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1.
Gene ; 735: 144403, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004668

RESUMO

Melon (Cucumis melo L.), an economically beneficial crop widely cultivated around the world, is vulnerable to powdery mildew (PM). However, the studies on molecular mechanism of melon response to PM fungi is still limited. Long non coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new regulators in plants response to biotic stresses. We predicted and identified the intricate regulatory roles of lncRNAs in melon response to PM fungi. A total of 539 lncRNAs were identified from PM-resistant (MR-1) and susceptible melon (Top Mark), in which 254 were significantly altered after PM fungi infection. Multiple target genes of lncRNAs were found to be involved in the hydrolysis of chitin, callose deposition and cell wall thickening, plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormone signal transduction pathway. Additionally, a total of 42 lncRNAs possess the various functions with microRNAs (miRNAs), including lncRNAs that are targeted by miRNAs and function as miRNA precursors or miRNA sponges. These findings provide a comprehensive view of potentially functional lncRNAs, corresponding target genes and related lncRNA-miRNA pairs, which will greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanism underlying susceptibility and resistance to PM in melon.

2.
Acad Radiol ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035760

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the value of MRI-based features and texture analysis (TA) in the differential diagnosis between ovarian thecomas/fibrothecomas (OTCA/f-TCAs) and uterine fibroids in the adnexal area (UF-iaas). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 16 OTCA/f-TCA and 37 UF-iaa patients who underwent conventional MRI and DWI between August 2014 and September 2018. Three-dimensional TA was performed with T2-weighted MRI. The clinical, MRI-based and texture features were compared between OTCA/f-TCAs and UF-iaas. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for filtering the independent discriminative features and constructing the discriminating model. ROCs were generated to analyse MRI-based features, texture features and their combination for discriminating between the two diseases. RESULTS: Six imaging-based features (ipsilateral ovary detection, arterial period enhancement, lesion components, peripheral cysts, "whorl signs", mean ADCs) and six texture features (Histogram-energy, Histogram-entropy, Histogram-kurtosis, GLCM-energy, GLCM-entropy, and Haralick correlation) were significantly different between OTCA/f-TCAs and UF-iaas (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis of the MRI-based features revealed that arterial period enhancement (OR = 0.104), peripheral cysts (OR = 16.513), and whorl signs (OR = 0.029) were independent features for discriminating between OTCA/f-TCAs and UF-iaas (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis of the texture features showed that Histogram-energy and GLCM-energy were independent features for discriminating between OTCA/f-TCAs and UF-iaas (p < 0.05). The area under the curve of imaging-based diagnosis was 0.85, and the combination of imaging-based diagnosis and TA improved the area under the curve to 0.87, with higher accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of 86%, 92%, and 84%, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MRI-based features can be useful in differentiating OTCA/f-TCAs from UF-iaas. Furthermore, combining imaging-based diagnosis and TA can improve diagnostic performance.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060530

RESUMO

Many members of obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasites have adapted a distinct invasion mechanism involving a close interaction between the parasite ligands and the sialic acid (SA) receptor. We found that the sialic acid-binding protein-1 (SABP1), localized on the outer membrane of the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, readily binds to sialic acid on the host cell surface. The binding was sensitive to neuraminidase treatment. Cells preincubated with the recombinant SABP1 protein resisted parasite invasion in vitro. The parasite lost its invasion capacity and animal infectivity after the SABP1 gene being deleted, whereas complementation of the SABP1 gene restored the virulence of the knockout parasite. These data established the critical role of SABP1 in the invasion process of T. gondii. The previously uncharacterized protein, SABP1, facilitated T. gondii attachment and invasion via sialic acid receptors.

