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1.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(10): 10896-10903, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34763451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study sought to search, evaluate, and summarize the best evidence about the time and frequency of screening for perinatal depression (PND). METHODS: The UpToDate, Scottish Intercollegiate Network, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Guidelines International Network, BMJ Best Practice, Cochrane Library, Embase, Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, Joanna Briggs Institute Library, Medline, CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and CBM databases were searched to retrieve relevant articles. RESULTS: A total of 9 articles were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 2 guidelines, 1 expert consensus, 1 evidence summary, 3 systematic reviews, and 2 clinical decisions. A total of 11 articles of best evidence were collected. The evidence was mainly related to the two aspects of screening time and frequency. CONCLUSIONS: There is abundant evidence on the best screening time for and frequency of PND; however, some evidence was from foreign evidence-based resources. Local clinical conditions need to be considered at the time of application.


Assuntos
Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez
2.
Gland Surg ; 10(9): 2790-2798, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733728

RESUMO

Background: This study aimed to search, analyze, and summarize relevant evidence for the prevention of unplanned hypothermia in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, so as to reduce the incidence of unplanned hypothermia in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery and provide a reference for clinical medical staff. Methods: According to the evidence pyramid model, relevant literature were retrieved by computer in databases. Literature quality evaluation and the evidence grading system of the Australian JBI Evidence-Based Health Care Centre Evidence Recommendation Rating System were used to evaluate the literature quality and determine the level of evidence. The time limit for retrieval was from the establishment of the databases to March 31, 2021. Results: A total of 12 studies were included in this study. Of these, 5 evidence items were finally extracted, and 15 pieces of best evidence were summarized, including the risk assessment of hypothermia in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, temperature monitoring, ambient temperature, passive insulation measures, and active insulation measures. Conclusions: The evidence for the prevention of unplanned hypothermia in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery provided evidence-based approaches for reducing the incidence of intraoperative hypothermia for clinical staffs. It is suggested that the cultural characteristics of China, medical resources, and patients' own conditions should be considered when applying the evidence.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(45): 53671-53682, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730938

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death depending on elevated iron (Fe2+) and lipid peroxidation levels. Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has been shown to be closely associated with ferroptosis. Therefore, antiferroptosis agents are considered to be a new strategy for managing myocardial I/R injury. Here, we developed polydopamine nanoparticles (PDA NPs) as a new type of ferroptosis inhibitor for cardioprotection. The PDA NPs features intriguing properties in inhibiting Fe2+ accumulation and restoring mitochondrial functions in H9c2 cells. Subsequently, we demonstrated that administration of PDA NPs effectively reduced Fe2+ deposition and lipid peroxidation in a myocardial I/R injury mouse model. In addition, the myocardial I/R injury in mice was alleviated by PDA NPs treatment, as demonstrated by reduced infarct size and improved cardiac functions. The present work indicates the therapeutic effects of PDA NPs against myocardial I/R injury via preventing ferroptosis.

4.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770748

RESUMO

Protein-protein interactions play pivotal roles in life, and the protein interaction affinity confers specific protein interaction events in physiology or pathology. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has been widely used in biological and biomedical research to detect molecular interactions in vitro and in vivo. The FRET assay provides very high sensitivity and efficiency. Several attempts have been made to develop the FRET assay into a quantitative measurement for protein-protein interaction affinity in the past. However, the progress has been slow due to complicated procedures or because of challenges in differentiating the FRET signal from other direct emission signals from donor and receptor. This review focuses on recent developments of the quantitative FRET analysis and its application in the determination of protein-protein interaction affinity (KD), either through FRET acceptor emission or donor quenching methods. This paper mainly reviews novel theatrical developments and experimental procedures rather than specific experimental results. The FRET-based approach for protein interaction affinity determination provides several advantages, including high sensitivity, high accuracy, low cost, and high-throughput assay. The FRET-based methodology holds excellent potential for those difficult-to-be expressed proteins and for protein interactions in living cells.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780893

