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1.
Res Aging ; 42(1): 3-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542998

RESUMO

The present study aimed to examine the association between community social capital and positive caregiving experiences among adult-children caregivers of disabled older adults in urban China. Data for this study were derived from the 2016 wave of the Longitudinal Study on Family Caregivers for Frail Older Adults Aged 75 or Above in Shanghai. The final analysis featured 440 disabled older adult and adult-children caregiver dyads. Multiple indicators and multiple causes modeling was used to test the proposed model from a structural equation modeling perspective. Provision of support to others was significantly associated with self-affirmation. Citizenship activity was significantly associated with life enrichment. Support of units (i.e., employers) was significantly associated with self-affirmation and life enrichment. The findings support the integration of the stress process model and social capital theory and highlight the important role of community social capital in enhancing the subdimensions of positive caregiving experiences. Policy and intervention implications are discussed.

2.
J Neurol ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following a doctor's prescribed medication regimen is the key to prevent recurrent stroke and adverse outcomes. Many studies have investigated post-stroke drug adherence and persistence in patients. However, a comprehensive analysis of the data is lacking. OBJECTIVES: A meta-analysis of published literature was conducted to summarize the ratio of medication adherence and persistence in patients after stroke. METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by conducting a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science up to April 2019. We also reviewed the reference list of the retrieved articles to identify additional studies. We included observational studies that reported data on patients' medication adherence or persistence status, or the rate of medication adherence or persistence among patients with stroke could be calculated based on the information provided. RESULTS: The overall high medication adherence rate of patients with stroke was 64.1% (95% CI: 57.4%-70.8%), and the persistence rate of patients with stroke was 72.2% (95% CI: 69.1%-75.3%). The highest persistence rate was observed in cohort studies which was 80.1% (95% CI: 76.7%-83.4%). The medication adherence rate was the highest in cases where the rates were assessed through interviews or self-reports (77.7% (95% CI: 71.3%-84.1%)). CONCLUSIONS: Medication adherence and persistence rates are low in patients after suffering a stroke. Patient medication adherence or persistence and their influencing factors should be considered for the treatment of stroke patients. More detailed disease prevention and management strategies need to be developed for stroke patients with different comorbidities.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755134

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate which neighborhood-based social capital components are associated with a higher level of cognitive function in LMICs. METHODS: This international population-based study used cross-sectional survey data from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), a study of adults aged 50 years or older in China, Ghana, India, the Russian Federation, and South Africa from 2007 through 2010 (N=29,528). Associations between neighborhood-based social capital indicators (trust in neighbors, perceived neighborhood safety, and community participation) and cognitive function were examined using ordinary least squares regressions and random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Results of the meta-analyses of within-country effects indicated that trust in neighbors were positively associated with cognitive function across India, Russia, and Ghana, but negatively associated in South Africa (ß = -0.041, SE = .013, p < .01) and no effect in China (p >.05). The significant effect of perceived neighborhood safety was only found in South Africa (ß = 0.051, SE = .007, p < .001) and China (ß = 0.030, SE = .005, p < .001). Community participation approached a null effect in South Africa (p > .05). DISCUSSION: Different indicators of neighborhood-based social capital, which are well-established protective resources for cognitive function, may have varied relationships with cognitive function cross-nationally. This finding provides a better understanding of the mechanisms by which neighborhood social capital may contribute to better cognitive function in LMICs than high-income countries, potentially due to differences in neighborhood environments, health systems, and availability of public resources.