4.
J Neurosci ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054675

RESUMO

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a forebrain region highly responsive to stress that expresses corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and is implicated in mood disorders such as anxiety. However, the exact mechanism by which chronic stress induces CRH-mediated dysfunction in BNST and maladaptive behaviors remains unclear. Here, we first confirmed that selective acute optogenetic activation of the oval nucleus (ovBNST) increases maladaptive avoidance behavior in male mice. Next, we found that a 6-week chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) paradigm resulted in maladaptive behaviors and increased cellular excitability of ovBNST CRH neurons by potentiating mEPSC amplitude, altering the resting membrane potential, and diminishing M-currents (a voltage-gated K+ current that stabilizes membrane potential) in ex vivo slices. CVMS also increased c-fos+ cells in ovBNST following handling. We next investigated potential molecular mechanism underlying the electrophysiological effects and observed that CVMS increased CRH+ and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide+ (PACAP; a CRH upstream regulator) cells, but decreased striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase+ (STEP; a CRH inhibitor) cells in ovBNST. Interestingly, the electrophysiological effects of CVMS were reversed by CRHR1-selective antagonist R121919 application. CVMS also activated PKA in BNST, and chronic infusion of the PKA-selective antagonist H89 into ovBNST reversed the effects of CVMS. Co-administration of the PKA agonist forskolin prevented the beneficial effects of R121919. Finally, CVMS induced an increase in surface expression of phosphorylated GluR1 (S845) in BNST. Collectively, these findings highlight a novel and indispensable stress-induced role for PKA-dependent CRHR1 signaling in activating BNST CRH neurons and mediating maladaptive behaviors.Significance Statement:Chronic stress and acute activation of oval BNST (ovBNST) induces maladaptive behaviors in rodents. However, the precise molecular and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that chronic variable mild stress (CVMS) activates CRH-associated stress signaling and CRH neurons in ovBNST by potentiating mEPSC amplitude and decreasing M-current in male mice. These electrophysiological alterations and maladaptive behaviors were mediated by BNST PKA-dependent CRHR1 signaling. Our results thus highlight the importance of BNST CRH dysfunction in chronic stress-induced disorders.

5.
Food Chem ; 313: 126130, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935664

RESUMO

New structured lipids with 1,3-oleic-2-medium chain (OMO) triacylglycerols were synthesized by promoting acyl migration in Lipozyme RM IM catalyzed interesterification between coconut oil (CO) and high oleic rapeseed oil (HORO). Results from an orthogonal design L25(55) showed that the maximal yield of OMO-structured triacylglycerols was 45.65% under the following conditions: the molar ratio of CO to HORO, 50:50; enzyme dosage, 12 wt%; reaction temperature, 60 °C; reaction time, 2 h; water activity, 0.07. Low water activity showed a high rate of acyl migration (10.86% vs 5.07% no water system), which promoted OMO synthesis due to medium-chain fatty acid migration to the sn-2 position. In a low water content (5%) system of the molecular dynamics simulation, water molecules stabilized the whole structure of RM IM through hydrogen bonding, which helped fix lipase-catalyzed active sites, making substrates more easily inserted into active sites, resulting in increased enzyme activity.

6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 80: 106183, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927506

RESUMO

NLRP6, the nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 6, has a substantiable effect on inflammation and host defense against microorganisms. In our previous study, NLRP6 promotes inflammation after cerebral I/R injury in a MCAO model. However, the effect of NLRP6 in different nerve cells subjected to OGD/R needs to be further understood. Here, evidence shows that the expression of NLRP6 is increased in different nerve cells subjected to OGD/R, and mainly expressed in astrocytes. NLRP6 may up-regulate inflammation factors (IL-1ß, Il-8) via the form of inflammasomes in astrocytes after OGD/R. Then, primary neuron-astrocyte co-culture model under OGD/R in vitro was performed, and we found that NLRP6 decreased the neurons viability and aggravated apoptosis of neurons. Mechanically, NLRP6 could induce pyroptosis to regulate the survival of neurons through activating caspase-1.

