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1.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 16(1): 583, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629096

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The analgesic efficacy of magnesium sulphate added to bupivacaine for arthroscopy remains controversial. We conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of magnesium sulphate in combination with bupivacaine for arthroscopy. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases through July 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of magnesium sulphate plus bupivacaine versus bupivacaine for arthroscopy. This meta-analysis is performed using the random-effect model. RESULTS: Six RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with bupivacaine for arthroscopy, combination analgesia using magnesium plus bupivacaine was associated with significantly prolonged duration of analgesia (SMD=0.93; 95% CI=0.27 to 1.60; P=0.006) and first time to analgesic requirement (SMD=196.57; 95% CI=13.90 to 379.24; P=0.03), reduced pain scores (SMD=-1.71; 95% CI=-2.96 to -0.46; P=0.007) and analgesic consumption (SMD=-1.04; 95% CI=-1.49 to -0.60; P<0.00001), but showed no remarkable influence on nausea or vomiting (OR=1.54; 95% CI=0.60 to 3.97; P=0.37). CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium sulphate added to bupivacaine may significantly improve the analgesic efficacy for arthroscopy.

2.
Mol Omics ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633404

RESUMO

Sea anemones have been recommended as critical bioindicators for marine environmental stressors; however, the understanding of the biological effects in response to sublethal pollutant exposure is still limited. In this study, NMR-based metabolomics was performed to investigate the effects of atrazine on Exaiptasia diaphana with concentrations ranging from 3 to 90 ppb. As a result, the metabolic profiling of E. diaphana was significantly affected after 70 ppb treatment while a partial perturbation was observed as early as 3 ppb treatment. Glutamate was significantly changed at low atrazine concentrations with increased upregulation in concentrated atrazine experiments which is a potential biomarker for E. diaphana exposed to atrazine stressors. The TCA intermediates succinate and malate as well as the TCA cycle-related metabolites such as alanine, glycine, and taurine downregulated after atrazine treatment which also indicated the lower energy supply of E. diaphana. In summary, our study demonstrated that significant metabolic level perturbation could be detected at low atrazine concentrations before a physical change could be observed, and glutamate or the nitrogen metabolism may be the initial target for sea anemones by atrazine. The study may provide pioneering results for using E. diaphana to predict the impacts of exposure to atrazine toxin in marine systems.

3.
Proteins ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622987

RESUMO

The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is a calcium-permeable cation channel activated by high concentrations of extracellular ATP. It plays a role in vital physiological processes, particularly in innate immunity, and is dysregulated in pathological conditions such as inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, mood disorders and cancers. Structural modelling of the human P2X7R (hP2X7R) based on the recently available structures of the rat P2X7 receptor (rP2XR) in conjunction with molecular docking predicts the orientation of tyrosine at position 288 (Y288) in the extracellular domain to face ATP. In this short communication, we combined site-directed mutagenesis and whole-cell patch clamp recording to investigate the role of this residue in the hP2X7R function. Mutation of this extracellular residue to amino acids with different properties massively impaired current responses to both ATP and BzATP, suggesting that Y288 is important for normal receptor function. Such a finding facilitates development of an in-depth understanding of the molecular basis of hP2X7R structure-function relationships. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 9945934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603439

RESUMO

With the development of society, deep learning has been widely used in object detection, face recognition, speech recognition, and other fields. Among them, object detection is a popular direction in computer vision and digital image processing, and face detection is a focus of this hot direction. Although face detection technology has gone through a long research stage, it is still considered as one of the more difficult subjects in human feature detection technology. In addition, the face detection technology itself has two sides, imperceptibility and complexity of the environment, and other defects cause the existing technology to be unable to accurately recognize faces of different proportions, obscured and different postures. Therefore, this paper adopts an advanced deep learning method based on machine vision to detect human faces automatically. In order to accurately detect a variety of human faces, a multiscale fast RCNN method based on upper and lower layers (UPL-RCNN) is proposed. The network is composed of spatial affine transformation components and feature region components (ROI). This method plays a vital role in face detection. First of all, multiscale information can be grouped in detection, so as to deal with small areas of the face. Then, the method can use the inspiration of the human visual system to perform contextual reasoning and spatial transformation, including zooming, cutting, and rotating. Through comparative experiments, the analysis results show that this method can not only accurately detect human faces but also has better performance than fast RCNN. Compared with some advanced methods, this method has the advantages of high accuracy, less time consumption, and no correlation mark.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Postura , Resolução de Problemas
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0022921, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643439

