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1.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-8, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606577

RESUMO

In two large clinical trials (ZOE-50 [NCT01165177] and ZOE-70 [NCT01165229]), two doses of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) demonstrated >90% efficacy (VE) against herpes zoster (HZ) in adults ≥50 years of age (YOA). This post-hoc analysis assessed the VE against HZ and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), in participants from Asian study sites enrolled in ZOE-50/70. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed. Participants ≥50 YOA were randomized 1:1 to receive 2 doses of either RZV or placebo, 2 months apart. VE was evaluated for a median follow-up of 4 years post-vaccination overall and by age in the ZOE-50 Asian population ≥50 YOA and in the pooled ZOE-50/70 Asian population ≥70 YOA. Of the 2,729 participants included in the ZOE-50 Asian population ≥50 YOA, 3 RZV and 66 placebo recipients reported a confirmed HZ episode. Overall VE was 95.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86.4-99.1) against HZ and 100% (95% CI: 35.44-100) against PHN. In the pooled ZOE-50/70 Asian population ≥70 YOA, 4 RZV and 75 placebo recipients out of the 2,723 participants reported a confirmed HZ episode. Overall VE was 94.7% (95% CI: 85.9-98.6) against HZ and 89.8% (95% CI: 28.39-99.77) against PHN. Pain and myalgia were the most frequent solicited local and general adverse events, respectively, in both populations. No safety concern was identified during the study periods. RZV is highly efficacious against HZ and PHN and has an acceptable safety profile in Asian populations ≥50 YOA, similar to what was observed in the general ZOE-50/70 populations. Trademark statement: Shingrix is a trademark owned by or licensed to the GSK group of companies.

2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557246

RESUMO

Influenza virus is a highly contagious zoonotic respiratory disease that causes seasonal outbreaks each year and unpredictable pandemics occasionally with high morbidity and mortality rates, posing a great threat to public health worldwide. Besides the limited effect of vaccines, the problem is exacerbated by the lack of drugs with strong antiviral activity against all flu strains. Currently, there are two classes of antiviral drugs available that are chemosynthetic and approved against influenza A virus for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment, but the appearance of drug-resistant virus strains is a serious issue that strikes at the core of influenza control. There is therefore an urgent need to develop new antiviral drugs. Many reports have shown that the development of novel bioactive plant extracts and microbial extracts has significant advantages in influenza treatment. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and effects of chemosynthetic drugs, plant extracts, and microbial extracts with influenza antiviral activity, hoping to provide some references for novel antiviral drug design and promising alternative candidates for further anti-influenza drug development.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(7): 8026-8041, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577301

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. It can not only generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to cause the chemical damage of tumor cells in the presence of enough oxygen but also promote the antitumor immunity of T cells through enhancing the production of interferon γ (IFN-γ). However, one phenomenon is ignored so far that the enhanced production of IFN-γ caused by PDT may significantly increase the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) on the tumor cell membrane and thus could inhibit the immune killing effects of T cells. Herein, we report the construction of a composite by loading metformin (Met) and IR775 into a clinically usable liposome as a two-in-one nanoplatform (IR775@Met@Lip) to solve this problem. The IR775@Met@Lip could reverse tumor hypoxia to enhance ROS production to elicit more chemical damage. Besides, the overexpression of PD-L1 by PDT was also effectively down-regulated. These therapeutic benefits including decreased PD-L1 expression, alleviated T cell exhaustion, and reversed tumor hypoxia successfully suppressed both the primary and abscopal tumor growth in bladder and colon cancers, respectively. Combining with its excellent biocompatibility, our results indicate that this IR775@Met@Lip system has great potential to become a highly effective cancer therapy modality.