7.
J Neural Eng ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We presented a comparative study on the training methodologies of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for detection of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP). Two training scenarios were also compared: user-independent (UI) training and user-dependent (UD) training. APPROACH: The CNN was trained in both UD and UI scenarios on two types of features for SSVEP classification: magnitude spectrum features (M-CNN) and complex spectrum features (C-CNN). And the Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), widely used in SSVEP processing, was used as the baseline. Additional comparisons were performed with Task-Related Components Analysis (TRCA) and Filter-bank Canonical Correlation Analysis (FBCCA). The performance of the proposed CNN pipelines, CCA, FBCCA and TRCA were evaluated with two datasets: a seven-class SSVEP dataset collected on 21 healthy participants and a twelve-class publicly available SSVEP dataset collected on 10 healthy participants. MAIN RESULTS: The UD based training methods consistently outperformed the UI methods when all other conditions were the same, as one would expect. However, the proposed UI-C-CNN approach performed similar to the UD-M-CNN across all cases investigated on both datasets. On Dataset 1, the average accuracies of the different methods for 1 s window length were: CCA: 69.1±10.8%, TRCA: 13.4±1.5%, FBCCA: 64.8±15.6%, UI-M-CNN: 73.5±16.1%, UI-C-CNN: 81.6±12.3%, UD-M-CNN: 87.8±7.6% and UD-C-CNN: 92.5±5%. On Dataset 2, the average accuracies of the different methods for data length of 1 s were: UD-C-CNN: 92.33±11.1%, UD-M-CNN: 82.77±16.7%, UI-C-CNN: 81.6±18%, UI-M-CNN: 70.5±22%, FBCCA: 67.1±21%, CCA: 62.7±21.5%, TRCA: 40.4±14%. Using t-SNE, visualizing the features extracted by the CNN pipelines further revealed that the C-CNN method likely learned both the amplitude and phase related information from the SSVEP data for classification, resulting in superior performance than the M-CNN methods. The results suggested that UI-C-CNN method proposed in this study offers a good balance between performance and cost of training data. SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed C-CNN based method is a suitable candidate for SSVEP-based BCIs and provides an improved performance in both UD and UI training scenarios.

8.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994745

RESUMO

Heat stress impairs both pollen germination and pollen tube elongation, resulting in pollination failure caused by energy imbalance. Invertase plays a critical role in the maintenance of energy homeostasis; however, few studies investigated this during heat stress. Two rice cultivars with different heat tolerance, namely TLY83 (heat tolerant) and LLY722 (heat susceptible) were subjected to heat stress. At anthesis, heat stress significantly decreased spikelet fertility, accompanied by notable reductions in pollen germination on stigma and pollen tube elongation in ovule, especially in LLY722. Acid invertase (INV), rather than sucrose synthase contributed to sucrose metabolism, which explains the different tolerances of both cultivars. Under heat stress, larger enhancements in NAD(H), ATP, and antioxidant capacity were found in TLY83 compared with LLY722, while a sharp reduction in Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity was found in the former compared with the latter. Importantly, exogenous INV, 3-aminobenzamide (a PARP inhibitor), sucrose, glucose, and fructose significantly increased spikelet fertility under heat stress, where INV activity was enhanced and PARP activity was inhibited. Therefore, INV can balance the energy production and consumption to provide sufficient energy for pollen germination and pollen tube growth under heat stress. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Phytopathology ; 110(2): 456-464, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448997

RESUMO

Our previous studies have revealed the function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) in tomato in response to Phytophthora infestans infection. However, the interaction relationships between lncRNAs and miRNAs during tomato resistance to P. infestans infection are unknown. In this study, 9,011 lncRNAs were identified from tomato plants, including 115 upregulated and 81 downregulated lncRNAs. Among these, 148 were found to be differentially expressed and might affect the expression of 771 genes, which are composed of 887 matched lncRNA-mRNA pairs. In total, 88 lncRNAs were identified as endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) and predicted to decoy 46 miRNAs. Degradome sequencing revealed that 11 miRNAs that were decoyed by 20 lncRNAs could target 30 genes. These lncRNAs, miRNAs, and target genes were predicted to form 10 regulatory modules. Among them, lncRNA42705/lncRNA08711, lncRNA39896, and lncRNA11265/lncRNA15816 might modulate MYB, HD-Zip, and NAC transcription factors by decoying miR159, miR166b, and miR164a-5p, respectively. Upon P. infestans infection, the expression levels of lncRNA42705 and lncRNA08711 displayed a negative correlation with the expression level of miR159 and a positive correlation with the expression levels of MYB genes. Tomato plants in which lncRNA42705 and lncRNA08711 were silenced displayed increased levels of miR159 and decreased levels of MYB, respectively. The result demonstrated that lncRNAs might function as ceRNAs to decoy miRNAs and affect their target genes in tomato plants, increasing resistance to disease.