RESUMO

Product inhibition is a common phenomenon during enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Almost all product molecules of an enzyme reaction should have some structural similarities to the substrate, and can thus still have affinities to the active site of the enzyme as product inhibitor. Currently, the characterizations of product inhibition are generally carried out by different methods to determine product binding affinity to the enzyme and the enzyme kinetics parameters, and then these parameters are combined to determine product inhibition. However, due to different sensitivity and variations, kinetics parameters determined from different methods are often not compatible, resulting in not accurate measurement. Here, we report a novel method that determines the two different classes of kinetics parameters, IC50 and Ki(or KD), Kcat and KM, using one single assay method-quantitative FRET(qFRET) assay for characterizing the product inhibition of pre-SUMO1's maturation by its protease SENP1. One method to determine all kinetics parameters provides, for the first time, not only a convenient method to determine all kinetics parameters, but more importantly, a novel approach to combine different measurements with mutually compatible results and errors.

6.
Transl Pediatr ; 10(10): 2533-2543, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765477

RESUMO

Background: To analyze the risk factors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) of very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs), and to develop and verify a risk prediction model of BPD. Methods: The data of 611 VLBWIs from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary grade A hospital in Suzhou from January 2017 to September 2019 were collected. The data was randomly divided into the modeling set (451 cases) and the validation set (160 cases). Binary logistic regression was used to analyze the data, and the model was examined by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The grouped data was used to verify the sensitivity and specificity of the model. Results: The study found that neonatal asphyxia, the positive rate of sputum culture, neonatal sepsis, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), blood transfusions (≥3), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), the time of invasive mechanical ventilation, the duration of oxygen therapy, and the time of parenteral nutrition were the independent risk factors of BPD, while 1 min Apgar score was a protective factor. The model formula was Z=neonatal asphyxia * 1.229 + the positive rate of sputum culture * 1.265 + neonatal sepsis * 1.677 + NRDS * 1.848 + blood transfusions (≥3) * 1.455 + PDA * 1.835 - 1 min Apgar score * 0.25 + the time of invasive mechanical ventilation * 0.123 + the duration of oxygen therapy * 0.09 + the time of parenteral nutrition * 0.057 - 8.077. The area under the ROC curve of this model was 0.965 (95% CI: 0.946-0.983), with a sensitivity of 93.7% and a specificity of 91.3%. Verification of this prediction model showed a sensitivity of 92.9% and a specificity of 76%, demonstrating that the effects of this model were satisfactory. Conclusions: The risk prediction model had a good predictive effect for the risk of BPD in VLBWIs, and can provide a reference for preventive treatment and nursing intervention.

7.
Insects ; 12(10)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680630

RESUMO

Saxaul is a kind of dominant perennial psammophyte that widely distributes in arid and semi-arid desert areas, and it has multiple functions in preventing desertification, especially in windbreak and sand fixation. Various gall inducers induce galls on the saxaul, including the flower-like gall. Parasitoids have great potentiality in controlling gall inducers. However, studies about gall inducers and parasitoids of flower-like galls on Haloxylon, as well as the parasitic efficacy of the parasitoids, are rarely reported. In this study, the flower-like galls were observed on Haloxylon ammodendron and H. persicum in Fukang, Xinjiang, China. Two types of flower-like galls were found on H. ammodendron, while only one type was found on H. persicum. In total, five species of gall inducers and three species of parasitoids were obtained from the galls mentioned above. All the galls were induced by Caillardia (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae), which were mostly bivoltine in Fukang. Besides, their parasitoids Psyllaephaguscaillardiae and P. longiventris could be observed on all the types of galls. Additionally, correlative studies on the parasitization indexes demonstrated that all the dominant parasitoids of diverse flower-like galls were P. caillardiae, which were slightly more in number than the P. ogazae discovered in the flower bud-like galls. In addition, the relevance between the emergence or lifespan of parasitoids and temperature was also investigated. The results showed that the number of parasitoids emerging decreased rapidly after a period of enhancement with the increase of temperature, including an optimum temperature, while the lifespan of wasps gradually shortened with the temperature rising. Our results highlight the importance of the biological investigation of parasitoids in the gall inducers lived in closed galls, which may provide critical evidence for us to understand its potential application in biological control.

