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1.
J Clin Invest ; 132(9)2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499079

RESUMO

Obesity-associated complications are causing increasing morbidity and mortality worldwide. Expansion of adipose tissue in obesity leads to a state of low-grade chronic inflammation and dysregulated metabolism, resulting in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) accumulate in obesity and are a source of proinflammatory cytokines that further aggravate adipocyte dysfunction. Macrophages are rich sources of cyclooxygenase (COX), the rate limiting enzyme for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. When mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), ATMs increased expression of COX-2. Selective myeloid cell COX-2 deletion resulted in increased monocyte recruitment and proliferation of ATMs, leading to increased proinflammatory ATMs with decreased phagocytic ability. There were increased weight gain and adiposity, decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization, increased adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis, and abnormal adipose tissue angiogenesis. HFD pair-feeding led to similar increases in body weight, but mice with selective myeloid cell COX-2 still exhibited decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity and glucose utilization. Selective myeloid deletion of the macrophage PGE2 receptor subtype, EP4, produced a similar phenotype, and a selective EP4 agonist ameliorated the metabolic abnormalities seen with ATM COX-2 deletion. Therefore, these studies demonstrated that an ATM COX-2/PGE2/EP4 axis plays an important role in inhibiting adipose tissue dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Dinoprostona/genética , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo
2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-45, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508921

RESUMO

To assess the role of dietary creatine on myofiber characteristics and protein synthesis in muscle, we fed grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus, initial body weight: 88.47 ± 1.44 g) creatine-supplemented diets (1.84, 5.91, 8.48, and 15.44 g/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Creatine supplementation did not affect growth performance, but significantly increased creatine contents in muscle and liver. At 8.48 g/kg, creatine decreased the activities of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum, and improved hardness and chewiness of muscle due to shorter myofiber mean diameter, higher myofiber density and the frequencies of the diameters of class I and III and collagen content, longer sarcomere length, and upregulated mRNA levels of slow myosin heavy chains. Creatine supplementation upregulated the mRNA expressions of myogenic regulatory factors. The 8.48 g/kg creatine-supplemented diet significantly increased the contents of protein, total amino acids (AAs), essential AAs, and free flavor AAs in muscle, the protein levels of insulin-like growth factor I, myogenic differentiation antigen, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactlvator-1α in muscle, and stimulated the phosphorylation of target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway in muscle. In summary, 8.48 mg/kg creatine improved fish health and skeletal muscle growth, and increased hardness and protein synthesis in muscle of grass carp by affecting myofiber characteristics and the TOR signaling pathway. A second-order regression model revealed that the optimal dietary creatine supplementation of grass carp ranges between 8.48 and 12.04 g/kg.

3.
Cell Prolif ; : e13240, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509151

RESUMO

PURPOSE AND MATERIALS: CDK5RAP3 (CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 3) was originally identified as a binding protein of CDK5. It is a crucial gene controlling biological functions, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis. Although previous studies have also shown that CDK5RAP3 is involved in a variety of signalling pathways, however, the mechanism of CDK5RAP3 remains largely undefined. This study utilized MEFs from conditional knockout mice to inhibit CDK5RAP3 and knockdown CDK5RAP3 in MCF7 to explore the role of CDK5RAP3 in cell growth, mitosis, and cell death. RESULTS: CDK5RAP3 was found to be widely distributed throughout the centrosome, spindle, and endoplasmic reticulum, indicating that it is involved in regulating a variety of cellular activities. CDK5RAP3 deficiency resulted in instability of cell growth. CDK5RAP3 deficiency partly blocks the cell cycle in G2 /M by downregulating CDK1 (Cyclin-dependent kinase 1) and CCNB1 (Cyclin B1) expression levels. The cell proliferation rate was decreased, thereby slowing down the cell growth rate. Furthermore, the results showed that CDK5RAP3 interacts with RPL26 (ribosome protein L26) to regulate the mTOR pathway. CDK5RAP3 and RPL26 deficiency inhibited mTOR/p-mTOR protein and induce autophagy, resulting in an upregulation of the percentage of apoptosis, and the upregulated percentage of apoptosis also slowed cell growth. CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments show that CDK5RAP3 interacts with RPL26 and maintains the stability of cell growth. It shows that CDK5RAP3 plays an important role in cell growth and can be used as the target of gene medicine.