4.
Behav Brain Res ; : 113146, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545198

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) is one of the most active components found in ginseng and provides important benefits to the central nervous system, especially for the improvement of learning and memory. Previous studies demonstrated that Rb1 protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia and exhibited memory-enhancing effects in the SAMP8 mouse model. However, the effects of Rb1 against chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced cognitive impairments, especially the role of Rg1 on the performance of reward directed instrumental conditioning have not been investigated. In this study, rats were subjected to CRS (6 h/day) for 28 days. Thereafter, behavioural tests including reward-directed instrumental conditioning task (RICT) and the Morris water maze (MWM) task were conducted. Administered of Rb1 (6.75 and 13.5 mg/kg, i.p.) remarkably ameliorated the memory impairments caused by CRS as evident from the results of RICT and MWM task, and this effect was accompanied by noticeable alterations in the levels of oxidative markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidation) in the hippocampus. Additionally, Rb1 reduced the ratio of Bax:Bcl-2 and the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9, increased the levels of synaptophysin (SYP) and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95) and activated the BDNF/TrkB pathway in the hippocampus. In summary, the present study demonstrated that Rb1 rescues cognitive deficits induced by CRS is partially mediated by antagonizing oxidative stress and apoptosis, improving synaptic plasticity and restoring the BDNF/TrkB signalling pathway. This newly discovered effect of Rb1 sheds light on its applications in the development of therapeutic interventions to alleviate the deleterious effects of chronic stress.

5.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 99(3): 359-371, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409551

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase Fyn is a member of the Src kinase family, which is involved in neuroinflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Its role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is not fully understood. In this study, we found that Fyn was significantly elevated in human brain tissue after ICH. Accordingly, we investigated the role of Fyn in a rat ICH model, which was constructed by injecting blood into the right basal ganglia. In this model, Fyn expression was significantly upregulated in brain tissue adjacent to the hematoma. SiRNA-induced Fyn knockdown was neuroprotective for secondary cerebral damage, as demonstrated by reduced brain edema, suppression of the modified neurological severity score, and mitigation of blood-brain barrier permeability and neuronal damage. Fyn downregulation reduced apoptosis following ICH, as indicated by downregulation of apoptosis-related proteins AIF, Cyt.c, caspase 3, and Bax; upregulation of anti-apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2; and decreased tunnel staining. Mdivi-1, a Drp1 inhibitor, reversed Fyn overexpression induced pro-apoptosis. However, Fyn did not significantly affect inflammation-related proteins NF-κB, TNF-α, caspase 1, MPO, IL-1ß, or IL-18 after ICH. Fyn activated Drp1 signaling by phosphorylating Drp1 at serine 616, which increased apoptosis after ICH in rats. This study clarifies the relationship between Fyn, apoptosis, and inflammation following ICH and provides a new strategy for exploring the prevention and treatment of ICH. KEY MESSAGES: ICH induced an increase in Fyn expression in human and rat cerebral tissues. Knockdown of Fyn prevented cerebral damage following ICH. Inhibition of Fyn had no significant effects on inflammatory responses. However, the downregulation of Fyn exerted neuroprotective effects on apoptosis. Fyn perturbed ICH-induced cell apoptosis by interacting with and phosphorylating (Ser616) Drp1 in a rat ICH model.

7.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 414: 115408, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476677

RESUMO

This study proposed to investigate the function of miR-19a/ACSL axis in hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced myocardial injury and determine whether metformin exerts its protective effect via miR-19a/ACSL axis. Firstly, bioinformatics analysis of data from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database indicated that miR-19a was downregulated in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) compared to that in control group. H/R model was constructed with AC16 cells in vitro. qRT-PCR assay revealed that miR-19a was downregulated in H/R-treated AC16 cells. Then, CCK-8 assay demonstrated that upregulation of miR-19a significantly alleviated H/R-induced decline of cell viability. Moreover, bioinformatics prediction, western blotting and dual-luciferase reporter assays were performed to check the target genes of miR-19a, and ACSL1 was determined as a downstream target gene of miR-19a. Besides, the analysis based on Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) suggested that metformin targeting ACSL1 can be used as a potential drug for further research. Biological function experiments in vitro revealed that H/R markedly declined the viability and elevated the apoptosis of AC16 cells, while metformin can significantly mitigate these effects. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-19a significantly strengthened the beneficial effect of metformin on H/R-induced AC16 cells injury, which can be reversed by upregulation of ACSL1. In conclusion, metformin can alleviate H/R-induced cells injury via regulating miR-19a/ACSL axis, which lays a foundation for identifying novel targets for myocardial I/R injury therapy.

