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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(21)2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771880

RESUMO

In this study, femtosecond laser double pulses were tested to improve their nickel ablation efficiency. The experimental results indicated that compared with single pulses, double pulses with different delay times generated craters with larger diameters and depths. The results obtained for three sets of double pulses with different energy ratios indicated that double pulses with an energy ratio of 1:9 had the highest ablation efficiency, followed by those with energy ratios of 2:8 and 5:5. The double pulses with the aforementioned three energy ratios achieved the maximum ablation efficiency when the delay time was 3-4 ps. Compared with single pulses, double pulses with an energy ratio of 1:9 generated craters with an up to 34% greater depth and up to 14% larger diameter. In addition, an interference effect was observed with a double pulse delay time of 0 ps, which has seldom been reported in the literature. The double pulses were simulated using the two-temperature model. The simulation results indicated that double pulses with an energy ratio of 1:9 with a delay time of 4 ps can perform the strongest ablation. These simulation results are in line with the experimental results.

2.
JCI Insight ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784299

RESUMO

CPVL (Carboxypeptidase, vitellogenic-like) is a serine carboxypeptidase which was first characterized in human macrophages. However, the function of CPVL remains unclear in a variety of tumors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays were utilized to measure the CPVL expression. CPVL was significantly upregulated in glioma cells and tissues compared to normal cells and tissues, respectively. Moreover, high CPVL expression was correlated with advanced clinical grade and poor prognosis. Silencing of CPVL promoted glioma cell apoptosis, inhibited cell proliferation and tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) demonstrated that CPVL silencing activated the IFN-γ/STAT1 signaling pathway, thereby inducing glioma cell apoptosis. Mechnistically, immunopurification, mass spectrometry, immunoprecipitation (IP), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down experiments elucidated that CPVL physically interacts with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and downregulates the STAT1 phosphorylation through promoting p300-mediated STAT1 acetylation. For the first time, our findings revealed the crucial role of CPVL in promoting the progression of glioma through suppressing STAT1 phosphorylation. CPVL might serve as a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma.

3.
Med Care ; 59(12): 1082-1089, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have identified lower mortality in Black Veterans compared with White Veterans after hospitalization for common medical conditions, but these studies adjusted for comorbid conditions identified in administrative claims. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to compare mortality for non-Hispanic White (hereafter, "White"), non-Hispanic Black (hereafter, "Black"), and Hispanic Veterans hospitalized for heart failure (HF) and pneumonia and determine whether observed mortality differences varied according to whether claims-based comorbid conditions and/or clinical variables were included in risk-adjustment models. RESEARCH DESIGN: This was an observational study. SUBJECTS: The study cohort included 143,520 admissions for HF and 127,782 admissions for pneumonia for Veterans hospitalized in 132 Veterans Health Administration (VA) Medical Centers between January 2009 and September 2015. MEASURES: The primary independent variable was racial/ethnic group (ie, Black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White), and the outcome was all-cause mortality 30 days following admission. To compare mortality by race/ethnicity, we used logistic regression models that included different combinations of claims-based, clinical, and sociodemographic variables. For each model, we estimated the average marginal effect (AME) for Black and Hispanic Veterans relative to White Veterans. RESULTS: Among the 143,520 (127,782) hospitalizations for HF (pneumonia), the average patient age was 71.6 (70.9) years and 98.4% (97.1%) were male. The unadjusted 30-day mortality rates for HF (pneumonia) were 7.2% (11.0%) for White, 4.1% (10.4%) for Black and 8.4% (16.9%) for Hispanic Veterans. Relative to White Veterans, when only claims-based variables were used for risk adjustment, the AME (95% confidence interval) for the HF [pneumonia] cohort was -2.17 (-2.45, -1.89) [0.08 (-0.41, 0.58)] for Black Veterans and 1.32 (0.49, 2.15) [4.51 (3.65, 5.38)] for Hispanic Veterans. When clinical variables were incorporated in addition to claims-based ones, the AME, relative to White Veterans, for the HF [pneumonia] cohort was -1.57 (-1.88, -1.27) [-0.83 (-1.31, -0.36)] for Black Veterans and 1.50 (0.71, 2.30) [3.30 (2.49, 4.11)] for Hispanic Veterans. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with White Veterans, Black Veterans had lower mortality, and Hispanic Veterans had higher mortality for HF and pneumonia. The inclusion of clinical variables into risk-adjustment models impacted the magnitude of racial/ethnic differences in mortality following hospitalization. Future studies examining racial/ethnic disparities should consider including clinical variables for risk adjustment.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0248034, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752458