4.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 865009, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600604

RESUMO

Background: Visceral fat has been considered an important risk factor of elevated serum uric acid (SUA). Perirenal fat is a unique visceral fat around the kidneys that has special morphological and physiological features while its relationship with SUA remains incompletely elucidated. This study aimed to assess the association between perirenal fat volume (PrFV) and SUA. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 102 subjects aged ≥ 18 years old recruited from Nanjing,China. The clinical characteristics including age, sex, drinking behavior, history of hypertension, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, fast plasma glucose, urea, serum creatinine, C-reactive protein, and SUA were recorded. PrFV was measured by ultrasonography. Multivariate linear models and the restricted cubic spline were used to investigate the association between PrFV and SUA. Results: The median age of this study population was 52.5 (42.0-60.0) years and 56.9% were female. The median value of SUA was 5.73 mg/dL (4.58-6.80 mg/dL). The subjects were divided by PrFV tertiles and we found that the subjects in the highest PrFV tertile had a higher level of SUA compared to those in the lowest tertile (ß=1.86, 95%CI 1.23-2.48, P for trend <0.001).The positive association also remained after adjustment for potential covariates (tertile3 versus tertile1: ß=0.99, 95%CI 0.35-1.63, P for trend =0.005). There was an increase of approximately 0.53 mg/dL in SUA per 1-fold increase in PrFV (ß=0.53, 95%CI 0.02-1.04, P for nonlinearity = 0.637). Conclusion: Our results confirmed a positive independent relationship between PrFV and SUA in Chinese adults. This study suggested that perirenal fat might constitute a potential risk factor for elevated serum uric acid levels.


Assuntos
Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Ácido Úrico , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
J Environ Manage ; 315: 115131, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512599

RESUMO

Land use intensification and climate change have resulted in substantial changes in the provision of ecosystem services, particularly in China that experienced sharp increases in population growth and demands for goods and energy. To protect the environment and restore the degraded ecosystems, the Chinese government has implemented multiple national ecological restoration projects. Yet, the combined effects of climate change and land use and land cover change (LULCC) over large spatial scales that brace multiple land use decisions and great environmental heterogeneity remain unclear. We assessed the combined effects of LULCC and climate change on water-related ecosystem services (water provision and soil conservation services) from 1990s to 2020s in Northeast China using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model. We found that water yield decreased by 9.78% and soil retention increased by 30.51% over the past 30 years. LULCC and climate change exerted negative effects on water yield whereas they both enhanced soil retention; LULCC interacted with climate change to have relatively small inhibitory effects on water yield and large facilitation effects on soil retention. Changes in water yield were mainly attributed to climate change, while soil retention was largely influenced by LULCC and its interaction with climate change. Our research highlights the importance of land use decisions and its interactive effects with climate change on ecosystem services in a heavily disturbed temperate region, and provides important information to inform future land management and policy making for sustaining diverse ecosystem services and ensuring human wellbeing.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Humanos , Solo , Água
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 1): 155851, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35561918

RESUMO

Grassland vegetation greenness has been increasing globally during the past decades. Although the vegetation coverage change could have significant effects on climate by affecting albedo and evapotranspiration (ET), the effects of global grassland greening on climate remain unclear due to the lack of long-term field observation data. Here, we used satellite measurements of land surface temperature (LST) from high coverage grassland and adjacent low coverage grassland (divided according to the leaf area index) to quantify, for the first time, the biogeophysical effects of global grassland greening on surface temperatures. Results showed that grassland greening decreased the annual mean LST and daytime LST (LSTD), but did not significantly change nighttime LST (LSTN) globally from 2003 to 2017. Spatially, grassland greening had significant cooling effects on the annual mean LST and LSTD for latitudes south of 50°N due to the cooling effect of increased ET, whereas warming affects on the annual mean LST and LSTD in the high northern latitudes (> 50°N) because of the warming effects of decreased albedo. This study revealed that the effects of grassland greening on surface temperatures changed with latitude. During June, July, and August (JJA), the increasing grassland vegetation coverage decreased the LST between 25°S and 50°N, but increased the mean LST in high northern latitudes. By contrast, grassland greening has no significant effect on the mean LST in the temperate southern hemisphere (> 25°S) during JJA due to cooling and warming effects on LSTD and LSTN, respectively. During December, January, and February, grassland greening decreased the mean LST and LSTD for latitudes south of 25°N, but increased the mean LST and LSTN for latitudes north of 25°N. This study highlights the importance of including grassland vegetation coverage in models of regional surface temperature dynamics and future climate forecast.