8.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474783

RESUMO

The Shen Yuan prescription (SY) comprises Panax ginseng (GT) and Polygala tenuifolia (YT), elicited superior antidepressant activity compared with that of GT or YT alone. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the effects of SY treatment on chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)-induced depression-like symptoms and the related mechanism. Our results indicated that SY treatment reverses the depressive-like behaviors induced by CSDS as measured by the social interaction test, sucrose preference test, forced swim test, and tail suspension test. SY decreased the serum levels of CORT and increased hippocampal neurotransmitters (5-HT, DA, and NE) in CSDS mice. Meanwhile, SY upregulated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway and reversed the decreased hippocampal neurogenesis caused by CSDS. In addition, we found that the TrkB antagonist K252a fully blocked the SY effects on behavioral improvement and eliminated the promoting effects of SY on hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF-TrkB signaling (including the downstream ERK and Akt pathways) activation, thus further demonstrating that BDNF-TrkB signaling was necessary for the SY effects. In conclusion, our study showed that SY acted as an antidepressant in mice exhibiting CSDS-induced depression-like symptoms, and its effect was facilitated by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF signaling pathway activation.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405158

RESUMO

Due to various land cover changes, vegetation dynamics, and climate, drought is the most complex climate-related disaster problem in Tibet and Xinjiang, China. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the performance of the AVHRR Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the temporal and spatial differences of seasonal vegetation dynamics by correlating the results with rainfall and temperature data of NASA's MERRA to examine the vegetation dynamics and droughts in Tibet and the Xinjiang Province of China. Our method is based on the use of AVHRR NDVI data and NASA MERRA temperature and precipitation during 1983-2016. Due to the dryness and low vegetation, NDVI is more useful to describe the drought conditions in Tibet and Xinjiang of China. The NDVI, TCI, VHI, NVSWI, VCI, TVDI, and NAP from April to October increased rapidly. While the NDVI, TCI, VHI, NVSWI, NAP, TVDI, and VCI are stable every month in September, again improve in October, and then confirm downward trend in December. The NDVI, TCI, VHI, NVSWI, NAP, VCI, and TVDI monthly values indicate that Tibet and Xinjiang province of China suffered from severe drought in 2006, 2008, and 2012 which were the most drought years. For monitoring drought in Tibet and Xinjiang province of China, the NDVI, TVDI, NAP, VCI, and NVSWI values were selected as a tool for reporting drought events during different growing seasons. Seasonal values of TVDI, NDVI, NAP, NVSWI, and VCI confirmed that Tibet and Xinjiang province of China suffered from severe drought in 2006, 2008, and 2012 and led the durations of severe drought. The correlation between NDVI, TCI, VHI, NAP, TVDI, and VCI showed a significantly positive correlation, while the significantly negative correlation between NVSWI and NDVI showed a good indication for the assessment of drought, especially for the agricultural regions of Tibet and Xinjiang province of China. This shows that the positive sign to support NAP, NVSWI, and TVDI is good monitoring of the drought indexes in Tibet and the Xinjiang province of China.

11.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420923

RESUMO

African trypanosomatid parasites escape host acquired immune responses through periodic antigenic variation of their surface coat. In this study, we describe a mechanism by which the parasites counteract innate immune responses. Two TatD DNases were identified in each of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei. These DNases are bivalent metal-dependent endonucleases localized in the cytoplasm and flagella of the parasites that can also be secreted by the parasites. These enzymes possess conserved functional domains and have efficient DNA hydrolysis activity. Host neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) induced by the parasites could be hydrolyzed by native and recombinant TatD DNases. NET disruption was prevented, and the survival rate of parasites was decreased, in the presence of the DNase inhibitor aurintricarboxylic acid. These data suggest that trypanosomes can counteract host innate immune responses by active secretion of TatD DNases to degrade NETs.

