordination method (environment principal component analyses; PCA-env), combined phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs), and phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) regression methods to analyze the realized niche dynamics and correspondingly key morphological innovations across clades within Scutiger boulengeri throughout their distributions in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) margins of China. Our results show there are six clades in S. boulengeri and obvious niche divergences caused by niche expansion in three clades. Moreover, in our system, niche expansion is more popular than niche unfilling into novel environmental conditions. Annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and precipitation of driest month may contribute to such a shift. In addition, we identified several key climatic factors and morphological traits that tend to be associated with niche expansion in S. boulengeri clades correspondingly. We found phenotypic plasticity [i.e., length of lower arm and hand (LAHL), hind-limb length (HLL), and foot length (FL)] and evolutionary changes [i.e., snout-vent length (SVL)] may together contribute to niche expansion toward adapting novel niche, which provides us a potential pattern of how a colonizing toad might seed a novel habitat to begin the process of speciation and finally adaptive radiation. For these reasons, persistent phylogeographic divisions and accompanying divergences in niche occupancy and morphological adaption suggest that for future studies, distinct genetic structure and morphological changes corresponding to each genetic clade should be included in modeling niche evolution dynamics, but not just constructed at the species level.

10.
J Immunol Res ; 2021: 2264737, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458376

RESUMO

Gut microbiota (GM) dysbiosis and bile acid (BA) metabolism disorder play an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Probiotics had a beneficial effect on NAFLD, but further study is needed to explore probiotics as a potential therapeutic agent to NAFLD. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of probiotics on gut microbiota in NAFLD rats and to explore the possible mechanism of probiotics regulating the bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor/growth factor 15 (FXR/FGF15) signaling pathway in rats. We established a rat model of NAFLD fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks, which was given different interventions (312 mg/kg/day probiotics or 10 mg/kg/day atorvastatin) from the 7th week. Serum lipids and total bile acids (TBA) were biochemically determined; hepatic steatosis and lipid accumulation were evaluated with HE staining. The expression levels of FXR, FGF15 mRNA, and protein in rat liver were detected. 16S rDNA was used to detect the changes of gut microbiota in rats. Compared with the HFD group, probiotics and atorvastatin significantly reduced serum lipids and TBA levels. And probiotics increased dramatically the expression of FXR, FGF15 mRNA, and protein in the liver. But there were no significant changes in the atorvastatin group. Probiotics and atorvastatin can upregulate the diversity of gut microbiota and downregulate the abundance of pathogenic bacteria in NAFLD model rats. In summary, probiotics alleviated NAFLD in HFD rats via the gut microbiota/FXR/FGF15 signaling pathway.

11.
Front Genet ; 12: 682501, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408769

RESUMO

Comb traits have potential economic value in the breeding of indigenous chickens in China. Identifying and understanding relevant molecular markers for comb traits can be beneficial for genetic improvement. The purpose of this study was to utilize genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to detect promising loci and candidate genes related to comb traits, namely, comb thickness (CT), comb weight (CW), comb height, comb length (CL), and comb area. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertions/deletions (INDELs) in 300 Nandan-Yao chickens were detected using whole-genome sequencing. In total, we identified 134 SNPs and 25 INDELs that were strongly associated with the five comb traits. A remarkable region spanning from 29.6 to 31.4 Mb on chromosome 6 was found to be significantly associated with comb traits in both SNP- and INDEL-based GWAS. In this region, two lead SNPs (6:30,354,876 for CW and CT and 6:30,264,318 for CL) and one lead INDEL (a deletion from 30,376,404 to 30,376,405 bp for CL and CT) were identified. Additionally, two genes were identified as potential candidates for comb development. The nearby gene fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-associated with epithelial cell migration and proliferation-and the gene cytochrome b5 reductase 2 (CYB5R2)-identified on chromosome 5 from INDEL-based GWAS-are significantly correlated with collagen maturation. The findings of this study could provide promising genes and biomarkers to accelerate genetic improvement of comb development based on molecular marker-assisted breeding in Nandan-Yao chickens.

12.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 284, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between serum advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and mortality risk remains equivocal. We aimed to assess the correlation of serum AOPP levels with the risk of all-cause mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. METHODS: A total of 1394 maintenance HD patients with complete data on AOPP and related parameters were included from China Collaborative Study on Dialysis (CCSD), a multi-center, prospective cohort study. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, the secondary outcome was cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. RESULTS: During a median follow-up duration of 5.2 years (IQR, 2.1-5.4), all-cause mortality occurred in 492 (31.4%) participants. Overall, there was a reversed L-shaped association between serum AOPP and all-cause mortality in HD patients (P for nonlinearity = 0.04), with an inflection point at 87 µmol/L. Accordingly, there was no significant association between serum AOPP and all-cause mortality (per SD increment; HR, 0.94; 95%CI, 0.84, 1.05) in participants with AOPP < 87 µmol/L. However, there was a positive relationship of serum AOPP and all-cause mortality (per SD increment; HR, 1.24; 95%CI, 1.08, 1.42) in those with AOPP ≥ 87 µmol/L. Moreover, a similar trend was found for CVD mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum AOPP levels were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality in Chinese maintenance HD patients.