7.
Ther Adv Hematol ; 13: 20406207221095226, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510211

RESUMO

Background: The responses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) or corticosteroids as the initial treatment on pregnancy with ITP were unsatisfactory. This study aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of prednisone plus IVIg versus prednisone or IVIg in pregnant patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Methods: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2020, 970 pregnancies diagnosed with ITP at 19 collaborative centers in China were reviewed in this observational study. A total of 513 pregnancies (52.89%) received no intervention. Concerning the remaining pregnancies, 151 (33.04%) pregnancies received an initial treatment of prednisone plus IVIg, 105 (22.98%) pregnancies received IVIg alone, and 172 (37.64%) pregnancies only received prednisone. Results: Regarding the maternal response to the initial treatment, no differences were found among the three treatment groups (41.1% for prednisone plus IVIg, 33.1% for prednisone, and 38.1% for IVIg). However, a significant difference was observed in the time to response between the prednisone plus IVIg group (4.39 ± 2.54 days) and prednisone group (7.29 ± 5.01 days; p < 0.001), and between the IVIg group (6.71 ± 4.85 days) and prednisone group (p < 0.001). The median prednisone duration in the monotherapy group was 27 days (range, 8-195 days), whereas that in the combination group was 14 days (range, 6-85 days). No significant differences were found among these three treatment groups in neonatal outcomes, particularly concerning the neonatal platelet counts. The time to response in the combination treatment group was shorter than prednisone monotherapy. The duration of prednisone application in combination group was shorter than prednisone monotherapy. The combined therapy showed a lower predelivery platelet transfusion rate than IVIg alone. Conclusion: These findings suggest that prednisone plus IVIg may represent a potential combination therapy for pregnant patients with ITP.

8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech ; 1865(3): 194814, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439639

RESUMO

Mounting evidence showed that excess selenium (10.0-15.0-fold of adequate Se) intake caused severe hepatic lipid deposition in the vertebrate. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of Se supranutrition mediated-changes of lipid deposition and metabolism. We found that dietary excessive Se addition increased hepatic TGs and glucose contents, up-regulated lipogenic enzyme activities and reduced hepatic glycogen contents. Transcriptomic and immunoblotting analysis showed that Se supranutrition significantly influenced serine/threonine kinase 1 (AKT1)-forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a)-PYGL signaling and protein levels of SELENOF. Knockdown of SELENOF and PYGL by RNA interference revealed that the AKT1-FOXO3a-PYGL axis was critical for Se supranutrition-induced lipid accumulation. Moreover, Se supranutrition-induced lipid accumulation was via the increased DNA binding capacity of FOXO3a to PYGL promoter, which increased glycogenolysis, and accordingly promoted lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. Our finding provides new insight into the mechanism of Se supranutrition-induced lipid accumulation and suggests that SELENOF may be a therapeutic target for Se supranutrition induced-lipid disorders in the vertebrates.


Assuntos
Glicogenólise , Selênio , Animais , Lipídeos , Lipogênese/genética , Selênio/farmacologia , Selenoproteínas/genética
9.
Mol Pain ; 18: 17448069221099360, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35451875