RESUMO

Black morel is a widely prized ascomycetous mushroom with culinary value. It was once uncultivable but can now be cultivated routinely in ordinary farmland soils. Large-scale morel farming sometimes encounters nonfructification for unknown reasons. In spring 2020, many morel farms in the area of Chengdu-Plain, China, exhibited no fructification at all, causing disastrous economic loss to the farmers. To determine potential ecological factors associated with the different performance of morel production in these farms, 21 affected sites versus 11 sites with normal fructification performance were analyzed to compare soil microbiota and physiochemical characteristics during fructification. The results indicated that soil physiochemical characteristics were unlikely to be a major reason for the difference between successful fructification and nonfructification. The soils with successful fructification had significantly higher diversity in both the fungal and bacterial communities than those with nonfructification. Morel yield was positively correlated with the α-diversity of fungal communities. The higher diversity of the successfully fructified soils was contributed by community evenness rather than taxonomic richness. In contrast, most nonfructification soils were dominated by a high proportion of a certain fungal genus, typically Acremonium or Mortierella, in the fungal communities. Our findings demonstrate the importance of microbial ecology to the large-scale agroindustry of soil-cultivated mushrooms. IMPORTANCE Saprotrophic mushrooms cultivated in soils are subject to complex influences from soil microbial communities. Research on growing edible mushrooms has revealed connections between fungi and a few species of growth-promoting bacteria colonizing the mycosphere. The composition and diversity of the whole microbial community may also have an influence on the growth and production of soil-saprotrophic mushrooms. Morel mushrooms (Morchella spp.) are economically and culturally important and are widely prized throughout the world. This study used the large-scale farming of morels as an example of an agroecosystem for soil-saprotrophic mushroom cultivation. It demonstrated a typical pattern of how the microbial ecology in soil agroecosystems, especially the α-diversity level and community evenness among soil fungal taxa, could affect the production of high-value cash crops and the income of farmers.

6.
J Int Med Res ; 49(10): 3000605211049074, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633880

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The risk factors associated with iodine contrast extravasation immediately after endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) and subsequent hemorrhagic transformation within 24 hours remain unclear. METHODS: Mixed images, iodine overlay maps, and virtual non-contrast images were reconstructed from 106 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent dual energy computed tomography immediately and 24 hours after EVT. Multivariate analyses of clinical and radiological data were performed to explore independent predictors of iodine contrast extravasation and hemorrhagic transformation. RESULTS: Sixty-eight (64.2%) patients exhibited pure iodine contrast extravasation after EVT; 30.9% developed hemorrhagic transformation within 24 hours after EVT. The number of stent retriever passes was independently associated with both iodine contrast extravasation (odds ratio 1.608; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.047-2.469) and subsequent hemorrhagic transformation (odds ratio 1.477; 95% CI 1.003-2.175). Patients with more than two stent retriever passes were more likely to exhibit iodine contrast extravasation (sensitivity = 68.2%, specificity = 81.5%), while those with more than three stent retriever passes more often exhibited hemorrhage after iodine contrast extravasation (sensitivity = 64.6%, specificity = 87.2%). CONCLUSIONS: The number of stent retriever passes was an independent predictor for both iodine contrast extravasation and subsequent hemorrhagic transformation.

7.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585188

RESUMO

With the emergence and rapid development of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, monitoring of mitochondrial morphological changes has aroused great interest for exploring the role of mitochondria in the process of cell metabolism. However, in the absence of water-soluble, photostable and low-toxicity fluorescent dyes, ultra-high-resolution mitochondrial imaging is still challenging. Herein, we designed two fluorescent BODIPY dyes, namely Mito-BDP 630 and Mito-BDP 760, for mitochondrial imaging. The results proved that Mito-BDP 760 underwent aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) in the aqueous matrix owing to its hydrophobicity and was inaccessible to the cells, which restricted its applications in mitochondrial imaging. In stark contrast, water-soluble Mito-BDP 630 readily penetrated cellular and mitochondrial membranes for mitochondrial imaging with high dye densities under wash-free conditions as driven by membrane potential. As a comparison, Mito Tracker Red presented high photobleaching (the fluorescence intensity dropped by nearly 50%) and high phototoxicity after irradiation by a laser for 30 min. However, Mito-BDP 630 possessed excellent biocompatibility, photostability and chemical stability. Furthermore, clear and bright mitochondria distribution in living HeLa cells after incubation with Mito-BDP 630 could be observed by CLSM. Convincingly, the morphology and cristae of mitochondria could be visualized using an ultra-high-resolution microscope. In short, Mito-BDP 630 provided a powerful and convenient tool for monitoring mitochondrial morphologies in living cells. Given the facile synthesis, photobleaching resistance and low phototoxicity of Mito-BDP 630, it is an alternative to the commercial Mito Tracker Red.