4.
Teach Learn Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755318

RESUMO

Phenomenon: China is a relatively homogenous nation where the majority of people are Han Chinese. In recent years, a large number of international students have begun to study medicine in China. Due to the privacy and intimacy associated with obstetrical and gynecological diseases, Chinese women's acceptance toward international students' involvement in their care has not been reported thus far. This survey aims (1) to determine Chinese women's attitudes toward both Chinese and international medical student involvements in obstetrical and gynecological outpatient departments and (2) to investigate possible reasons, if any, for their rejection of the medical students. Approach: We conducted a cross-sectional survey study using a locally-developed questionnaire. The survey was conducted in the obstetrical and gynecological outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in a Chinese harbor city. We surveyed 600 patients for their attitudes towards the involvement of four groups of medical student in clinical practice: Chinese female, International female, Chinese male, and International male. Among the returned questionnaires, 501 satisfied the criteria for analysis. Findings: Patient's acceptance rates of the four groups of students (Chinese female, International female, Chinese male, and International male) were 59.7%, 55.9%, 32.1%, and 25.9%, respectively. Analysis revealed that language barriers and lack of friendliness were the two main reasons leading to patients' low acceptance rates of international students. Insights: Obstetrical and gynecological patients are more likely to accept female students over male students, regardless of their nationality, however International male students receive the least acceptance. For international students, improving their Chinese language skills and using more friendly expressions may facilitate their practice in China.

5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular embolization was successfully used in treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM), respectively or in combination with surgical resection. Deliberate employment of post-operative hypotension was widely recommended by neurosurgeons. Researches on predictors of difficulties in deliberate postoperative hypotension remain scarce. This study aimed to analyze the potential risk factors of difficult cases of deliberate post-operative hypotension. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who received bAVM embolization between January 2010 and December 2015. Demographic features, clinical presentation, AVM characteristics, peri-operative medication, hemodynamic features, treatment-related information and outcome-related data were recorded. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were performed to find out associated risk factors. RESULTS: Difficulty in deliberate postoperative hypotension was observed in 75 patients the first post-operative day. Logistic regression indicated that higher S-M grade was an independent risk factor of difficult deliberate postoperative hypotension following embolization (OR=2.058; 95% CI, 1.364-3.105; P=0.001). While intra-operative Dexmedetomidine administration was a potential independent protective factor (OR=0.356; 95% CI, 0.133-0.956; P=0.040). CONCLUSIONS: Higher S-M grade was an independent risk factor of difficult cases of deliberate postoperative hypotension after endovascular embolization, while Intra-operative Dexmedetomidine administration was potential protective predictor.

6.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(11): e14380, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption is important for health, but many individuals fail to consume adequate amounts for health benefits. Although many individuals are aware of current fruit and vegetable consumption recommendations, research suggests that adherence to these is hampered by low knowledge of the details of these recommendations. OBJECTIVE: This paper reports the development and details of a pilot randomized controlled test of a novel interactive mobile phone app for addressing low knowledge of the UK 5-a-day fruit and vegetable recommendations. METHODS: Requirements for the app were first defined by researchers and potential end users and prioritized using the MoSCoW (Must have, Should have, Could have, Won't have) method. Second, a prototype mobile phone app was developed using an agile approach. Third, the prototype app was tested in a randomized controlled pilot trial for impacts on knowledge and intake of fruit and vegetables. Volunteers were randomized to either receive (n=50) or not receive the app (n=44) for 2 or 4 weeks, and fruit and vegetable knowledge, intake, and behavior were assessed at the beginning of the study and after 1 and 2 weeks or after 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. App usage and qualitative feedback were also investigated. All findings then informed the development of a final app. RESULTS: Low knowledge of consumption recommendations centered around portion sizes and the need for variety, and an interactive mobile phone app was considered a suitable tool for improving this knowledge in a practical manner that would be available both at time of consumption and outside of these times. The pilot test revealed improved behavior after 2 weeks compared with baseline in volunteers who received the app, but improvements in knowledge on fruit and vegetable recommendations were found in both groups, and no improvements in fruit and vegetable intakes were found in formal measures. Patterns of app usage and qualitative feedback also suggested a number of modifications. The resultant final app incorporates several behavior change techniques (goal-setting, self-monitoring, and personalized feedback) as well as aiming to improve knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: A novel interactive mobile phone app was successfully developed based on requirements, and when tested in a pilot randomized controlled trial, this app was found to have some impacts on fruit and vegetable outcomes. Although benefits from the app were small, impacts will likely increase as a result of recent modifications. The final SMART 5-A-DAY app is available in the Google Play Store and now needs testing in the target population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02779491; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02779491.