RESUMO

Prolongation of postsurgical pain caused by pre-operative stress is a clinically significant problem, although the mechanisms are not fully understood. Stress can promote the pro-inflammatory activation of microglia, and the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) ß regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in microglia. Therefore, we speculated that C/EBPß in spinal microglia may have critical roles in the development of chronic postsurgical pain. Accordingly, in this study, we used a single prolonged stress (SPS) procedure and plantar incisions to evaluate the roles of C/EBPß in postsurgical pain. Our experiments showed that SPS exposure prolonged mechanical allodynia, increased the expression of C/EBPß and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and potentiated the activation of spinal microglia. Subsequently, microinjection of C/EBPß siRNA attenuated the duration of SPS-prolonged postoperative mechanical allodynia and inhibited microglial activation in the spinal cord. Conversely, mimicking this increase in C/EBPß promoted microglial activation via pretreatment with a pre-injection of AAV5-C/EBPß, leading to prolongation of postsurgical pain. Overall, these results suggested that spinal microglia may play key roles in prolongation of postsurgical pain induced by pre-operative stress and that C/EBPß may be a potential target for disease treatment.

10.
Small ; : e2200548, 2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460191

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization of Au3+ -modified UiO-67 metal-organic framework nanoparticles, Au3+ -NMOFs, are described. The Au3+ -NMOFs reveal dual oxidase-like and peroxidase-like activities and act as an active catalyst for the catalyzed generation of O2 •- under aerobic conditions or •OH in the presence of H2 O2 . The two reactive oxygen species (ROS) agents O2 •- and •OH are cooperatively formed by Au3+ -NMOFs under aerobic conditions, and in the presence of H2 O2. The Au3+ -NMOFs are applied as an effective catalyst for the generation ROS agents for antibacterial and wound healing applications. Effective antibacterial cell death and inhibition of cell proliferation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial colonies are demonstrated in the presence of the Au3+ -NMOFs. In addition, in vivo experiments demonstrate effective wound healing of mice wounds infected by S. aureus, treated by the Au3+ -NMOFs.

11.
Circ Heart Fail ; 15(4): e008362, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, standard medical therapies have limited effects on heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), which impacts on the life quality and survival of patients. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous radiofrequency ablation-based interatrial shunting for HFpEF with a novel atrial septostomy device. METHODS: A preclinical study in 11 normal domestic pigs and the first-in-man study in 10 patients with HFpEF were performed. The major safety events and interatrial shunt performance were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post-procedure in both animals and human patients. The clinical functional status was also assessed in the first-in-man study. RESULTS: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation-based interatrial shunting therapy was performed successfully both in animals and patients. In the animal study, a left-to-right interatrial shunt was created with a mean defect size of 5.5±2.2 mm without procedure-related safety events. Seven pigs showed the continuous shunting with a mean defect size of 4.1±1.5 mm at 6 months. In the first-in-man study, a median interatrial defect diameter of 5.0 (4.0-6.0) mm was measured immediately. No major safety events including death and thromboembolism were observed. The continuous shunting with the defect size of 4.0 (3.0-4.0) mm could still be observed in 7 patients at 6 months. The clinical status was significantly improved with NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) reduced by 2149 pg/mL ([95% CI, 204-3301] P=0.028), with 6-minute walk distance increased by 88 m ([95% CI, 50-249] P=0.008) and with New York Heart Association class improved in 8 patients at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: The present results showed that percutaneous radiofrequency ablation-based interatrial shunting was a safe and potentially effective therapy for HFpEF, providing a nonpharmacological and nonimplanted option for HFpEF management. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.chictr.org.cn; Unique identifier: ChiCTR1900027664.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Animais , Humanos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Próteses e Implantes , Qualidade de Vida , Volume Sistólico , Suínos
12.
Front Surg ; 9: 871577, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35392061

RESUMO

Background: Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is usually considered to have a poor prognosis, which has a high risk of early death (≤3 months). Our aim was to developed a predictive nomogram for early death of mRCC. Methods: The SEER database was accessed to obtain the related information of 6,005 mRCC patients between 2010 and 2015. They were randomly divided into primary cohort and validation cohort in radio of 7:3. The optimal cut-off point regarding age at diagnosis and tumor size were identified by the X-tile analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to determine significant independent risk factors contributed to early death. A practical nomogram was constructed and then verified by using calibration plots, receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA). Results: There were 6,005 patients with mRCC included in the predictive model, where 1,816 patients went through early death (death within ≤3 months of diagnosis), and among them 1,687 patients died of mRCC. Based on 11 significant risk factors, including age, grade, N-stage, histologic type, metastatic sites (bone, lung, liver and brain) and treatments (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy), a practical nomogram was developed. The model's excellent effectiveness, discrimination and clinical practicality were proved by the AUC value, calibration plots and DCA, respectively. Conclusions: The nomogram may play a major part in distinguishing the early death of mRCC patients, which can assist clinicians in individualized medicine.