8.
J Comp Neurol ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585379

RESUMO

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to be closely associated with emotional processes, decision making and memory. Previous studies have identified the prefrontal cortex (PFC) as one of the most vulnerable brain regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Running exercise has widely been recognized as a simple and effective method of physical activity that enhances brain function and slows the progression of AD. However, the effect of exercise on the mPFC of AD is unclear. To address these issues, we investigated the effects of four months of exercise on the numbers of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta and neurons in the mPFC of 12-month-old APPswe/PSEN1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic AD model mice using stereological methods. The spatial learning and memory abilities of mice were tested using the Morris water maze. Four months of running exercise delayed declines in spatial learning and memory abilities. The stereological results showed significantly lower numbers of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta and neurons in the mPFC of APP/PS1 mice than in the wild-type (WT) control group. The numbers of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta and neurons in the mPFC of running APP/PS1 mice were significantly greater than those in the APP/PS1 control mice. In addition, running-induced improvements in spatial learning and memory were significantly associated with running-induced increases in spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta and neurons numbers in the mPFC. Running exercise could delay the loss of spinophilin-immunoreactive puncta and neurons in the mPFC of APP/PS1 mice. This finding might provide an important structural basis for exercise-induced improvements in the spatial learning and memory abilities of individuals with AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564616

RESUMO

Fumonisins are a kind of mycotoxin that has harmful influence on the health of humans and animals. Although some research studies associated with fumonisins have been reported, the regulatory limits of fumonisins are imperfect, and the effects of fumonisins on fecal bacterial flora of mice have not been suggested. In this study, in order to investigate the effects of fumonisin B1 (FB1) on fecal bacterial flora, BALB/c mice were randomly divided into seven groups, which were fed intragastrically with 0 mg/kg, 0.018 mg/kg, 0.054 mg/kg, 0.162 mg/kg, 0.486 mg/kg, 1.458 mg/kg and 4.374 mg/kg of FB1 solutions, once a day for 8 weeks. Subsequently, feces were collected for analysis of microflora. The V3-V4 16S rRNA of fecal bacterial flora was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The results revealed that fecal bacterial flora of mice treated with FB1 presented high diversity. Additionally, the composition of fecal bacterial flora of FB1 exposure groups showed marked differences from that of the control group, especially for the genus types including Alloprevotella, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Parabacteroides and phylum types including Cyanobacteria. In conclusion, our data indicate that FB1 alters the diversity and composition of fecal microbiota in mice. Moreover, the minimum dose of FB1 exposure also causes changes in fecal microbiota to some extent. This study is the first to focus on the dose-related effect of FB1 exposure on fecal microbiota in rodent animals and gives references to the regulatory doses of fumonisins for better protection of human and animal health.

10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4344-4359, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581037

RESUMO

The Solanaceae plants distributed in China belong to 105 species and 35 varietas of 24 genera. Some medicinal plants of Solanaceae are rich in tropane alkaloids(TAs), which have significant pharmacological activities. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, pharmacological activities, and biosynthetic pathways of TAs in Solanaceous plants were summarized. Besides, the phylogeny of medicinal plants belonging to Solanaceae was visualized by network diagram. Fourteen genera of Solanaceae plants in China contain TAs and have medical records. TAs mainly exist in Datura, Anisodus, Atropa, Physochlaina, and Hyoscyamus. The TAs-containing species were mainly concentrated in Southwest China, and the content of TAs was closely related to plant distribution area and altitude. The Solanaceae plants containing TAs mainly have antispasmodic, analgesic, antiasthmatic, and antitussive effects. Modern pharmacological studies have proved the central sedative, pupil dilating, glandular secretion-inhibiting, and anti-asthma activities of TAs. These pharmacological activities provide a reasonable explanation for the traditional therapeutic efficacy of tropane drugs. In this paper, the geographical distribution, chemical components, traditional therapeutic effect, and modern pharmacological activities of TAs-containing species in Solanaceae were analyzed for the first time. Based on these data, the genetic relationship of TAs-containing Solanaceae species was preliminarily discussed, which provided a scientific basis for the basic research on TAs-containing solanaceous species and was of great significance for the development of natural medicinal plant resources containing TAs.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Solanaceae , Vias Biossintéticas , Filogenia , Solanaceae/genética , Tropanos
11.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522005