RESUMO

Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor (ROR) γt is a member of the RORC nuclear hormone receptor family of transcription factors. RORγt functions as a critical regulator of thymopoiesis and immune responses. RORγt is expressed in multiple immune cell populations including Th17 cells, where its primary function is regulation of immune responses to bacteria and fungi through IL-17A production. However, excessive IL-17A production has been linked to numerous autoimmune diseases. Moreover, Th17 cells have been shown to elicit both pro- and anti-tumor effects. Thus, modulation of the RORγt/IL-17A axis may represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and some cancers. Herein we report the design, synthesis and characterization of three selective allosteric RORγt inhibitors in preclinical models of inflammation and tumor growth. We demonstrate that these compounds can inhibit Th17 differentiation and maintenance in vitro and Th17-dependent inflammation and associated gene expression in vivo, in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, RORγt inhibitors were assessed for efficacy against tumor formation. While, RORγt inhibitors were shown to inhibit tumor formation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) organoids in vitro and modulate RORγt target genes in vivo, this activity was not sufficient to delay tumor volume in a KP/C human tumor mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

5.
Cell Rep ; 37(7): 109937, 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788606

RESUMO

Acetyl ligation to the amino acids in a protein is an important posttranslational modification. However, in contrast to lysine acetylation, N-terminal acetylation is elusive in terms of its cellular functions. Here, we identify Nat3 as an N-terminal acetyltransferase essential for autophagy, a catabolic pathway for bulk transport and degradation of cytoplasmic components. We identify the actin cytoskeleton constituent Act1 and dynamin-like GTPase Vps1 (vacuolar protein sorting 1) as substrates for Nat3-mediated N-terminal acetylation of the first methionine. Acetylated Act1 forms actin filaments and therefore promotes the transport of Atg9 vesicles for autophagosome formation; acetylated Vps1 recruits and facilitates bundling of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor) complex for autophagosome fusion with vacuoles. Abolishment of the N-terminal acetylation of Act1 and Vps1 is associated with blockage of upstream and downstream steps of the autophagy process. Therefore, our work shows that protein N-terminal acetylation plays a critical role in controlling autophagy by fine-tuning multiple steps in the process.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(20): 5341-5350, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738438

RESUMO

The present study investigated the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanism of Jinqi Jiangtang Tablets(JQJT) on pancreatic ß cell dysfunction based on network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. TCMSP platform was used to retrieve the chemical components and targets of the three Chinese herbal medicines of JQJT. The genes were converted to gene symbol by the UniProt, and its intersection with targets related to pancreatic ß cell function in GeneCards and CTD databases was obtained. The drugs, active components and common targets were imported into Cytoscape 3.8.2 to plot the drug-component-target network. The main effective components and targets were obtained by software analysis. The drug targets and targets related to pancreatic ß cell function were imported separately into the STRING platform for the construction of protein-protein interaction(PPI) networks. The two PPI networks were merged by Cytoscape 3.8.2 and the key targets were obtained by plug-in CytoNCA. The targets obtained from drug-component-target network and PPI networks were imported into DAVID for GO analysis and KEGG enrichment analysis. AutoDock was used to carry out molecular docking of main active components and core targets and Pymol was used to plot the molecular docking diagram. The results showed that there were 371 active components and 203 targets related to JQJT and 2 523 targets related to pancreatic ß cell damage, covering 136 common targets. The results revealed core targets(such as PTGS2, PTGS1, NOS2, ESR1 and RXRA) and effective key components(such as quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, ß-carotene and ß-sitosterol). KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that apoptosis, inflammation, and other signaling pathways were mainly involved. Molecular docking results showed that the main active components could spontaneously bind to the targets. This study preliminarily revealed the mechanism of JQJT in improving pancreatic ß cell damage through multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway, and provided a theoretical basis for JQJT in the treatment of pancreatic ß cell dysfunction.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Células Secretoras de Insulina , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Comprimidos , Tecnologia
7.
Opt Express ; 29(15): 24237-24254, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614673