8.
Trends Biotechnol ; 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716027

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are major products of intestinal microbial fermentation with beneficial effects for human health. The dynamic balance and real-time monitoring of endogenous SCFA biosynthesis are important for understanding their physiological functions. We discuss the promising future of applying CRISPRi genetic systems and biosensors for targeted SCFA improvement.

9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 747371, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660522

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed to explore the factors influencing dental caries among 3-5-year-old children in Guizhou Province and the interrelationship between these factors using structural equation modeling, while providing theoretical references to improve the prevention and control strategy. Materials and Methods: A total of 1,291 children aged 3-5 years in Guizhou Province were selected by a multistage stratified and whole group random sampling to examine the caries prevalence in whole-mouth deciduous teeth crowns, and parents were surveyed with questionnaires to analyze the caries-related factors. IBM SPSS Statistics v 23.0 software (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used for statistical analysis. Results: The caries prevalence of children aged 3-5 years in Guizhou Province was 63.1%, the mean decayed-missing-filled teeth was 3.32, the caries filling rate was 0.5%, and there was no statistically significant difference between urban and rural areas and among genders in each age group; results of logistic regression analysis showed that the caries risk increased with the following factors: age, brushing frequency <2 times per day when parents did not take their children to the dentist, and with parents poor evaluation of the oral condition of their children. The higher the education of the parent, the lower the risk of children suffering from caries in deciduous teeth. Conclusions: With an overall poor situation about oral hygiene habits, oral healthcare attitude of the parents, and behavior transformation, the prevalence of dental caries in the deciduous teeth of children aged 3-5 years in Guizhou Province is high, and their caries status was severe, with more than 99% of the caries cases that were untreated. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures of caries in preschool children need strengthening through the improvement of public awareness and the enhancement of the management of oral health habits of their children.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Bucal , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Appl Opt ; 60(25): 7530-7535, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613218

RESUMO

We experimentally demonstrate an electrically tunable superconducting device capable of switching the extraordinary terahertz (THz) transmission. The planar device consists of subwavelength hole arrays with real-time control capability. The maximum transmission coefficient at 0.33 THz is 0.98 and decreases to 0.17 when the applied voltage only increases to 1.3 V. A relative intensity modulation of 82.7% is observed, making this device an efficient THz switch. Additionally, this device exhibits good narrow-bandpass characteristics within 2 THz, which can be used as a frequency-selective component. This study offers an ideal tuning method and delivers a promising approach for designing active and miniaturized devices in THz cryogenic systems.

11.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CBC) is highly efficacious for advanced cervical cancer; its efficacy can be enhanced by combining with 15 mg/kg (standard dose) bevacizumab (BEV). However, this standard dose is associated with various adverse events. Therefore, in this retrospective study, we analyzed the survival outcomes and adverse events in patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer treated with CBC in combination with BEV 7.5 mg/kg. METHODS: Registered patient data were retrieved between October 2014 and September 2019, and 64 patients with advanced or recurrent cervical cancer treated with CBC+BEV (n=21) or CBC alone (n=43) were analyzed. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS); the secondary endpoints were the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs). The Cox proportional-hazards model was applied to explore prognostic factors associated with PFS and OS. RESULTS: The 1-, 2-, and 3-year PFS rates (95% confidence interval (CI)) were 36.24% (22.0-50.5), 20.7% (9.8-34.2), and 17.7% (7.7-31.1) for the CBC group; and 71.4% (47.1-86.0), 51.0% (27.9-70.1), and 51.0% (27.9-70.1) for the CBC+BEV group, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year OS rates were 62.6% (46.4-75.18), 32.4% (18.8-46.9), and 23.2% (11.2-37.6) for the CBC group; and 85.7% (61.9-95.1), 66.6% (42.5-82.5), and 55.5% (27.1-76.7) for the CBC+BEV group, respectively. The CBC+BEV group presented higher PFS and OS rates, p=0.003 and p=0.005, respectively. Proteinuria (6 vs. 9, p=0.025) and hypertension (0 vs. 10, p<0.001) were less common, but anemia was more common in the CBC group (35 vs. 11, p=0.021). CONCLUSION: Overall, CBC+BEV significantly improved the PFS and OS compared with CBC alone. CBC+BEV also prevents severe adverse events and hence is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option.