10.
Neurosci Lett ; 714: 134603, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693931

RESUMO

The tree shrew is susceptible to stimuli. However, mapping of c-Fos expression in male tree shrew forebrain has not been explored. The present results provided the first detailed mapping of c-Fos expression in the forebrain of the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis). Acute restraint stress rapidly increased the density of c-Fos-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons in the medial orbital cortex (MO), infralimbic cortex, intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus (LSi), ventral part of the lateral septal nucleus (LSv), anterior part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, posterior part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (STP), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, supraoptic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH), and medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA). Furthermore, a significant increase in c-Fos expression was observed in the MO, LSi, LSv, STP, VMH, arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, anterior amygdaloid area, MeA, and cortical amygdaloid nucleus immediately after acute footshock stress. In addition, the distinct patterns of c-Fos expression in the forebrain were shown in context-, restraint-, or footshock-treated tree shrews. In general, the present study provides the first detailed maps of c-Fos expression in male tree shrew forebrain immediately after various stimuli.

11.
Food Chem ; 309: 124935, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732250

RESUMO

Cabbag has been considered as one of attractive raw materials for dehydrated vegetables owing to high nutrient value. However, information about how drying methods affect the physicochemical properties of cabbage is limited. In present study, segmented cabbages were subjected to freeze drying (FD), hot air drying (HAD), microwave vacuum drying (MVD), vacuum drying (VD), MVD combined with HAD (MVD + HAD) and VD (MVD + VD). Dehydrated cabbages were compared in terms of nutritional components, antioxidant activity, microstructure, texture and so on. Results demonstrated that HAD conducted a worse effect, with loss rate of nutritional components >45%. However, two combined methods performed higher retention for nutritional compositions, better antioxidant activity and lower energy consumption than individual HAD. Furthermore, MVD + HAD products exhibited higher rehydration capacity and more uniform honeycomb porous structure but lower hardness compared to HAD. This conclusion would be fundamental for choosing more appropriate drying methods to obtain desirable quality.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Brassica/química , Dessecação/métodos , Liofilização , Temperatura Alta , Micro-Ondas , Vácuo
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785090

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is an emerging and re-emerging epizootic virus of swine that causes substantial economic losses to the pig industry in China and other countries. The variations in the virus, and its co-infections with other enteric viruses, have contributed to the poor control of PEDV infection. In the current study, a broad epidemiological investigation of PEDV was carried out in 22 provinces or municipalities of China during 2015-2018. The enteric viruses causing co-infection with PEDV and the genetic diversity of the PEDV S1 gene were also analysed. The results indicated that, of the 543 diarrhoea samples, 66.85% (363/543) were positive for PEDV, and co-infection rates of PEDV with 13 enteric viruses ranged from 3.58% (13/363) to 81.55% (296/363). Among these enteric viruses, the signs of diarrhoea induced by PEDV were potentially associated with co-infections with porcine enterovirus 9/10 (PEV) and torque teno sus virus 2 (TTSuV-2) (p < .05). The 147 PEDV strains identified in our study belong to Chinese pandemic strains and exhibited genetic diversity. The virulence-determining S1 proteins of PEDV pandemic strains were undergoing amino acid mutations, in which S58_S58insQGVN-N135dup-D158_I159del-like mutations were common patterns (97.28%, 143/147). When compared with 2011-2014 PEDV strains, the amino acid mutations of PEDV pandemic strains were mainly located in the N-terminal domain of S1 (S1-NTD), and 21 novel mutations occurred in 2017 and 2018. Furthermore, protein homology modelling showed that the mutations in pattern of insertion and deletion mutations of the S1 protein of PEDV pandemic strains may have caused structural changes on the surface of the S1 protein. These data provide a better understanding of the co-infection and genetic evolution of PEDV in China.