RESUMO

A psychophysical experiment using 3D printed samples was conducted to investigate the change of perceived color differences caused by two different illuminations and two 3D sample shapes. 150 pairs of 3D printed samples around five CIE color centers [Color Res. Appl. 20, 399-403, 1995], consisting of 75 pairs of spherical samples and 75 pairs of flat samples, with a wide range of color differences covering from small to large magnitude, were printed by an Mcor Iris paper-based 3D color printer. Each pair was assessed twice by a panel of 10 observers using a gray-scale psychophysical method in a spectral tunable LED viewing cabinet with two types of light sources: diffuse lighting with and without an additional overhead spotlight. The experimental results confirmed that the lighting conditions had more effect on the perceived color difference between complex 3D shapes than between 2D objects. The results for 3D and 2D objects were more similar under only diffuse lighting. Current 3D results had good correlations with previous ones [Color Res. Appl. 24, 356-368, 1999; J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 36, 789-799, 2019] using 2D samples with large color differences, meaning that color-difference magnitude had more effect on perceived color differences than sample shape and lighting. Considering ten modern color-difference formulas, the best predictions of the current experimental data were found for CAM02-LCD formula [Color Res. Appl. 31, 320-330, 2006]. For current results, it was also found that predictions of current color-difference formulas were below average inter-observer variability, and remarkable improvements were found by adding power corrections [Opt. Express 23, 597-610, 2015].

8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(8): 2703-2712, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664442

RESUMO

To understand the effects of straw return modes on soil carbon pools, we investigated total soil organic carbon (SOC), labile organic carbon fractions, and inorganic carbon (SIC) in different straw return modes at a depth of 0-40 cm under a maize-wheat cropping system in the Guanzhong Plain, Shaanxi, based on an 11-year field experiment. There were five straw return modes, i.e., no return of straw of both wheat and maize (CK), the retention of high wheat stubble plus the return of chopped maize straw (WH-MC), the return of both chopped wheat and maize straw (WC-MC), the retention of high wheat stubble and no return of maize straw (WH-MN), and the return of chopped wheat straw and no return of maize straw (WC-MN). The proportions of SOC storage were significantly higher under the WH-MC and WC-MC treatments than that under the CK by 28.1% and 22.2%, respectively. The proportions of SIC storage were increased by 20.4% and 17.3%, respectively. Compared with the initial value, the increases of sequestered SOC and SIC ranged from -0.84 t·hm-2 to 6.55 t·hm-2, respectively, and from -0.26 t·hm-2 to 8.61 t·hm-2, respectively. The efficiency of sequestration of SOC was 7.5%. To maintain the basic SOC level, the minimum carbon input from straw was 4.65 t·hm-2·a-1. The contents of labile carbon fractions at the 0-20 cm layer increased significantly under the WH-MC and WC-MC treatments compared with those of the control. Results of principal component analysis showed that the changes in soil carbon pools were primarily affected by the amount of straw return. Additionally, the increases in SIC storage could be ascribed to the Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions derived from irrigation water and plant residues that could coprecipitate with the CO2 from SOC mineralization to form CaCO3. In conclusion, our results indicated that the straw return mode that utilized the retention of high wheat stubble and chopped maize straw was sufficient to maintain soil carbon storage and would be the optimal straw-returning strategy for the region.


Assuntos
Solo , Triticum , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , China , Zea mays
9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(43): 51736-51745, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668690

RESUMO

Optical security involving the use of light to achieve distinctive vision effects has become a widely used approach for anticounterfeiting. Holographic multiplexing has attracted considerable interest in multiplexing security due to its high degree of freedom for manipulating the optical parameters of incident laser beams. However, the complex and time-consuming fabrication process of metasurface-based holograms and the sophisticated nature of holographic imaging systems have hindered the practical application of holographic multiplexing in anticounterfeiting. Combining holography with shape memory polymers to construct reconfigurable holograms provides a simple and efficient way for holographic multiplexing. This paper proposes a reconfigurable four-level amplitude hologram fabricated on a heat-shrinkable shape memory polymer using spatially modulated femtosecond laser pulses. Simply by triggering the shape recovery of the polymer through heating, the amplitude modulation of light by the hologram is reconfigured through the shrinking of processed microcrater pixels with three diameters, which enables variation to be achieved in reconstructed holographic images. Examples of holographic multiplexing and data encryption are used to validate the proposed method. The proposed economic and simple approach for holographic multiplexing provides an integrated and single-material solution to packaging and optical security, which has extensive potential in anticounterfeiting and optical encryption.