12.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High purity oxygen therapy has good clinical efficacy in the treatment of diabetic foot (DF), but its mechanism of promoting wound healing has been unclear. METHODS: Patients with DF were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group was given local oxygen therapy (LOT) by a micro-oxygen therapy instrument, which administered uninterrupted >95% pure oxygen for 24 h at a flow rate of 3 mL/h. Six skin samples from the experimental group before and after treatment underwent RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened. RESULTS: The clinical results showed that the mean wound healing time of the experimental group was 26 days (P<0.05); the healing area of the experimental group was 3.1-15.3 cm3 , with a mean of 8.8 cm3 , and that of the control group was 2.4-10.4 cm3 (P<0.05). LOT promoted the healing of DF wounds mainly through the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway and the apoptosis pathway. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, LOT can promote DF healing mainly by inhibiting the local oxidative stress reaction of wound skin and by inhibiting the inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. The molecular markers and pathways screened warrant further study.

13.
Life Sci ; 269: 119036, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450259

RESUMO

AIMS: Articular cartilage degeneration has been recognized as the primary pathological change in osteoarthritis (OA). Mechanisms that govern the shift from cartilage homeostasis to OA remain unknown. Previous studies have reported that intrinsic circadian clock in chondrocytes could function to optimize cartilage repair/remodeling to optimum times of day, but little is known about its molecular mechanisms. This study attempted to investigate the potential role and mechanism of circadian gene Clock in OA pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of Clock in OA chondrocytes and cartilage was detected by qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. Temporal gene expression changes were analyzed using qRT-PCR in chondrocytes transfected with siClock following dexamethasone synchronization. In addition, the effect of Clock knockdown on senescent phenotypes and autophagic flux was evaluated in chondrocytes treated with siClock or siCntrl. KEY FINDINGS: The expression of Clock was up-regulated in OA cartilage from humans and mouse models. Clock knockdown had no influence on rhythmic expression of the downstream genes in primary chondrocytes. We also found that Clock knockdown elevated antioxidant enzyme activities, diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and attenuated senescence of chondrocytes via restoring autophagic flux. SIGNIFICANCE: Clock knockdown can attenuate ROS-mediated senescence of chondrocytes through restoring autophagic flux in non-circadian manner, providing a potential therapeutic target for OA.

14.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 23, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, only a small proportion of the population will develop active TB, and the role of host genetic factors in different TB infection status was not fully understood. METHODS: Forty-three patients with active tuberculosis and 49 with latent tuberculosis were enrolled in the prospective cohort. Expressing levels of 27 candidate mRNAs, which were previously demonstrated to differentially expressed in latent and active TB, were measured by dual color reverse transcription multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay (dcRT-MLPA). Using expression levels of these mRNAs as quantitative traits, associations between expression abundance and genome-wild single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were calculated. Finally, identified candidate SNPs were further assessed for their associations with TB infection status in a validation cohort with 313 Chinese Han cases. RESULTS: We identified 9 differentially expressed mRNAs including il7r, il4, il8, tnfrsf1b, pgm5, ccl19, il2ra, marco and fpr1 in the prospective cohort. Through expression quantitative trait loci mapping, we screened out 8 SNPs associated with these mRNAs. Then, CG genotype of the SNP rs62292160 was finally verified to be significantly associated with higher transcription levels of IL4 in LTBI than in TB patients. CONCLUSION: We reported that the SNP rs62292160 in Chinese Han population may link to higher expression of il4 in latent tuberculosis. Our findings provided a new genetic variation locus for further exploration of the mechanisms of TB and a possible target for TB genetic susceptibility studies, which might aid the clinical decision to precision treatment of TB.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/genética , Tuberculose/genética , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245662, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481881