7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 150: 110600, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669980

RESUMO

An Illumina-based next-generation sequencing was employed to characterise the sediment microbiome adjacent to coastal industrial and tourist cities, Taizhou and Xiamen, in China, and their associations with chemical pollution were explored. The results indicated that chemical pollution of sediments from Taizhou was higher than that from Xiamen. The number of sediment bacterial genera was negatively (Taizhou) or positively (Xiamen) correlated with offshore distance, owing to shifts in the primary and secondary status of organic matter and chemical pollutants for the promotion or inhibition of the sediment microbiome. The total number of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in sediments from Taizhou was larger than from Xiamen, while the number of core OTUs was smaller indicating that Taizhou had more impact on core microbes in sediments than Xiamen. This study suggests that chemical pollutants and organic matter result in different co-regulation of the off-shore sediment microbiome of coastal industrial and tourist cities.

8.
Zootaxa ; 4563(2): zootaxa.4563.2.7, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716545

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Rhodostrophia Hübner, 1823, Rhodostrophia reisseri sp. nov. and Rhodostrophia stueningi sp. nov. are described from China. The Chinese species of Rhodostrophia are reviewed. Diagnoses for all discussed Chinese species are provided.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China
9.
Zootaxa ; 4651(3): zootaxa.4651.3.2, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716896

RESUMO

The Chinese species of the genus Organopoda Hampson, 1893 are reviewed: seven species are reported from China. Three new species, O. acutula sp. nov., O. deltaformis sp. nov. and O. megiste sp. nov. are described. Diagnostic characters of all Chinese species are provided. External features and genitalia are depicted.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China , Genitália
10.
Int J Immunogenet ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746120

RESUMO

Immunological inflammatory reaction is one of the key links in the occurrence and development of post-traumatic osteomyelitis after microbial invasion. Growing evidence suggests complex interactions between IFN-γ and bone remodelling cells. However, potential association of IFN-γ gene polymorphism with susceptibility to post-traumatic osteomyelitis remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential link between IFN-γ +874T/A polymorphism and risk of developing post-traumatic osteomyelitis. A total of 189 patients with post-traumatic osteomyelitis and 200 healthy controls were enrolled for genotyping using the SNaPshot genotyping method. Statistically significant associations were found between the gene polymorphism and the risk of post-traumatic osteomyelitis by dominant model (AA + AT vs. TT, OR = 1.820, p = .017) and heterozygous model (AT vs. TT, OR = 1.781, p = .029). Moreover, the frequency of mutant allele A was significantly higher in the patients than that in the healthy controls (15.07% vs. 9.25%, OR = 1.742, p = .013). IFN-γ +874T/A polymorphism may contribute to the increased susceptibility to post-traumatic osteomyelitis.

13.
J Anim Sci ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740932

RESUMO

Enteric methane (CH4) emissions is not only an important source of greenhouse gases (GHG), but also a loss of dietary energy in livestock. Corn oil (CO) is rich in UFA with >50% polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may enhance ruminal biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids, leading to changes in ruminal H2 metabolism and methanogenesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of corn oil supplementation of a diet on CH4 emissions, nutrient digestibility, ruminal dissolved gases, fermentation and microbiota in goats. Six female goats were used in a crossover design with 2 dietary treatments, which included control and corn oil supplementation (30 g/kg dry matter basis). Corn oil supplementation did not alter total-tract organic matter digestibility or populations of predominant ruminal fibrolytic microorganisms (protozoa, fungi, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes), but reduced enteric CH4 emissions (g/kg dry matter intake, -15.1%, P = 0.003). Corn oil supplementation decreased ruminal dissolved hydrogen (P < 0.001) and dissolved CH4 (P < 0.001) concentrations, proportions of total unsaturated fatty acids (P < 0.001) and propionate (P = 0.015), and increased proportions of total saturated fatty acids (P < 0.001) and acetate (P < 0.001), and acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.038) in rumen fluid. Corn oil supplementation decreased relative abundance of family Bacteroidales_BS11_gut_group (P = 0.032), increased relative abundance of family Rikenellaceae (P = 0.021) and Lachnospiraceae (P = 0.025), and tended to increase relative abundance of genus Butyrivibrio_2 (P = 0.06). Relative abundance (P = 0.09) and 16S rRNA gene copies (P = 0.043) of order Methanomicrobiales, and relative abundance of genus Methanomicrobium (P = 0.09) also decreased with corn oil supplementation, but relative abundance (P = 0.012) and 16S rRNA gene copies (P = 0.08) of genus Methanobrevibacter increased. In summary, corn oil supplementation increased rumen biohydrogenatation by facilitating growth of biohydrogenating bacteria of family Lachnospiraceae and genus Butyrivibrio_2, and may have enhanced reductive acetogenesis by facilitating growth of family Lachnospiraceae. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of corn oil led to a shift of fermentation pathways that enhanced acetate production and decreased rumen dH2 concentration and CH4 emissions.