13.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(11): 181795, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827814

RESUMO

In the present study, uniaxial compression tests were conducted on sandstone-coal composite samples to investigate the effects of original macro-cracks in coal on the rockburst tendency. First, the energy dissipation theory was used to derive the elastic energy attenuation index of composite samples during uniaxial loading. Then, based on the test results obtained, the rockburst tendency of composite samples was evaluated and analysed using the uniaxial compressive strength and elastic energy attenuation index. The results show that the original macro-cracks in coal deteriorated the rockburst tendency of composite samples. The original horizontal cracks had the lowest effect on the rockburst tendency, whereas the vertical penetrating cracks through the coal centre (parallel to the loading direction) displayed the greatest effect. The mechanism by which these macro-cracks weakened the rockburst tendency involved two steps: (i) changing the physical properties and energy accumulation conditions of composite samples and (ii) increasing the energy dissipation of composite samples during uniaxial loading. These aspects are important to understand the rockburst hazards induced by the structural instability and failure of the composite system of coal seam and roof rock during deep coal mining.

14.
Onco Targets Ther ; 12: 10401-10413, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819522

RESUMO

Background and aim: Long non-coding RNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) is abnormally expressed in various human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Let-7b is a miRNA with the effect of a tumor suppressor gene, and its expression level in various tumor tissues is lower than that in normal tissues. Studies have found that IGF-1R can be abnormally activated in the process of hepatocyte deterioration, and the expression level of IGF-1R in HCC is significantly up-regulated. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional mechanism of NEAT1/let-7b-IGF-1R axis in HCC. Methods: The expressions of NEAT1 and microRNA (miR)-let-7b in HCC tissues and cell lines were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The effect of NEAT1 on tumor growth was observed in a mice model of transplanted hepatoma. The effects of down-regulation or up-regulation of NEAT1 expression in HCC cell lines were analysed from the perspectives of cell viability and apoptosis. The binding sites of NEAT1 and miR-let-7b were predicted by biological software. The expression of the miR-let-7b target molecules IGF-1R was detected by Western blotting. Results: The results showed that the expressions of NEAT1 were significantly increased, while the expressions of miR-let-7b were decreased in the HCC tissues and cell lines. Additionally, it was found that the expressions of NEAT1 and miR-let-7b showed a negative correlation in HCC tissues. The mouse model experiments confirmed that the interference with NEAT1 expression inhibited the tumor growth. Meanwhile, the cell viability of HepG2/Huh7 cell lines was significantly decreased via the downregulation of NEAT1, whereas the corresponding rates of apoptosis were significantly increased. It was further proven that there was a certain negative regulatory mechanism between NEAT1 and miR-1et-7b, which was related to the expression of IGF-1R. Conclusion: The over-expression of NEAT1 could promote the proliferation of HCC cells by inhibiting the expression of the miR-let-7b regulated by IGF-1R.

15.
Phytopathology ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876247

RESUMO

Our previous study has indicated that a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), lncRNA39026 can be responsive to Phytophthora infestans infection. However, the function and regulation mechanism of lncRNA39026 during tomato resistance to P. infestans are unknown. In this study, lncRNA39026 was cloned from tomato Zaofen No.2, and it contained an endogenous target mimicry (eTM) for miR168a, which might suppress the expression of miR168a. LncRNA39026 was strongly downregulated in tomato plants at 3 hours post infection with P. infestans, and its expression level displayed a negative correlation with the expression level of miR168a and a positive correlation with the expression levels of SlAGO1 genes (target gene of miR168a) upon P. infestans infection. Tomato plants in which lncRNA39026 was overexpressed displayed an enhancement to resistance against P. infestans infection, a decrease in level of miR168a and an increase in level of SlAGO1, while the resistance was impaired, level of miR168a was increased and level of SlAGO1 was decreased after lncRNA39026 silencing. In addition, lncRNA39026 could also induce the expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, as shown by increased and decreased expression levels of PR genes in tomato plants overexpressed and silenced lncRNA39026, respectively. The result demonstrated that lncRNA39026 might function to decoy miR168a and affect the expression of PR genes in tomato plants, increasing resistance to disease.