RESUMO

Earthquakes pose serious threats to the world. Good individual resilience can cope with disaster well, but there were few appropriate assessment tools. The purpose of this study was to develop a new individual earthquake resilience questionnaire and test its reliability and validity. First, we built the framework of the individual earthquake resilience questionnaire based on expert interviews. Then, we established the initial version of questionnaire and used the Delphi method and item selection to modify it by qualitative and quantitative methods. Finally, we built the final version of questionnaire (contained 4 dimensions and 17 items) and tested the reliability and validity. The Cronbach's α values of the four dimensions were between 0.79 and 0.91, the split-half reliabilities were between 0.85 and 0.93, and the test-retest reliabilities were between 0.72 and 0.80. The item content validity indexes were between 0.87-1, and the average questionnaire content validity index was 0.94. The correlation coefficients between each item and dimension with the total questionnaire ranged from 0.79-0.90 and 0.66-0.79, respectively. We used exploratory factor analysis to identify four common factors with a cumulative variance contribution rate of 74.97%. The questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to measure individual resilience in the context of earthquake disasters.

16.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 9-18, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357711

RESUMO

Chicken MDA5 (chMDA5), the essential accepted pattern recognition receptors for detecting cytoplasmic viral RNA in chicken, initiates interferon ß (IFN-ß) generation. However, there is an incomplete elucidation of regulating chMDA5-mediated IFN-ß production. NEMO-related protein, optineurin, was identified as inhibitors of virus triggered IFN-ß induction in human or mice. In this study, full length of chicken optineurin (chOPTN) was cloned from chicken embryo fibroblast, and its role in inhibiting IFN-ß signaling pathway was further explored. Full-length chOPTN encodes 547 amino acids residues and contains unique LC3 interaction region and ubiquitin binding domain. Chicken optineurin mRNA and protein are widely expressed in different tissues, especially the heart, kidney, and bursal fabricius (BF). Overexpressed chOPTN not only inhibits poly I:C or homos-induced human IFN-ß promoter activation in 293T cells but also suppresses poly I:C, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) genome double-strand RNA (dsRNA), and chMDA5-induced chicken IFN-ß (chIFN-ß) promoter activation. In addition, we first revealed that chOPTN negatively regulates chIFN-ß production via inhibiting ubiquitination of chicken TBK1, which is dependent on the ubiquitin-binding domain of chOPTN. Moreover, chIFN-ß stimulus, poly I:C, and IBDV genome dsRNA improve chOPTN expression. Endogenous chOPTN expression is also upregulated by IBDV infection in 293T, DF-1 cells, as well as in BF. Therefore, our results suggested that chOPTN plays an inhibition role of chMDA5-mediated chIFN-ß signaling pathway in chicken cells.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(1): 287-297, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356111

RESUMO

Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases threatening half of the world population. With the deterioration of the parasiticidal effect of the current antimalarials, novel approaches such as screening of more specific inhibitors and targeted delivery of drugs have been under intensive research. Herein, we prepare hollow mesoporous ferrite nanoparticles (HMFNs) of 200 nm with ferromagnetic properties using a one-pot hydrothermal reaction. A magnetically targeted drug-delivery system coloaded with artemisinin in the inner magnetite shell and heparin on the outer mesoporous shell (HMFN@ART@HEP) is developed. Specific targeting of the magnetic nanoparticles to the parasite-infected erythrocytes is achieved by the attraction between the HMFNs and hemozoin (paramagnetic), a vital metabolite of plasmodium in the erythrocytic stage. With the hemozoin production reaching the maximum during the schizont period of the parasite, HMFN@ART@HEPs are adsorbed to the infected red blood cells (iRBCs), which not only interferes with the release of merozoites but also significantly enhances the inhibitory efficacy due to the increased local concentration of artemisinin. Subsequently, the heparin coated on the surface of the nanoparticles can efficiently interfere with the invasion of freshly released merozoites to new RBCs through the specific interaction between the parasite-derived ligands and heparin, which further increases the inhibitory effect on malaria. As a cluster of heparin, heparin-coated nanoparticles provide stronger blocking capability than free heparin, resulting from multivalent interactions with surface receptors on merozoite. Thus, we have developed a HMFN-based delivery system with considerable antimalarial efficacy, which is a promising platform for treatment against malaria.