10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 3361309, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580638

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypoglycemic drugs affect the bone quality and the risk of fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to investigate the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and insulin on bone mineral density (BMD) in T2DM. Methods: In this single-blinded study, a total of 65 patients with T2DM were randomly assigned into four groups for 52 weeks: the exenatide group (n = 19), dulaglutide group (n = 19), insulin glargine group (n = 10), and placebo (n = 17). General clinical data were collected, and BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Compared with baseline, the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) decreased significantly in the exenatide (8.11 ± 0.24% vs. 7.40 ± 0.16%, P = 0.007), dulaglutide (8.77 ± 0.37% vs. 7.06 ± 0.28%, P < 0.001), and insulin glargine (8.57 ± 0.24% vs. 7.23 ± 0.25%, P < 0.001) groups after treatment. In the exenatide group, the BMD of the total hip increased. In the dulaglutide group, only the BMD of the femoral neck decreased (P = 0.027), but the magnitude of decrease was less than that in the placebo group; the BMD of L1-L4, femoral neck, and total hip decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the placebo group, while in the insulin glargine group, the BMD of L2, L4, and L1-4 increased (P < 0.05). Compared with the placebo group, the BMD of the femoral neck and total hip in the exenatide group and the insulin glargine group were increased significantly (P < 0.05); compared with the exenatide group, the BMD of L4 in the insulin glargine group was also increased (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Compared with the placebo, GLP-1RAs demonstrated an increase of BMD at multiple sites of the body after treatment, which may not exacerbate the consequences of bone fragility. Therefore, GLP-1RAs might be considered for patients with T2DM. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01648582.

11.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571719

RESUMO

Diapause is a developmental transition in insects based on seasonal adaptation to adversity; it is regulated by a circadian clock system and the endocrine system. However, the molecular node and its mechanism underlying the effects of these systems are still unclear. Here, a mutant of Bombyx mori with the circadian clock gene Period (Per) knocked out was constructed, which dramatically changed the classic diapause-destined pathway. Per-knockout silkworms powerfully attenuated, but could not completely block, the predetermined effects of temperature and photoperiod on diapause determination, and this effect depended on the diapause hormone (DH) pathway. The impaired transcription-translation feedback loop of the circadian clock system lacking the Per gene caused direct up-regulation of the expression of GRD, a receptor of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), by changing expression level of Cycle. The synthesis of GABA in the tissue complex of brain-suboesophageal ganglion then increased and restricted the decomposition, which continuously promoted the GABAergic signal to play a role, and finally inhibiting (delaying) the release of DH to the hemolymph, and reducing the diapause-inducing effect of DH. The results provided an example to explain the regulatory mechanism of the circadian clock on endocrine hormones in the silkworm.

12.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(11): 2955-2969, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sarcopenia has increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. The influence of glucose-lowering drugs on muscles in these patients remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between muscle mass/function and glucose-lowering drugs. METHODS: Data of 1042 hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes were included in this retrospective, cross-sectional study. All the patients had stable hypoglycemic therapy in the last 3 months, and performed bioelectrical impedance analysis, grip strength, and gait speed tests on admission. RESULTS: Skeletal muscle index [6.81 (95% CI 6.67, 6.94) vs. 7.17 (7.09, 7.24) kg/m2], handgrip strength [23.41 (22.24, 24.58) vs. 26.93 (26.33, 27.54) kg], and gait speed [1.19 (1.15, 1.22) vs. 1.27 (1.25, 1.28) m/s] decreased in patients using acarbose compared with the others (all p < 0.001). Gait speed and skeletal muscle index remained lower in patients using acarbose compared to their matched patients in propensity score matching (p = 0.036 and 0.010, respectively). Among drug-naïve patients and patients using insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, or acarbose monotherapy, the acarbose group had lowest skeletal muscle index and handgrip strength [6.81 (6.52, 7.11) kg/m2 and 22.54 (19.28, 25.79) kg, p = 0.028 and 0.001, respectively]. CONCLUSION: Acarbose treatment was associated with decreased muscle mass and strength. Assessment and exercise of muscles in patients with long-term acarbose treatment should be considered.

13.
Curr Biol ; 31(20): 4571-4583.e4, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473948

RESUMO

Memory enables access to past experiences to guide future behavior. Humans can determine which memories to trust (high confidence) and which to doubt (low confidence). How memory retrieval, memory confidence, and memory-guided decisions are related, however, is not understood. In particular, how confidence in memories is used in decision making is unknown. We developed a spatial memory task in which rats were incentivized to gamble their time: betting more following a correct choice yielded greater reward. Rat behavior reflected memory confidence, with higher temporal bets following correct choices. We applied machine learning to identify a memory decision variable and built a generative model of memories evolving over time that accurately predicted both choices and confidence reports. Our results reveal in rats an ability thought to exist exclusively in primates and introduce a unified model of memory dynamics, retrieval, choice, and confidence.