14.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15596, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666602

RESUMO

Notch signaling is involved in the early onset of osteoarthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling changes during proliferation and differentiation of chondrocyte, and to testify the mechanism of MMP-13 regulation by Notch and Runx2 expression changes during osteoarthritis. In this study, Chondrocytes were isolated from rat knee cartilages. Notch signaling was activated/inhibited by Jagged-1/DAPT. Proliferative capacity of Chondrocytes was analyzed by CCK-8 staining and EdU labeling. ColX, Runx2 and MMP-13 expressions were analyzed as cell differentiation makers. Then, Runx2 gene expression was interfered using lentivirus transfection (RNAi) and was over-expressed by plasmids transfected siRNA in chondrocytes, and MMP-13 expression was analyzed after Jagged-1/DAPT treatment. In vivo, an intra-articular injection of shRunx2 lentivirus followed with Jagged1/DAPT treatments was performed in rats. MMP-13 expression in articular cartilage was detected by immunohistochemistry. Finally, MMP-13 expression changes were analyzed in chondrocytes under IL-1ß stimulation. Our findings showed that, CCK-8 staining and EdU labeling revealed suppression of cell proliferation by Notch signaling activation after Jagged-1 treatment in chondrocytes. Promoted differentiation was also observed, characterized by increased expressions of Col X, MMP-13 and Runx2. Meanwhile, Sox9, aggrecan and Col II expressions were down-regulated. The opposite results were observed in Notch signaling inhibited cells by DAPT treatment. In addition, Runx2 RNAi significantly attenuated the 'regulatory sensitivity' of Notch signaling on MMP-13 expression both in vitro and in vivo. However, we found there wasn't significant changes of this 'regulatory sensitivity' of Notch signaling after Runx2 over-expression. Under IL-1ß circumstance, MMP-13 expression could be reduced by both DAPT treatment and Runx2 RNAi, while Runx2 interference also attenuated the 'regulatory sensitivity' of Notch in MMP-13 under IL-1ß stimulation. In conclusion, Notch signaling is an important regulator on rat chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, and this regulatory effect was partially mediated by proper Runx2 expression under both normal and IL-1ß circumstances. In the meanwhile, DAPT treatment could effectively suppress expression of MMP-13 stimulated by IL-1 ß.

15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723065

RESUMO

The complement systems play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, the complement C3 gene, designated CagC3, was cloned and sequenced from Gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). The expression pattern of CagC3 in different tissues of healthy Gibel carp and after challenge with Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2) were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The full-length CagC3 cDNA was 5131 bp with an ORF of 4950 bp, encoding a predicted protein of 1649 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that CagC3 has conserved domains and residues known to be critical for C3 function. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CagC3 clustered with homologs from common carp and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). CagC3 is expressed in all examined tissues of healthy Gibel carp, with the highest expression in liver. In vivo, after CyHV-2 challenge, CagC3 transcription was significantly upregulated in liver, spleen and kidney with the peaks at 24 hr, 2 d, and 2 d, respectively. In vitro, CagC3 expression in the Gibel carp brain cell line showed the same pattern as that in vivo after stimulation with CyHV-2 or poly(I:C). However, CagC3 expression was downregulated at 24 hr after induction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and then reached the peak at 2 d. These results suggest that CagC3 is involved in the innate immune response of Gibel carp to viral infection.