16.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 275, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sequencing technology and assembly algorithms have matured to the point that high-quality de novo assembly is possible for large, repetitive genomes. Current assemblies traverse transposable elements (TEs) and provide an opportunity for comprehensive annotation of TEs. Numerous methods exist for annotation of each class of TEs, but their relative performances have not been systematically compared. Moreover, a comprehensive pipeline is needed to produce a non-redundant library of TEs for species lacking this resource to generate whole-genome TE annotations. RESULTS: We benchmark existing programs based on a carefully curated library of rice TEs. We evaluate the performance of methods annotating long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, terminal inverted repeat (TIR) transposons, short TIR transposons known as miniature inverted transposable elements (MITEs), and Helitrons. Performance metrics include sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, FDR, and F1. Using the most robust programs, we create a comprehensive pipeline called Extensive de-novo TE Annotator (EDTA) that produces a filtered non-redundant TE library for annotation of structurally intact and fragmented elements. EDTA also deconvolutes nested TE insertions frequently found in highly repetitive genomic regions. Using other model species with curated TE libraries (maize and Drosophila), EDTA is shown to be robust across both plant and animal species. CONCLUSIONS: The benchmarking results and pipeline developed here will greatly facilitate TE annotation in eukaryotic genomes. These annotations will promote a much more in-depth understanding of the diversity and evolution of TEs at both intra- and inter-species levels. EDTA is open-source and freely available: https://github.com/oushujun/EDTA.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759765

RESUMO

Designing a new adsorbent with recyclability, high efficiency and biodegradability is important for treating heavy metals contamination but remains a severe challenge. In this work, a novel type of hydrogel biosorbents based on pullulan and polydopamine were designed for heavy metal ions removal from aqueous solution. The physicochemical properties of the prepared pullulan/polydopamine (Pu/PDA) hydrogels were fully characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, rheology, scanning electron microscopy, swelling and compression tests. We observed that their mechanical strength, pore size, water absorption and retention properties could be nicely controlled by adjusting the PDA concentration in the pre-gel solution. Subsequently, the adsorption ability of designed Pu/PDA hydrogels to Cu2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ was investigated in detail. These hydrogels presented excellent adsorption capability for heavy metal ions and matched well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model. Overall, having tunable physicochemical properties coupled with the high absorption ability for heavy metal ions, these Pu/PDA hydrogels may be a promising strategy for removal of pollutants from aqueous solution.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681628

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is now the leading cause of death from infectious disease. Rapid screening and diagnostic methods for TB are urgently required. Rapid development of metagenomics next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in recent years showed promising and satisfying application of mNGS in several kinds of infectious diseases. However, research directly evaluating the ability of mNGS in TB infection is still scarce. Methods: We conducted an adult prospective study in mainland China to evaluate the diagnostic performance of mNGS for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) in multiple forms of direct clinical samples compared with GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert), traditional diagnostic methods, and the clinical final diagnosis. Results: Of 123 patients presenting with suspected active TB infection between June 1, 2017, and May 21, 2018, 105 patients underwent synchronous tuberculous testing with culture, Xpert, and mNGS on direct clinical samples including sputum, cerebrospinal fluids, pus, etc. During follow-up, 45 of 105 participants had clinical final diagnosis of active TB infection, including 13 pulmonary TB cases and 32 extrapulmonary TB cases. Compared to clinical final diagnosis, mNGS produced a sensitivity of 44% for all active TB cases, which was similar to Xpert (42%) but much higher than conventional methods (29%). With only one false-positive result, mNGS had a specificity of 98% in our study. mNGS yielded significantly much higher sensitivity in pre-treatment samples (76%) than post-treatment ones (31%) (P = 0.005), which was also true for Xpert and conventional methods. Combining Xpert and mNGS together, the study identified 27 of 45 active TB cases (60%), including all 13 conventional method-identified cases, and the result reached statistical significance compared to conventional methods (McNemar-test P < 0.001). Conclusions: mNGS had a similar diagnostic ability of MTB compared with Xpert and showed potential for a variety of clinical samples. Combined mNGS and Xpert showed an overall superior advantage over conventional methods and significantly improved the etiology diagnosis of both MTB and other pathogens. The result that anti-TB treatment significantly reduced diagnostic efficacy of culture, Xpert, and mNGS highlighted the importance of collecting samples before empirical treatment.