18.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 56: 102509, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310606

RESUMO

The pectoralis major assists in several shoulder movements, such as humeral vertical and horizontal adduction, flexion, extension, and internal rotation. Despite its involvement in numerous functional activities, its role in typical shoulder function is ambiguous. Due to this, its purpose in arm movement is largely diminished. However, mounting evidence associates pectoralis major injuries to long-term debilitating arm disability. Therefore, a more deliberate investigation of its role in typical shoulder function is paramount. The purpose of this paper is to outline the current limitations in the acquisition and characterization of pectoralis major activation using standard bipolar surface electromyography. Macroscopic level analyses are used to investigate pectoralis major activation in eight tasks at low (15-25% of maximal voluntary effort (MVE) and moderate (50% MVE) efforts in healthy males. Virtually derived bipolar EMG amplitudes are quantified for the clavicular and the upper sternocostal regions based on the common locations used to acquire EMG signals from classic EMG. HD-sEMG amplitudes from three pectoralis major regions (i.e. clavicular, upper, and lower sternocostal) were compared to virtually derived bipolar EMG amplitudes (i.e. clavicular and upper sternocostal) to determine if current EMG methods misestimate pectoralis major activity. Current findings indicate that classic EMG recordings mischaracterize pectoralis major activation in several tasks and effort levels, highlighting the importance of acquiring signals from multiple pectoralis major regions.

19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 90: 107268, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316740

RESUMO

Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Syringin (SYR) is an active substance isolated from Acanthopanax senticosus plants, and possesses anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, its effects on cerebral ischemic injury, as well as the underlying molecular events, are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SYR in a rat model of cerebral ischemia and address the related molecular mechanism. A middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion model (MCAO) was used to simulate ischemic injury. SYR treatment clearly reduced the infarct volume, decreased cerebral water content, improved the neurological score, and attenuated neuronal death. Moreover, SYR decreased the expression of NF-κB, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, and MPO, promoted FOXO3a phosphorylation and cytoplasmic retention, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. FOXO3a knockdown by RNA interference significantly prevented SYR-induced inhibition of NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Confocal microscopy revealed that SYR reduced NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, and FOXO3a silencing reversed this effect. Finally, immunofluorescence and CO-IP experiments showed that SYR promoted the interaction between FOXO3a and NF-κB. In conclusion, SYR exerted a protective effect against brain I/R injury by reducing the inflammation accompanying cerebral ischemia. This effect was mediated by the FOXO3a /NF-κB pathway.

20.
Food Chem ; 338: 128015, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932085

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to study the effect of hot air drying, microwave vacuum drying and freeze drying combined with explosion puffing drying (HDEPD, MDEPD and FDEPD) on physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and flavor characteristics of apples. The results showed that MDEPD and FDEPD products had better color and textural properties, exhibited a homogeneous porous structure. MDEPD and FDEPD better preserved scavenging abilities of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and FRAP, retained values of TFC and TPC. Aroma characteristics and taste properties of apples obviously changed with different drying methods, and drying qualities of products could be classified in terms of volatile compounds and taste profiles. Two principal components were able to describe 90.12% and 69.43% of the total volatile compound variance and total taste profile variance, respectively. Three main clusters of dried apples were identified, MDEPD and FDEPD can be used to enhance drying qualities of apple products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Dessecação/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/química , Paladar , Cor , Nariz Eletrônico , Flavonoides/análise , Aromatizantes/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Liofilização , Frutas/química , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis/análise , Vácuo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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