13.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 3753-3765, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35411173

RESUMO

Objective: To construct a prognostic model that estimates the probability of overall survival for T1 high-grade bladder cancer patients after radical cystectomy. Patients and Methods: We enrolled 801 patients diagnosed with T1 high grade and received radical cystectomy from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (2004-2015). All patients were randomly divided into the development group (n = 561) and validation group (n = 240) with the ratio of 7:3. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to filter variables and the Kaplan-Meier method to evaluate survival outcomes. The results of sensitivity analysis determined the variables in the final model. The performance of the model was internally validated by calibration curves, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the concordance index (C-index). Results: The mean survival months were 56.086 in the development group and 58.21 in the validation group. Six variables including age, marital status, tumour size, tumour sites, region nodes examined, and N stage were incorporated in the final nomogram. The accuracy of the nomogram for prediction of overall survival was estimated by C-index (0.732; 0.712-0.752) and AUC (0.771 for 3-year; 0.766 for 5-year) in the development group. In the validation group, the C-index of the nomogram was 0.752 (0.723-0.781), and AUC was 0.761 for 3-year as well as 0.793 for 5-year. These results all showed better performance than the AJCC stage. Calibration plots for 3- and 5-year overall survival presented good concordance in both the development and validation group. Conclusion: We have established a prognostic nomogram that provides a more accurate and relevant individualized probability of overall survival for patients with T1HG bladder transitional cell carcinoma after radical cystectomy. It can contribute to improving patient counselling and treatment selection.

14.
Ann Acad Med Singap ; 51(3): 136-142, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35373236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients are high. We examined the incidence and predictors of death and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in ESRF patients on different modalities of dialysis. METHOD: Data were obtained from a population-based database (National Registry Disease Offices) in Singapore. The study cohort comprised all adult patients initiated on dialysis between 2007 and 2012 who were closely followed for the development of death and AMI until September 2014. Cox regression methods were used to identify predictors of death and AMI. RESULTS: Of 5,309 patients, 4,449 were on haemodialysis and 860 on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mean age of the cohort was 61 (±13) years (44% women), of Chinese (67%), Malay (25%) and Indian (7%) ethnicities. By September 2014, the incidence of all-cause death was 34%; close to a third of the patients died from a cardiovascular cause. Age >60 years and the presence of ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and PD were identified as independent predictors of all-cause death. PD patients had lower odds of survival compared to patients on haemodialysis (hazard ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.35-1.70, P<0.0001). Predictors of AMI in this cohort were older age (>60 years) and the presence of ischaemic heart disease, diabetes, stroke, peripheral vascular disease and current/ex-smokers. There were no significant differences in the incidence of AMI between patients on PD and haemodialysis. CONCLUSION: The short-term incidence of death and AMI remains high in Singapore. Future studies should investigate the benefits of a tighter control of cardiovascular risk factors among ESRF patients on dialysis.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Infarto do Miocárdio , Diálise Peritoneal , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal
15.
Transl Oncol ; 20: 101404, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364558

RESUMO

The cytosolic DNA-sensing cGAS-STING pathway has been proved to be involved in tumor progression and influence the effect of cancer immunotherapy. However, little attentions have been paid to the role of cGAS-STING pathway on cancer stemness. Herein, we found that the cGAS-STING pathway was activated in different tumor cells. cGAS- or STING-knockout impaired the capability of tumor formation in vivo and tumorsphere formation in vitro. In addition, loss of cGAS-STING cascade promoted tumor apoptosis, but inhibited tumor growth and metastasis. We further demonstrated that cGAS-STING pathway potentiated tumor formation by sustaining cancer stemness. Moreover, analysis of RNA-seq showed that cGAS-STING pathway maintained cancer stemness probably by activating STAT3. Our findings highlight the role of intrinsic activation of cGAS-STING pathway in tumorigenesis, and reveal a new mechanism of its regulation of tumor progression via sustaining cancer stemness through STAT3 activation.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(4): 1747-1755, 2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35393798