Assuntos
Produtos da Oxidação Avançada de Proteínas , Diálise Renal , Biomarcadores , China , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
J Anat ; 239(6): 1318-1335, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34268788

RESUMO

Describing osteological development is of great importance for understanding vertebrate phenotypic variations, form-functional transitions and ecological adaptations. Anurans exhibit dramatic changes in their morphology, habitat preferences, diet and behaviour between the tadpole and frog stages. However, the anatomical details of their cranial and postcranial development have not been extensively studied, especially in Microhylidae. In this work, we studied the microhylid Microhyla fissipes, commonly known as the ornamented pygmy frog, a small-sized frog with fast metamorphosis. Its osteological development was comprehensively described based on 120 cleared and stained specimens, including six tadpoles for each stage between 28 and 45, six juveniles and six adults. Additionally, 22 osteological traits of these specimens involved in food acquisition, respiration, audition and locomotion were selected and measured to reflect the changes in tadpole ecological functions during metamorphosis. Our study provides the first detailed qualitative and quantitative developmental information about these structures. Our results have confirmed that skeletal elements (viz., neopalatines, omosternum, clavicles and procoracoids) absent in adults are not detected during development. Our data reveal that morphologically, radical transformations of the cranial structures related to feeding and breathing are completed within stages 42-45 (72 h), but the relative length and width of these skeletons have changed in earlier stages. The postcranial skeletons correlated with locomotion are well developed before stage 42 and approach the adult morphology at stage 45. Indeed, the relative length of the pectoral girdle and forelimb reaches the adult level at stage 42 and stage 45, respectively, whereas that of the vertebral column, pelvic girdle and hind limbs increases from their appearance until reaching adulthood. Based on published accounts of 19 species from Neobatrachia, Mesobatrachia and Archaeobatrachia, cranial elements are among the first ossified skeletons in most studied species, whereas sphenethmoids, neopalatines, quadratojugals, mentomeckelians, carpals and tarsals tend to ossify after metamorphosis. These results will help us to better understand the ecomorphological transformations of anurans from aquatic to terrestrial life. Meanwhile, detailed morphological and quantitative accounts of the osteological development of Microhyla fissipes will provide a foundation for further study.

14.
Vascular ; : 17085381211032772, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256629
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224981

RESUMO

Corticosterone (CORT)-mediated adaptive plasticity improves animal fitness in stressful environments. Although it brings ecological benefits, the cost potentially constrains its expression and evolution. Revealing the factors affecting plasticity costs is of great ecological and evolutionary significance. Evidence indicates that both CORT and background colour can induce metabolic changes in animals, which in turn determine phenotypic plasticity. However, whether and/or how CORT and background colour jointly act on plastic responses has not been studied. Here, this question has been investigated in amphibian tadpoles (Microhyla fissipes) exposed to CORT at different background colours (white or black) using integrated morphological, histological, and transcriptomic analyses. The results showed that CORT exposure increased relative tail length, immune function, and metabolic maintenance (i.e., transcription of substrate catabolism and oxidative phosphorylation) at the expense of reduction in growth rate and skin melanin level. The black background also increased relative tail length and metabolic maintenance (i.e., transcription of oxidative phosphorylation) at the cost of reduction in growth rate, but increased skin melanin level. The expression of critical pigmentation genes indicated that black background activated a distinct and opposite pigmentation regulating route to CORT. Although there was no interactive effect of background colour and CORT on phenotypic and metabolic variations, their additive effects further impact the trade-off between somatic growth, metabolic maintenance, and pigmentation in terms of resource allocation. In conclusion, the individual and additive effects of background colour and CORT exposure on tadpole plasticity were revealed. These results likely provide new insights into the environmental adaptation of animals.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Anuros/fisiologia , Cor , Corticosterona/farmacologia , Larva/fisiologia , Pigmentação , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma
16.
Zootaxa ; 4985(1): 136, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186673

RESUMO

Four new water mite species of the genus Hygrobates, subgenus Lurchibates (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae) are described. Hygrobates (Lurchibates) macrochela sp. nov. Goldschmidt, Nishikawa Shimano is described in male and female; Hygrobates (Lurchibates) malosimilis sp. nov. Goldschmidt, Nishikawa Shimano is described in male, both new water mite species were collected from newts of the species Pachytriton inexpectatus Nishikawa, Jiang, Matsui Mo, 2011; Hygrobates (Lurchibates) incognitus sp. nov. Goldschmidt, Nishikawa Shimano is described in female collected from newts of the species Paramesotriton guangxiensis (Huang, Tang and Tang, 1983); Hygrobates (Lurchibates) fragmentarius sp. nov. Goldschmidt, Nishikawa Shimano is described in a single severely fragmented specimen (sex could not be determined) collected from a newt of the species Paramesotriton yunwuensis Wu, Jiang, and Hanken, 2010. Principal differences between the subgenus Lurchibates and the nominal subgenus Hygrobates s. str. are illustrated and discussed as well as the sexual dimorphism of Lurchibates. Morphometric analyses confirmed the morphological differences of ten out of the eleven so far described species (H. (L.) fragmentarius could not be included in the analysis); two morphological groups became evident mainly based upon the shape of the anterior coxae. These analyses as well provide an idea of possible phylogenetic relationships among the species. A key to all currently known species of the subgenus Lurchibates is given. So far the subgenus is restricted to SE-Asia, a map showing the distribution of all species is presented.