16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 311: 108333, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669927

RESUMO

Large amounts of tomato fruits and derived products are produced in China and may be contaminated by Alternaria mycotoxins, which may have the potential risks for human health. There is thus an increasing interest in reducing the mycotoxins. In the present study, 26 Alternaria strains isolated from tomato black rots were identified according to morphological and molecular grounds, and their mycotoxigenic abilities for alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl-ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) were also investigated. The results showed that A. alternate was the predominant species with incidence values of 65.4% (17/26), followed by A. brassicae (7/26) and A. tenuissima (2/26). A. alternate isolates showed the highest capacity for AOH, AME and TeA production among the studied isolates either in vitro or in vivo, suggested that A. alternata may be the most important mycotoxin-producing species in tomato fruits. Thus, UV-C irradiation was used to reduce the mycotoxin produced by A. alternata in our study. The results showed that low dose of UV-C irradiation (0.25 kJ/m2) could effectively inhibit mycotoxins production and penetration in tomatoes. Upon treatment with UV-C, there was 79.6, 76.4 and 51.4% of reduction in AOH, AME and TeA penetration when compared to untreated fruits. This may be associated with the enhanced phenolics by UV-C irradiation. In fact, the induced phenolics were including p-coumaric, ferulic and pyrocatechuic acids, of which p-coumaric acid (1.0 mM) displayed the highest reduction of TeA with 60.2%, whereas ferulic acid (1.0 mM) showed strong inhibitory effects on the AOH and AME production by 59.4 and 79.1%, respectively. Therefore, the application of UV-C irradiation seems to be a promising method for reducing the potential risk of Alternaria mycotoxins in fruits and also for enhancing phenolics of processing products.

17.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(11): 171, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673786

RESUMO

Fungal endo-ß-1,4-xylanases (endo-xylanases) can hydrolyze xylan into xylooligosaccharides (XOS), and have potential biotechnological applications for the exploitation of natural renewable polysaccharides. In the current study, we aimed to screen and characterize an efficient fungal endo-xylanase from 100 natural humus-rich soil samples collected in Guizhou Province, China, using extracted sugarcane bagasse xylan (SBX) as the sole carbon source. Initially, 182 fungal isolates producing xylanases were selected, among which Trichoderma sp. strain TP3-36 was identified as showing the highest xylanase activity of 295 U/mL with xylobiose (X2) as the main product when beechwood xylan was used as substrate. Subsequently, a glycoside hydrolase family 11 endo-xylanase, TXyn11A, was purified from strain TP3-36, and its optimal pH and temperature for activity against beechwood xylan were identified to be 5.0 and 55 °C, respectively. TXyn11A was stable across a broad pH range (3.0-10.0), and exhibited strict substrate specificity, including xylan from beechwood, wheat, rye, and sugarcane bagasse, with Km and Vmax values of 5 mg/mL and 1250 µmol/mg min, respectively, toward beechwood xylan. Intriguingly, the main product obtained from hydrolysis of beechwood xylan by TXyn11A was xylobiose, whereas SBX hydrolysis resulted in both X2 and xylotriose. Overall, these characteristics of the endo-xylanase TXyn11A indicate several potential industrial applications.