RESUMO

Behavioral sensitization is a progressive increase in locomotor or stereotypic behaviours in response to drugs. It is believed to contribute to the reinforcing properties of drugs and to play an important role in relapse after cessation of drug abuse. However, the mechanism underlying this behaviour remains poorly understood. In this study, we showed that mTOR signaling was activated during the expression of behavioral sensitization to cocaine and that intraperitoneal or intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) treatment with rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, attenuated cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization. Cocaine significantly modified brain lipid profiles in the NAc of cocaine-sensitized mice and markedly elevated the levels of phosphatidylinositol-4-monophosphates (PIPs), including PIP, PIP2, and PIP3. The behavioural effect of cocaine was attenuated by intra-NAc administration of LY294002, an AKT-specific inhibitor, suggesting that PIPs may contribute to mTOR activation in response to cocaine. An RNA-sequencing analysis of the downstream effectors of mTOR signalling revealed that cocaine significantly decreased the expression of SynDIG1, a known substrate of mTOR signalling, and decreased the surface expression of GluA2. In contrast, AAV-mediated SynDIG1 overexpression in NAc attenuated intracellular GluA2 internalization by promoting the SynDIG1-GluA2 interaction, thus maintaining GluA2 surface expression and repressing cocaine-induced behaviours. In conclusion, NAc SynDIG1 may play a negative regulatory role in cocaine-induced behavioural sensitization by regulating synaptic surface expression of GluA2.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558620

RESUMO

AIMS: The PRECISE-DAPT score is recommended by guidelines for predicting out-of-hospital bleeding in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the long-term prognostic value of the PRECISE-DAPT score in patients after PCI remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective study of 10,724 patients who underwent PCI throughout 2013 in Fuwai hospital. The bleeding endpoint was Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 2, 3, or 5 bleeding. The ischaemic endpoints were all-cause death and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). After a 5-year follow-up, 10,109 patients were finally analysed. A total of 415 (4.11%) patients experienced bleeding, 364 (3.60%) experienced all-cause death, and 2049 (20.27%) had MACCE. Using Cox regression, the risk of bleeding (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.721, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.180-2.511, P = 0.005), MACCE (HR: 1.607, 95% CI: 1.347-1.917, P < 0.001), and all-cause-death (HR: 3.902, 95% CI: 2.916-5.221, P < 0.001) in patients with a high score were significantly higher than those in patients with a low score. The PRECISE-DAPT score showed prognostic value for 5-year events of bleeding (C statistic: 0.566, 95% CI: 0.537-0.594), MACCE (C statistic: 0.540, 95% CI: 0.527-0.553), and all-cause-death (C statistic: 0.673, 95% CI: 0.644-0.702). CONCLUSION: After 5 years of follow-up, the PRECISE-DAPT score has a statistically significant predictive value for long-term bleeding events in Chinese PCI population, and also had some prognostic value for death and MACCE.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt A): 127272, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564046