RESUMO

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the key precursors of the ozone (O3) formation processes in the troposphere and are important control objects for the coordinated governance of O3 and PM2.5. The Spring Festival of 2020 was affected by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia epidemic:companies stopped work and production, and traffic was restricted, providing scientific experimentation opportunities for pollutant emission reduction research. This study analyzed the variety of the composition, chemical reaction activity, and sources of VOCs in the Pearl River Delta during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period, using real-time online monitoring data of VOCs obtained at four sites(Guangzhou, Dongguan, Zhongshan, and Duanfen)in the Pearl River Delta from January 1, 2020 to February 29, 2020. The results showed that during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period, the average of φ (VOCs) in the Pearl River Delta was 15.89×10-9, and the maximum hourly average concentration was 45.43×10-9, values that were 44% and 60% lower, respectively, than those before the Spring Festival holiday. Among the VOCs component concentration decreases, the aromatic hydrocarbon component decreased the most, and the decrease in the urban area of the Pearl River Delta (74%) was significantly greater than that in the suburban area (56%). As a result, the contribution rate of aromatic hydrocarbons to the total VOCs was reduced to less than 10%. The analysis of the·OH reaction activity of VOCs(L·OH)and ozone formation potential(OFP)showed that the L·OH and OFP of VOCs decreased significantly in the Pearl River Delta during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period. Compared with those before the Spring Festival holiday, the total L·OH and total OFP decreased by an average of 60% and 63% in the urban area of the Pearl River Delta, respectively. Additionally, the atmospheric oxidation had also been significantly reduced, which showed a 28% decrease in ρ(Ox). The ratio of toluene/benzene showed that the influence of industrial sources had almost disappeared during the Spring Festival and the epidemic control period, and the total points of the representative components of industrial-related solvent-use sources such as toluene, ethylbenzene, and m/p-xylene dropped by 72% to 91%. The results of this study suggest that solvent-use sources and vehicle exhaust emission sources are the current sources of VOCs that need to be paid attention to in the prevention and control of O3 pollution in the Pearl River Delta region, and the impact of petrochemical sources cannot be ignored in the work of further reducing the background concentration of O3.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , COVID-19 , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Férias e Feriados , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Solventes/análise , Tolueno/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446761

RESUMO

Attending selectively to emotion-eliciting stimuli is intrinsic to human vision. \ul{In this research, we investigate how emotion-elicitation features of images relate to human selective attention.} We create the EMOtional attention dataset (EMOd). It is a set of diverse emotion-eliciting images, each with (1) eye-tracking data from 16 subjects, (2) image context labels at both object- and scene-level. \ul{Based on analyses of human perceptions of EMOd, we report an emotion prioritization effect: emotion-eliciting content draws stronger and earlier human attention than neutral content, but this advantage diminishes dramatically after initial fixation. We find that human attention is more focused on awe eliciting and aesthetic vehicle and animal scenes in EMOd. Aiming to model the above human attention behaviours computationally, we design a deep neural network (CASNet II), which includes a channel weighting subnetwork that prioritizes emotion-eliciting objects, and an Atrous Spatial Pyramid Pooling (ASPP) structure that learns the relative importance of image regions at multiple scales. Visualizations and quantitative analyses demonstrate the model's ability to simulate human attention behaviour, especially on emotion-eliciting content.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35366716

RESUMO

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in promoting or suppressing methylmercury (MeHg) production in wetlands. However, the effects of DOM spectral characteristics on MeHg levels remain poorly understood in boreal peatlands in Northeast China, where is undergoing remarkable climate warming. In the present work, soil samples were collected from 22 peatlands in the Greater Khingan Mountains (GKM) to test the hypothesis that DOM spectral properties control MeHg levels. DOM was characterized by UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy; the three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) was used to unveil the origin of DOM. The average total mercury (THg) and MeHg contents were 112.76 µg/kg and 12.43 µg/kg across all peatlands, respectively. There was a significantly positive correlation between MeHg and the longitude spanning the range from 120 to 123°E (p < 0.05). Proportions of MeHg to THg (%MeHg), 12.3% on average, were positively correlated with DOM humification degree at p < 0.05 level. Protein-like components of DOM (P-like) were negatively related to %MeHg. DOM had positive effects on THg, and P-like components, HIX and BIX can negatively affect THg as well as MeHg. Our findings demonstrate that the spectral characteristics of DOM in soil are crucial to the content of methyl mercury in the GKM soil.