18.
J Surg Res ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, very limited information is available regarding the economic burdens of patients with extremity post-traumatic osteomyelitis (OM). This study aimed to investigate direct health care costs and utilization for inpatients with extremity post-traumatic OM and analyze its constituent ratios and influencing factors in Southern China. METHODS: We searched in the electronic medical record system for inpatients who had received surgical interventions at our department between 2013 and 2016 for extremity post-traumatic OM. Data of direct health care costs incurred during their hospitalizations were collected in six main categories (service, diagnosis, treatment, materials, pharmaceuticals, and miscellaneous expenses). In addition, data of total medical costs for contemporaneous inpatients with non-post-traumatic OM were also collected as controls. RESULTS: A total of 278 post-traumatic OM and 10,420 controls were included. The median cost for the post-traumatic OM inpatients was $10,504 US dollars, 4.8-fold higher than that for those with non-post-traumatic OM ($2189, P < 0.001). The direct cost in the category of materials accounted for the largest proportion (61%), followed by that in pharmaceuticals (12%) and treatment (11%). The median number of hospital admissions for post-traumatic OM patients was 1 time, with a median length-of-stay of 22 d. The most influencing factors for the health care costs of the post-traumatic OM inpatients were use of an external fixator ($16,016 for those who used versus $4956 for those who did not, P < 0.001), external fixator type ($19,563 for ring fixator versus $14,966 for rail fixator, P < 0.001), infection site ($13,755 for tibia, $14,216 for femur and $5673 for calcaneus, P < 0.001), and infection-associated injury type ($12,890 for infection after open fracture versus $8087 for infection after closed fracture, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An unexpectedly large proportion of the direct health care costs for inpatients with extremity post-traumatic OM went to cover an external fixator, with expenses for pharmaceuticals and treatment accounting for only a little more than the tenth of the total health care costs. Use of external fixator, external fixator type, infection site, and infection-associated injury type directly influenced the health care costs.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(47): 44700-44707, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670938

RESUMO

With the minimization and higher power of electronic devices, materials with effective heat dissipation and high electrical insulation have attracted relentless interest. Especially, highly thermally conductive, highly electrically insulating but low filler content of polymer-based composites are desirable. Herein, a facile and eco-friendly cotton candy-templated method (CTM) to construct three-dimensional heat transport pathways inside epoxy resin is reported. The fabricated Al2O3/epoxy composites with enhanced heat transport capability feature a 15-fold increase in thermal conductivity at a filler content of 36.2 vol % compared to pristine epoxy. Moreover, the remarkable thermal conductive property has excellent stability over a wide range of temperature before and after heating and cooling cycles. Meanwhile, the CTM composite still retain highly electrical insulation. The cotton candy-templated method proposed in this work is a new avenue for the preparation of three-dimensional heat transport pathways within polymer-based composites for microelectronic packaging and electrical engineering systems.

20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; : 112330, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654796

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Seven traditional medicinal plants (including Astragalus membranaceus, Dioscorea hemsleyi, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Scrophularia ningpoensis, Ophiopogon japonicus, Panax ginseng and Fritillariae cirrhosae) and one insect leech (Whitmania pigra Whitman) were combined into BuZangTongLuo formula (BZTLF) under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine. BZTLF is potentially effective against diabetic vascular complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: Previous studies failed to clarify the molecular mechanism through which BZTLF suppressed diabetic ischemia. In this study, we aimed to explore whether BZTLF treatment could prevent the occurrence of type 2 diabetic (T2D) hindlimb ischemia in mice. Further, we investigated the regulatory effect of BZTLF on angiogenesis-related VEGF signaling pathway and gut microbiota dysfunction in diabetic ischemia mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD) received STZ injection and femoral artery ligation to build T2D diabetic hindlimb ischemia model. Mice were gavaged with BZTLF (5 g [raw materials]/kg/d) or with metformin plus atorvastatin for three weeks. Laser doppler imaging system was utilized for the visualization of blood flow. Histochemistry analysis was performed for microvascular vessel staining. Western blot was applied to detect the protein changes of signaling molecules responsible for VEGF pathway. Finally, 16S rDNA gene sequencing was conducted for analysis of gut microbiota structure. RESULTS: BZTLF treatment remarkably restored blood flow and capillary density of diabetic hindlimb ischemia. And the protein changes of VEGF signaling molecules were reversed in BZTLF-treated diabetic ischemia mice, including the decreased VEGF and HIF-1α, and the increased NO, eNOS and p-ERK1/2. The gut microbiota analysis suggests that BZTLF treatment increased the abundances of several beneficial bacteria (Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides), while decreased the populations of some harmful bacteria(Blautia, Weissella, Escherichia Shigella and Kurthia). By using Spearman's correlation analysis, these changed gut flora were positively/negatively correlated with VEGF signaling pathway or glycometabolic parameters. CONCLUSION: BZTLF displayed beneficial effects on diabetic hindlimb ischemia by reshaping the gut microbiota structure and stunning the VEGF/HIF-1α pathway.

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