RESUMO

Utilization of natural clay minerals for the treatment of heavy metal cadmium contamination is appealing as the affordable and readily accessible raw materials. However, the low reactivity of natural serpentine limits its practical application for Cd removal. In the present study, mechanochemical activation of antigorite-type serpentine (SP) as example was introduced to enhance its removal capacity for heavy metal of cadmium high enough for practical use. It was found ball-milling at 600 rpm for 60 min for antigorite resulted in the increased release of hydroxyl group to facilitate the precipitation of Cd2+, giving a capacity of 27.4 mg/g for the treatment of 100 mg/L Cd2+ for 120 min at room temperature, which was 10 times higher than that of the pristine antigorite (2.5 mg/g). More significantly, magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, MS) was introduced for the first time to process antigorite, thus to form MgSO4-incorporated antigorite. As a result, the removal capacity for Cd2+ was dramatically increased to 239.7 mg/g with the equal antigorite dosage (the molar ratio of SP/MS = 1:0.5), which is also much higher than the other reported clay minerals. Results showed that, MgSO4 incorporation promoted the reactivity of antigorite and provided numerous SO42- active sites, which allowed the heterogeneous nucleation of basic cadmium sulfate (CdSO4·3.5 Cd(OH)2·xH2O) precipitate on antigorite, therefore not requiring high alkalinity support as the conventional formation of cadmium hydroxide does. Correspondingly, under the new mechanism, the Cd precipitation could take place in a wide pH range, even from pH 3.0, which was a rarely reported phenomenon happening on natural minerals. Based on these findings, this study demonstrated the effectiveness of mechanochemical incorporation of sulfate for enhancing the Cd2+ removal capacity of serpentine, as well as the high efficiency of new pathway for Cd2+ precipitation. Moreover, the potential of low-cost serpentine as alternative stabilizers for the highly-effective remediation of heavy metal contamination may be expected.

14.
J Neural Eng ; 18(5)2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534980

RESUMO

Objective.Unconsciousness is a key feature related to general anesthesia (GA) but is difficult to be evaluated accurately by anesthesiologists clinically.Approach.To tracking the loss of consciousness (LOC) and recovery of consciousness (ROC) under GA, in this study, by investigating functional connectivity of the scalp electroencephalogram, we explore any potential difference in brain networks among anesthesia induction, anesthesia recovery, and the resting state.Main results.The results of this study demonstrated significant differences among the three periods, concerning the corresponding brain networks. In detail, the suppressed default mode network, as well as the prolonged characteristic path length and decreased clustering coefficient, during LOC was found in the alpha band, compared to the Resting and the ROC state. When to further identify the Resting and LOC states, the fused network topologies and properties achieved the highest accuracy of 95%, along with a sensitivity of 93.33% and a specificity of 96.67%.Significance.The findings of this study not only deepen our understanding of propofol-induced unconsciousness but also provide quantitative measurements subserving better anesthesia management.

15.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) diphosphorylase (UAP) catalyzes the formation of UDP-GlcNAc, the precursor for the production of chitin in ectodermally derived epidermal cells and midgut, for GlcNAcylation of proteins and for generation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol anchors in all tissues in Drosophila melanogaster. RESULTS: Here, we identified a putative HvUAP gene in Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata. Knockdown of HvUAP at the second-, third- and fourth-instar stages impaired larval development. Most resultant HvUAP hypomorphs showed arrested development at the third-, fourth-instar larval or prepupal stages, and became paralyzed, depending on the age when treated. Some HvUAP-silenced larvae had weak and soft scoli. A portion of HvUAP-depleted beetles formed misshapen pupae. No HvUAP RNA interference pupae successfully emerged as adults. Dissection and microscopic observation revealed that knockdown of HvUAP affected gut growth and food ingestion, reduced cuticle thickness, and negatively affected the formation of newly generated cuticle layers during ecdysis. Furthermore, HvUAP deficiency inhibited development of the tracheal respiratory system and thinned tracheal taenidia. CONCLUSION: The phenotypical defects in HvUAP hypomorphs suggest that HvUAP is involved in the production of chitin. Moreover, our findings will enable the development of a double-stranded RNA-based pesticide to control H. vigintioctopunctata.