12.
Org Lett ; 23(20): 8050-8055, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612655

RESUMO

A metal-free intramolecular borylative cyclization of 1,6-allenynes driven by BCl3 was developed. This method provides a general and practical strategy to construct valuable pyrrolidines containing all-carbon quaternary centers or 3,5-dihydroazepine derivatives depending on the substituents of the allene, with conjugative and sterically hindered phenyl groups favoring the latter.

13.
Can Respir J ; 2021: 6947037, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34621458

RESUMO

Objective: We design a prospective control study on the utilization of transbronchial cryobiopsy guided by EBUS-GS (EBUS-GS-TBCB) to diagnose PPLs. Methods: PPLs were defined as pulmonary nodules or masses with a diameter from 10 mm to 50 mm. PPLs were randomly divided into group EBUS-GS-TBCB and transbronchial biopsy by forceps guided under EBUS-GS (EBUS-GS-TBB). Results: 28 cases were involved in group EBUS-GS-TBCB and 31 cases were in group EBUS-GS-TBB. The mean sizes of PPLs were 30.23 ± 11.10 mm in group EBUS-GS-TBCB and 28.69 ± 8.62 mm in group EBUS-GS-TBB (t = 0.600, p=0.551). The diagnostic yields of EBUS-GS-TBCB and EBUS-GS-TBB were 75% and 64.52% respectively, and the difference between the two groups was not significant (χ 2 value = 0.137, p=0.711). If only the first specimen was taken into account, the diagnostic yields from EBUS-GS-TBCB and EBUS-GS-TBB were 64.29% (18/28 cases) and 35.48% (11/31 cases), respectively. The difference was statistically significant by Fisher's Exact Test (χ 2 value = 4.883, p=0.038). The total incidence rates of bleeding were 21.43% and 6.45%, respectively, in groups EBUS-GS-TBCB and EBUS-GS-TBB. The total incidence rates of pneumothorax were 7.14% and 0, respectively, in groups EBUS-GS-TBCB and EBUS-GS-TBB. Conclusion: The diagnostic yield of EBUS-GS-TBCB was slightly higher than that of EBUS-GS-TBB for the diagnosis of PPLs. EBUS-GS-TBCB might be useful if only the first sample was taken into account.

14.
Endocr Connect ; 10(11): 1428-1434, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647902

RESUMO

The clinical presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) differs between patients from developed and developing countries. In China, the clinical pattern has changed over the past few decades. Our aim was to elucidate general changes in the clinical characteristics of PHPT from 2010 to 2021. We enrolled 343 patients with PHPT at the Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China, from January 2010 to May 2021, including both surgical and non-surgical patients. Patients were divided into two subgroups, 2010-2016 (group A, n = 152) and 2017-2021 (group B, n = 191), based on the time span. We compared clinical manifestations and laboratory result data between these two groups. The mean patient age was 52.59 ± 13.55 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2.54. Of the 343 patients, 183 (53.35%) had symptomatic PHPT; bone pain, urolithiasis, and fatigue were the most common symptoms. Post-operative pathology showed that 96.20% of the patients had parathyroid adenoma, whereas 2.41% had parathyroid carcinoma. Great changes occurred between 2010 and 2021; the percentage of patients with asymptomatic PHPT (aPHPT) increased from 36.18% in group A to 54.97% in group B. Moreover, patients in group B showed significantly lower serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, and urinary phosphate levels but higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than those in group A. Clinical presentations in group B were also milder. In conclusion, the clinical characteristics of Chinese PHPT patients changed dramatically from 2010 to 2021, with asymptomatic PHPT (aPHPT becoming the predominant type over the last 3 years.