Assuntos
Ácaros/classificação , Salamandridae/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Feminino , Masculino , Ácaros/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Água
17.
Zool Res ; 42(4): 412-416, 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075734

RESUMO

Functional diversity is an integrative approach to better understand biodiversity across space and time. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns (i.e., elevation and season) and environmental determinants of anuran functional diversity on Tianping Mountain, northwest Hunan, China. Specifically, 10 transects were established from low (300 m a.s.l.) to high (1 492 m a.s.l.) elevations, and anuran communities were sampled in spring, early summer, midsummer, and autumn in 2017. Four functional diversity indices were computed for each transect in each season using ecomorphological functional traits. Our results demonstrated that these indices had contrasting responses to increasing elevations. However, they did not differ significantly among seasons in terms of temporal patterns. Interestingly, the unique spatiotemporal functional diversity patterns were impacted by distinct environmental variables, such as leaf litter cover, water temperature, number of trees, and water conductivity.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Anuros/classificação , Biodiversidade , Clima , Florestas , Altitude , Animais , Anuros/fisiologia
18.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 622744, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953669

RESUMO

Small intestine injury is an adverse effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that urgently needs to be addressed for their safe application. Although pure total flavonoids from citrus (PTFC) have been marketed for the treatment of digestive diseases, their effects on small intestine injury and the underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of autophagy in the mechanism of NSAID (diclofenac)-induced intestinal injury in vivo and in vitro and to demonstrate the protective effects of PTFC against NSAID-induced small intestine disease. The results of qRT-PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry showed that the expression levels of autophagy-related 5 (Atg5), light chain 3 (LC3)-II, and tight junction (TJ) proteins ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin were decreased in rats with NSAID-induced small intestine injury and diclofenac-treated IEC-6 cells compared with the control groups. In the PTFC group, Atg5 and LC3-II expression, TJ protein expression, and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio increased. Furthermore, the mechanism by which PTFC promotes autophagy in vivo and in vitro was evaluated by western blotting. Expression levels of p-PI3K and p-Akt increased in the intestine disease-induced rat model group compared with the control, but decreased in the PTFC group. Autophagy of IEC-6 cells was upregulated after treatment with a PI3K inhibitor, and the upregulation was significantly more after PTFC treatment, suggesting PTFC promoted autophagy through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In conclusion, PTFC protected intestinal barrier integrity by promoting autophagy, which demonstrates its potential as a therapeutic candidate for NSAID-induced small intestine injury.

19.
Zookeys ; 1036: 47-74, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017214

RESUMO

The Microhyla heymonsi species complex from central Vietnam was examined, and based upon morphological and molecular evidence, two new species are described. The discovery of Microhyla daklakensis sp. nov. and Microhyla ninhthuanensis sp. nov. brings the total number of known species in the genus to 46 and the species number of Microhyla in Vietnam to 13. The Truong Son Range harbors the highest diversity of the genus Microhyla with 11 recorded species so far. However, this apparent micro-endemic diversity is at risk because of habitat loss by deforestation, which highlights the necessity of further research leading to improved conservation measures.

20.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(5): 503, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791012

RESUMO

Treatment for higher-risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) should aim to modify the disease course by avoiding progression to acute myeloid leukemia and improving survival. When a patient is not eligible for intensive chemotherapy and lacks a donor hematopoietic cell source, or for a patient in a poor economic situation, consideration can be given to the use of Chinese herbal medicine. Numerous plant extracts, such as camptothecin, vinblastine and paclitaxel, have been reported to display antitumor effects, serving as potential therapeutic strategies for cancer. In the present study, the ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system (Waters Corporation) was used to detect the main chemical components of HDE, CCK-8 assay to detect the effects of HDE and BIIB021 on the proliferation of SKM-1 cells; and designed hTERT-small interfering (si)RNAs to detect the effects of HDE and BIIB021 on SKM-1 cell apoptosis after HTERT gene knockdown. The present study investigated a newly extracted coumarin HDE, the active component in Oldenlandia diffusa Willd, which efficiently inhibited SKM-1 (MDS cell line) proliferation and induced apoptosis, as determined by performing Cell Counting Kit-8 and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The effect of HDE was associated with decreased telomerase activity. Moreover, heat shock protein 90 inhibitor BIIB021 significantly enhanced the antitumor effects of HDE on SKM-1 cells. In addition, SKM-1 cell apoptosis was increased in human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)-knockdown cells compared with the negative control group. Cell apoptosis in hTERT-knockdown SKM-1 cells was further enhanced following HDE, BIIB021 or combination treatment, as evidenced by increased levels of cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 8 and cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase. Collectively, the results indicated synergistic antitumor effects of HDE and BIIB021, providing a novel therapeutic combination for higher-risk MDS.

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