19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377455

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in DDRGK1 have been shown to cause Shohat type spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia. In zebrafish, loss-of-function of ddrgk1 lead to defects in early cartilage development. Ddrgk1-/- mice show delayed mesenchymal condensation in the limb buds and early embryonic lethality. Mechanistically, Ddrgk1 interacts with Sox9 and reduces ubiquitin mediated proteasomal degradation of Sox9 protein. To investigate the cartilage-specific role of DDRGK1, conditional knock-out mice were generated by intercrossing Prx1-Cre transgenic mice with Ddrgkfl/fl mice to delete its expression in limb mesenchymal cells. Mutant mice showed progressive severe shortening of the limbs and joint abnormalities. The growth plate showed disorganization with shortened proliferative zone and enlarged hypertrophic zone. In correlation with these findings Sox9 and Col2a1 protein levels were decreased while Col10a1 expression was expanded. These data demonstrate the importance of Ddrgk1 during growth plate development. In contrast, deletion of Ddrgk1 with the osteoblast-specific Osteocalcin-Cre and Leptin receptor-Cre lines did not show bone phenotypes suggesting the effect on limb development is cartilage-specific. To evaluate the role of DDRGK1 in cartilage postnatal homeostasis, inducible Agc1-CreERT2; Ddrgklfl/fl mice were generated. Mice in which Ddrgk1 was deleted at 3 months of age showed disorganized growth plate, with significant reduction in proteoglycan deposition. These data demonstrate a postnatal requirement for Ddrgk1 in maintaining normal growth plate morphology. Together, these findings highlight the physiological role of Ddrgk1 in development and maintenance of the growth plate cartilage. Furthermore, these genetic mouse models recapitulate the clinical phenotype of short stature and joint abnormalities observed in patients with Shohat type SEMD.

20.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 9326373, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35265311

RESUMO

Objective: We systematically analyzed the mechanism of plant-derived drugs alleviating cancer pain in our hospital through network pharmacology, so as to provide the possibility of further application of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of cancer pain. Methods: We used TCMSP, ETCM, and TCMID databases to mine the active ingredients of plant-derived drugs. We combined OMIM, GeneCards, and DrugBank databases to mine and match the common targets of plant-derived drugs for cancer pain. We used the STRING platform and Cytoscape software to analyze and screen out the core targets. We used GO and KEGG methods to analyze the biological processes, molecular functions, cellular composition, and signaling pathways involved in the reduction of cancer pain by plant-derived drugs. Results: We found 153 active ingredients from botanical drugs by TCMSP (Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, TCMSP), ETCM (The Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine), and TCMID (Traditional Chinese Medicine Integrated Database) databases, covering 341 protein targets in human body. Combined with OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man), GeneCards, and DrugBank databases, we excavated and matched 141 targets of plant-derived drugs and cancerous pain diseases. Through the analysis of the STRING platform and Cytoscape software, 19 core targets including TNF, MAPK1, JUN, and IL-6 were screened out. Go and KEGG enrichment showed that plant-derived drugs alleviated cancer pain processes involving 193 biological processes, 47 molecular functions, 22 cell components, and 118 signaling pathways. By screening genes involved in KEGG signaling pathway, it was found that plant-derived drugs were mainly associated with PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, tumor necrosis factor signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and HIF-1 signaling pathway in alleviating cancer pain. Conclusion: These results indicate that botanical drugs can positively affect the expression of inflammatory factors and apoptotic factors in the process of treatment and relief of cancer pain, which is expected to have a potential therapeutic effect on the relief of cancer pain.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Neoplasias , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
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