15.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655511

RESUMO

Starch accounts for over 80% of the total dry weight in cereal endosperm and determines the kernel texture and nutritional quality. Amyloplasts, terminally differentiated plastids, are responsible for starch biosynthesis and storage. We screened a series of rice mutants with floury endosperm to clarify the mechanism underlying amyloplast development and starch synthesis. We identified the floury endosperm19 (flo19) mutant which shows opaque of the interior endosperm. Abnormal compound starch grains (SGs) were present in the endosperm cells of the mutant. Molecular cloning revealed that the FLO19 allele encodes a plastid-localized pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 component subunit α1 (ptPDC-E1-α1) that is expressed in all rice tissues. In vivo enzyme assays demonstrated that the flo19 mutant showed decreased activity of the plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In addition, the amounts of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) were much lower in the developing flo19 mutant endosperm, suggesting that FLO19 participates in fatty acid supply for galactolipid biosynthesis in amyloplasts. FLO19 overexpression significantly increased seed size and weight, but did not affect other important agronomic traits, such as panicle length, tiller number and seed setting rate. An analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism data from a panel of rice accessions identified that the pFLO19L haplotype was positively associated with grain length, implying a potential application in rice breeding. In summary, our study demonstrates that FLO19 is involved in galactolipid biosynthesis which is essential for amyloplast development and starch biosynthesis in rice.

16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108236, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653727

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a main complication of diabetes and often develops into end-stage nephropathy. Histologically, DN progresses as the gradual loss of podocytes with the loss of glomerular podocytes being the earliest sign of DN. Pyroptosis is a new type of programmed cell death and has been mechanistically correlated with podocyte injury in DN. The current study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of carnosine on glomerular podocytes in DN, both in vivo and in vitro. Using high glucose-treated cultured MPC5 cells and a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse model, we evaluated the effects of carnosine on alleviating podocyte injury in DN. We found that carnosine significantly reversed albuminuria and histopathological lesions and alleviated renal inflammatory and pyroptosis responses in STZ-induced diabetic mice for 12 weeks. The results also showed that carnosine strongly inhibited podocyte inflammation and podocyte pyroptosis in vitro. Cellular Thermal Shift Assay (CETSA) and molecular docking results revealed that mechnaistically caspase-1 was the target of carnosine. We then found that silencing caspase-1 eliminated the protective effect of carnosine. Interestingly, we also found that caspase-1 and gasdermin D expression were increased in renal biopsy tissue of patients with DN. Our study is the first to demonstrate the novel role of carnosine in alleviating podocyte injury by inhibiting pyroptosis via the targeting of caspase-1. Carnosine may have potential as a therapeutic agent in treating DN by targeting caspase-1.

17.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 11(9): 2685-2693, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589389

RESUMO

ω-Conotoxins inhibit N-type voltage-gated calcium (CaV2.2) channels and exhibit efficacy in attenuating neuropathic pain but have a low therapeutic index. Here, we synthesized and characterized a novel ω-conotoxin, Bu8 from Conus bullatus, which consists of 25 amino acid residues and three disulfide bridges. Bu8 selectively and potently inhibits depolarization-activated Ba2+ currents mediated by rat CaV2.2 expressed in HEK293T cells (IC50 = 89 nmol/L). Bu8 is two-fold more potent than ω-conotoxin MVIIA, a ω-conotoxin currently used for the treatment of severe chronic pain. It also displays potent analgesic activity in animal pain models of hot plate and acetic acid writhing but has fewer side effects on mouse motor function and lower toxicity in goldfish. Its lower side effects may be attributed to its faster binding rate and higher recovery ratios. The NMR structure demonstrates that Bu8 contains a small irregular triple ß-strand. The structure-activity relationships of Bu8 Ala mutants and Bu8/MVIIA hybrid mutants demonstrate that the binding mode of CaV2.2 with the amino acid residues in loop 1 and loop 2 of Bu8 is different from that of MVIIA. This study characterizes a novel, more potent ω-conotoxin and provides new insights for designing CaV2.2 antagonists.