19.
J Comp Neurol ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674014

RESUMO

The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) is the closest living relative of primates. Yet, little is known about the anatomical distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive (ir) structures in the hypothalamus of the tree shrew. Here, we provide the first detailed description of the distribution of TH-ir neurons in the hypothalamus of tree shrews via immunohistochemical techniques. TH-ir neurons were widely distributed throughout the hypothalamus of tree shrew. The majority of hypothalamic TH-ir neurons were found in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON), as was also observed in the human hypothalamus. In contrast, rare TH-ir neurons were localized in the PVN and SON of rats. Vasopressin (AVP) colocalized with TH-ir neurons in the PVN and SON in a large number of neurons, but oxytocin and corticotropin-releasing hormone did not colocalize with TH. In addition, colocalization of TH with AVP was also observed in the other hypothalamic regions. Moreover, TH-ir neurons in the PVN and SON of tree shrews expressed other dopaminergic markers (aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase and vesicular monoamine transporter, Type 2), further supporting that TH-ir neurons in the PVN and SON were catecholaminergic. These findings provide a detailed description of TH-ir neurons in the hypothalamus of tree shrews and demonstrate species differences in the distribution of this enzyme, providing a neurobiological basis for the participation of TH-ir neurons in the regulation of various hypothalamic functions.

20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 534, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria, one of the largest health burdens worldwide, is caused by Plasmodium spp. infection. Upon infection, the host's immune system begins to clear the parasites. However, Plasmodium species have evolved to escape the host's immune clearance. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3), a surface molecule on most immune cells, is often referred to as an exhaustion marker. Galectin (Gal)-9 is a Tim-3 ligand and the T helper (Th) 1 cell response is inhibited when Gal-9 binds to Tim-3. In the present study, dynamic expression of Tim-3 on key populations of lymphocytes during infection periods of Plasmodium berghei and its significance in disease resistance and pathogenesis were explored. METHODS: Tim-3 expression on critical lymphocyte populations and the proportion of these cells, as well as the levels of cytokines in the sera of infected mice, were detected by flow cytometry. Further, in vitro anti-Tim-3 assay using an anti-Tim-3 antibody and in vivo Tim-3-Gal-9 signaling blockade assays using α-lactose (an antagonist of Gal-9) were conducted. An Annexin V Apoptosis Detection Kit with propidium iodide was used to detect apoptosis. In addition, proteins associated with apoptosis in lung and spleen tissues were confirmed by Western blotting assays. RESULTS: Increased Tim-3 expression on splenic CD8+ and splenic CD4+, and circulatory CD4+ T cells was associated with a reduction in the proportion of these cells. Furthermore, the levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-22, and interferon (IFN)-γ, but not that of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-10, and IL-9, increased to their highest levels at day 4 post-infection and decreased thereafter. Blocking Tim-3 signaling in vitro inhibited lymphocyte apoptosis. Tim-3-Gal-9 signaling blockade in vivo did not protect the mice, but induced the expression of the immunosuppressive molecule, T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT), in Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected mice. CONCLUSIONS: Tim-3 on lymphocytes negatively regulates cell-mediated immunity against Plasmodium infection, and blocking Tim-3-galectin 9 signaling using α-lactose did not significantly protect the mice; however, it induced the compensatory expression of TIGIT. Further investigations are required to identify whether combined blockade of Tim-3 and TIGIT signaling could achieve a better protective effect.

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