14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6618257, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497852

RESUMO

Background: This study is aimed at investigating whether dapagliflozin adjunct to insulin therapy further improves glycemic control compared to insulin therapy alone in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: This single-centre, randomized, controlled, open-labeled trial recruited newly diagnosed T2D patients. Subjects were randomized 1 : 1 to the dapagliflozin add-on to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) group (DAPA) or the CSII therapy group for 5 weeks. Standard meal tests were performed 3 times at days -3, 7, and 35 for glucose, C-peptide, and insulin level determination. Two-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was performed at baseline and at the end of the study. The primary endpoint was the difference in the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGEs) between the groups. Results: A total of 66 subjects completed the study, with 34 and 32 patients in the DAPA and CSII groups, respectively. Patients in the DAPA group exhibited significant decreases in MAGE levels at the endpoint. We also observed that patients in the DAPA group had a lower homoeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and a higher homoeostasis model assessment B (HOMA-B) value at 1 week and 5 weeks compared to those with insulin therapy, respectively. In addition, our data showed that patients in the DAPA group showed a significantly lower insulin dose (0.07 U/kg) and weighed less than those in the CSII group. Conclusion: Our data indicate that dapagliflozin adjunct to insulin is a safe and effective therapy for improving glycemic variations, insulin sensitivity, and weight loss in newly diagnosed T2D patients.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peptídeo C/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Infusões Subcutâneas/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
15.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; : 34894211040900, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416839

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) have significant vocal dysfunction which affects their performance at work. This study aimed to evaluate voice-related work productivity before and after ablative treatment for RRP. METHODS: This is a prospective case series conducted at 2 academic laryngology outpatient clinics. Adult employed patients with RRP completed the Work Productivity & Activity Impairment instrument (WPAI), Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10), WorkHoarse, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and a demographics questionnaire immediately before and 1 month after ablative treatment of papilloma. The primary outcome measure was the change in work productivity impairment domain of the WPAI, and changes in ratings before and after ablation were compared using a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. RESULTS: The 32 participants (mean age 45, 84% male) had a median (interquartile range) voice-related work productivity impairment score of 48.8% (30.0) at baseline which was improved to 5.0% (10.0) at 1 month after surgical ablation of papillomata (difference 30.0% (30.0) improvement). For the secondary outcome measures, there were significant improvements in VHI-10 (P < .001), self-reported voice quality (P = .002), and Workhoarse (P = .001), but no significant change in HADS. CONCLUSION: Patients with RRP experience significant voice-related work productivity impairment, and ablation of papillomata significantly improves work productivity.

16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 299, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prevalence of myopia in school students in Urumqi, China, and explore the influence of the interaction between parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits on myopia to identify the at-risk population and provide evidence to help school students avoid developing myopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 6,883 school students aged 7-20 years in Urumqi in December 2019. The Standard Eye Chart and mydriatic optometry were used to determine whether students had myopia. Falconer's method was used to calculate the heritability of parental myopia. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the risk factors for myopia and the additive and multiplicative interaction of parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits. RESULTS: After standardizing the age of the 6,883 students, the overall prevalence rate of myopia was 47.50 %. The heritability of parental myopia was 66.57 % for boys, 67.82 % for girls, 65.02 % for the Han group, and 52.71 % for other ethnicities. There were additive interactions between parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits; among them, parental myopia and poor eye habits when reading and writing (the distance between the eyes and book is less than 30 cm when reading and writing, fingers block the sight of one eye while holding the pen, and leaning one's body when reading and writing; habit 1) increased the risk of myopia by 10.99 times (odds ratio [OR] = 10.99, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 8.33-14.68), parental myopia and poor reading posture (reading while lying down, walking, or in the car; habit 2) increased the risk of myopia by 5.92 times (OR = 5.92, 95 % CI = 4.84-7.27). There was no multiplicative interaction between parental myopia and habit 1 or habit 2 (OR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.44-1.08; OR = 0.89, 95 % CI = 0.66-1.21, respectively). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of myopia among students in Urumqi, Xinjiang is relatively high. The risk of developing myopia is affected by parental myopia and poor reading and writing habits. In addition, parental myopia amplifies the harm caused by poor reading and writing habits, thereby increasing the risk of myopia. Students with parents who have myopia should be targeted during myopia prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Miopia , Leitura , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Pais , Postura , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Redação
17.
Mol Cells ; 44(8): 557-568, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385407