18.
PM R ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The iliocapsularis muscle is a structure of the anterior hip, which may play a key role in stabilizing the hip joint, but to our knowledge no studies exist describing ultrasound (US) and shear-wave characteristics of this muscle. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the anatomic dimensions and elasticity of the iliocapsularis muscle in patients with pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and normal hips using gray-scale US and shear-wave elastography (SWE). DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Sports medicine and ultrasound department within a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-three patients (33 hips) with pincer-type FAI and 37 healthy volunteers (37 hips). INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: US parameters (anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter and circumference) of the iliocapsularis muscle in patients with pincer-type FAI and volunteers. Shear-wave velocity and Young's modulus of the iliocapsularis muscle in patients with pincer-type FAI and volunteers in both neutral and external rotation positions. RESULTS: Significant differences were not observed in the anatomic dimensions of the iliocapsularis muscle between patients with pincer-type FAI and volunteers. The iliocapsularis muscle in patients with pincer-type FAI had significantly lower shear-wave velocity and Young's modulus than the volunteers (p < .05). The cutoff value of the maximum velocity in the external rotation position was 3.35 m/s, which separated pincer-type FAI patients from volunteers and revealed the highest accuracy with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 78.8%, 48.6%, and 64.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The anatomic dimensions of the iliocapsularis muscle in pincer-type FAI patients and volunteers were similar; however, iliocapsularis stiffness in patients with pincer-type FAI was significantly lower than that of the volunteers. SWE can demonstrate altered muscle stiffness of the iliocapsularis muscle in pincer-type FAI patients, which might be used to help make clinical decisions.

19.
J Appl Toxicol ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590332

RESUMO

Caffeine is one of the most widely used psychostimulants in the world and possesses central excitative, anti-depressive, and neuroprotective properties. However, excessive ingestion or abuse of caffeine can lead to intoxication. Many toxic effects are attributed to oxidative damage, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a critical intracellular regulator of the oxidative stress response. Here, we investigated the neurotoxicity of caffeine in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and zebrafish larvae. It was found that caffeine inhibited the viability of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, it induced PC12 cell apoptosis and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting revealed that caffeine also inhibited the expression levels of Nrf2 mRNA and protein and its target genes (e.g., NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 [NQO1]). Furthermore, Nrf2 silencing attenuated the toxic effects of caffeine. In addition, zebrafish larvae were treated with different doses of caffeine. Behavioral experiments showed that a low dose of caffeine (0.05 to 0.3 mM) increased the average distance of movement and promoted excitation. Survivorship curves showed that caffeine (0.2 to 1.5 mM) caused lethality. Finally, qPCR revealed that a higher dose of caffeine inhibited mRNA levels in the Nrf2 pathway. Based on these results, this study identified for the first time that overuse of caffeine can induce neurotoxicity by inhibiting the Nrf2 pathway. These results will provide a new perspective for studies on caffeine toxicity.

20.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(16): 1352, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532489

RESUMO

Evaluation of prescriptions is a necessary process of evaluating the appropriateness of clinical drug usage, discovering existing problems, and formulating solutions. There are challenges for professionals within hospital medical departments and for clinicians and pharmacists who have clinical questions relating to inappropriate or abnormal prescriptions as identified by the electronic evaluation system of prescription. Medications are usually used correctly according to the drug instructions or guidelines. At present, there are no relevant domestic or international guidelines, or principles or standards for identifying inappropriate or abnormal prescriptions. To develop the guideline for evaluation of prescriptions appropriateness in clinical practice, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Commission of the Chinese Hospital Association formed the guideline working group consisting of multidisciplinary experts. The guideline working group summarized clinical questions in the evaluation of prescriptions, searched for supporting evidence, and reached a consensus for recommendations. The guideline contains 6 recommendations for evaluating prescription appropriateness, and the general principle of these recommendations is that clinicians should provide drug instructions, guidelines, or moderate evidence supporting the prescription, and the evaluators will then judge the prescription to be either appropriate or irrational. The recommendations resolve common clinical questions, using supporting examples, explanations and a flow chart. The evaluation of prescription appropriateness could be made more systematic and transparent based on this guideline's conclusions.

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