16.
Bone ; 153: 116138, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339909

RESUMO

Human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) have been extensively utilised for bone tissue engineering applications. However, they are associated with limitations that hinder their clinical utility for bone regeneration. Cell fate can be modulated via altering their epigenetic functionality. Inhibiting histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes have been reported to promote osteogenic differentiation, with HDAC3 activity shown to be causatively associated with osteogenesis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential of using an HDAC2 & 3 selective inhibitor - MI192 to induce epigenetic reprogramming of hBMSCs and enhance its therapeutic efficacy for bone formation. Treatment with MI192 caused a time-dose dependant reduction in hBMSCs viability. MI192 was also found to substantially alter hBMSCs epigenetic function through reduced HDAC activity and increased histone acetylation. hBMSCs were pre-treated with MI192 (50 µM) for 48 h prior to osteogenic induction. MI192 pre-treatment significantly upregulated osteoblast-related gene/protein expression (Runx2, ALP, Col1a and OCN) and enhanced alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPSA) (1.43-fold) (P ≤ 0.001). Moreover, MI192 substantially increased hBMSCs extracellular matrix calcium deposition (1.4-fold) (P ≤ 0.001) and mineralisation when compared to the untreated control. In 3D microtissue culture, MI192 significantly promoted hBMSCs osteoblast-related gene expression and ALPSA (> 2.41-fold) (P ≤ 0.001). Importantly, MI192 substantially enhanced extracellular matrix deposition (ALP, Col1a, OCN) and mineralisation (1.67-fold) (P ≤ 0.001) within the bioassembled-microtissue (BMT) construct. Following 8-week intraperitoneal implantation within nude mice, MI192 treated hBMSCs exhibited enhanced extracellular matrix deposition and mineralisation (2.39-fold) (P ≤ 0.001) within the BMT when compared to the untreated BMT construct. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MI192 effectively altered hBMSCs epigenetic functionality and is capable of promoting hBMSCs osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo, indicating the potential of using epigenetic reprogramming to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of hBMSCs for bone augmentation strategies.

17.
Curr Opin Biotechnol ; 73: 108-120, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375845

RESUMO

Bifidobacteria are widely used as a probiotic for their health-promoting effects. To promote their growth, bifidogenic prebiotics, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), have been added to supplements and infant formula. However, the efficacy of both probiotic and prebiotic interventions is often debated, as clinical responses vary significantly by case. Here, we review clinical studies that aimed to proliferate human-residential Bifidobacterium (HRB) strains in the gut, and we highlight the difference between responders and non-responders to such interventions through an ecological, niche-based perspective and an examination of the prevalence of genes responsible for prebiotic assimilation in HRB genomes. We discuss the criteria necessary to better evaluate the efficacy of probiotic and prebiotic interventions and the recent therapeutic potential shown by synbiotics.

18.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125800, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438288

RESUMO

A novel Silicon carbide (SiC) foam ceramic based ZSM-5/SiC nanowires microwave-responsive catalyst was developed to upgrade the pyrolysis volatiles in a microwave-assisted series system (both the pyrolysis and catalytic systems were heated by microwave). The growth of SiC nanowires was helpful for the ZSM-5 growth on the SiC foam ceramic. Because the specific surface area of SiC foam ceramic was improved. The dielectric properties of the composite catalyst were improved due to the growth of SiC nanowires. Bio-oil composition analysis showed that area percentage of hydrocarbons and aromatic hydrocarbons could reach 80.89% and 40.48% at catalytic temperature of 450 ℃and 500 ℃, respectively. The microwave-responsive composite catalyst had good aromatization performance in microwave-assisted series system due to high dielectric properties and specific surface area. The composite catalyst performed well after five-cycle regeneration, and the hydrocarbon content could still reach 76.40%, which is 80.89% for the original catalyst.


Assuntos
Micro-Ondas , Pirólise , Biocombustíveis , Catálise , Temperatura Alta , Hidrocarbonetos , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Soja
20.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398778

RESUMO

As a kind of biological network, the brain network conduces to understanding the mystery of high-efficiency information processing in the brain, which will provide instructions to develop efficient brain-like neural networks. Large-scale dynamical functional network connectivity (dFNC) provides a more context-sensitive, dynamical, and straightforward sight at a higher network level. Nevertheless, dFNC analysis needs good enough resolution in both temporal and spatial domains, and the construction of dFNC needs to capture the time-varying correlations between two multivariate time series with unmatched spatial dimensions. Effective methods still lack. With well-developed source imaging techniques, electroencephalogram (EEG) has the potential to possess both high temporal and spatial resolutions. Therefore, we proposed to construct the EEG large-scale cortical dFNC based on brain atlas to probe the subtle dynamic activities in the brain and developed a novel method, that is, wavelet coherence-S estimator (WTCS), to assess the dynamic couplings among functional subnetworks with different spatial dimensions. The simulation study demonstrated its robustness and availability of applying to dFNC. The application in real EEG data revealed the appealing ``Primary peak'' and ``P3-like peak'' in dFNC network properties and meaningful evolutions in dFNC network topology for P300. Our study brings new insights for probing brain activities at a more dynamical and higher hierarchical level and pushing forward the development of brain-inspired artificial neural networks. The proposed WTCS not only benefits the dFNC studies but also gives a new solution to capture the time-varying couplings between the multivariate time series that is often encountered in signal processing disciplines.

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