RESUMO

Global knockout of the BK channel has been proven to affect bone formation; however, whether it directly affects osteoblast differentiation and the mechanism are elusive. In the current study, we further investigated the role of BK channels in bone development and explored whether BK channels impacted the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts via the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrated that knockout of Kcnma1 disrupted the osteogenesis of osteoblasts and inhibited the stabilization of ß-catenin. Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of Axin1 and USP7 increased when Kcnma1 was deficient. Together, this study confirmed that BK ablation decreased bone mass via the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Our findings also showed that USP7 might have the ability to stabilize the activity of Axin1, which would increase the degradation of ß-catenin in osteoblasts.

18.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455710

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common diabetes-related microvascular complication. The relationship between peripheral nerve function and glucose variability is unclear. We investigated the association of glucose variability with subclinical diabetic polyneuropathy in a large-scale sample of patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 509 individuals with type 2 diabetes who were screened for diabetic peripheral neuropathy and monitored using a continuous glucose monitoring system. Multiple glycemic variability parameters, including the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, glucose standard deviation (SDgluc ) and glucose coefficient of variation were calculated from 3-day glucose profiles obtained from continuous glucose monitoring. All participants underwent nerve conduction studies, and the composite Z-scores for nerve conduction parameters were calculated. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that SDgluc and the conventional risk factor hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were independently associated with abnormal nerve function, and the corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.198 (1.027-1.397, SDgluc ) and 1.182 (1.061-1.316, HbA1c), respectively. The composite Z-score of nerve conduction velocity and response amplitude obviously decreased with greater SDgluc , and the composite Z-score of distal latency significantly increased with increasing tertiles of SDgluc (all P trend <0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, diabetes duration and HbA1c, SDgluc was independently associated with nerve conduction velocity (ß = -0.124, P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: The SDgluc is a significant independent contributor to subclinical diabetic polyneuropathy, in addition to conventional risk factors including diabetes duration and HbA1c.

19.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11557-11567, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431667

RESUMO

The lockdown due to COVID-19 created a rare opportunity to examine the nonlinear responses of secondary aerosols, which are formed through atmospheric oxidation of gaseous precursors, to intensive precursor emission reductions. Based on unique observational data sets from six supersites in eastern China during 2019-2021, we found that the lockdown caused considerable decreases (32-61%) in different secondary aerosol components in the study region because of similar-degree precursor reductions. However, due to insufficient combustion-related volatile organic compound (VOC) reduction, odd oxygen (Ox = O3 + NO2) concentration, an indicator of the extent of photochemical processing, showed little change and did not promote more decreases in secondary aerosols. We also found that the Chinese provinces and international cities that experienced reduced Ox during the lockdown usually gained a greater simultaneous PM2.5 decrease than other provinces and cities with an increased Ox. Therefore, we argue that strict VOC control in winter, which has been largely ignored so far, is critical in future policies to mitigate winter haze more efficiently by reducing Ox simultaneously.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , COVID-19 , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Oxigênio , Material Particulado/análise , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 347, 2021 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with impaired quality of life. We identified indoor environmental risk factors, to provide strong evidence for the prevention and control of eczema in preschool children. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study with stratified random cluster sampling, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey among 8153 parents of children aged 2-8 years in 60 kindergartens in six districts of Urumqi city during August 2019. RESULTS: Among 8153 preschool children, 12.0% of the children have been diagnosed with eczema. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that caesarean section (odds ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.36), being an only child (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.18-1.57), presence of mould or moisture in the mother's home before pregnancy (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.17-2.00), presence of flies or mosquitoes in the dwelling currently (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.55), pets kept in the child's home currently (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.01-1.51), presence of pets during child's first year (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.14-1.85), and family history of eczema (OR = 3.53, 95% CI: 2.98-4.19) are the risk factors for the development of eczema, whereas ethnicity other than the Han Chinese (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.61-0.96) is a protective factor for eczema. CONCLUSION: Preschool children in Urumqi are at a high risk of eczema, particularly those of the Han Chinese ethnicity. Parents should be attentive to the indoor living environment of children and take actions to reduce indoor humidity, pest control and elimination, and avoid raising pets to reduce the risk of development of eczema in children.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Eczema , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Eczema/epidemiologia , Eczema/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
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