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1.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801696

RESUMO

Electrospun nanofiber with interconnected porous structure has been studied as a promising support layer of polyamide (PA) thin-film composite (TFC) forward osmosis (FO) membrane. However, its rough surface with irregular pores is prone to the formation of a defective PA active layer after interfacial polymerization, which shows high reverse salt leakage in FO desalination. Heat-curing is beneficial for crosslinking and stabilization of the PA layer. In this work, a nanofiber-supported PA TFC membrane was conceived to be cured on a hot water surface with preserved phase interface for potential "defect repair", which could be realized by supplementary interfacial polymerization of residual monomers during heat-curing. The resultant hot-water-curing FO membrane with a more uniform superhydrophilic and highly crosslinked PA layer exhibited much lower reverse salt flux (FO: 0.3 gMH, PRO: 0.8 gMH) than that of oven-curing FO membrane (FO: 2.3 gMH, PRO: 2.2 gMH) and achieved ∼4 times higher separation efficiency. It showed superior stability owing to mitigated reverse salt leakage and osmotic pressure loss, with its water flux decline lower than a quarter that of the oven-curing membrane. This study could provide new insight into the fine-tuning of nanofiber-supported TFC FO membrane for high-quality desalination via a proper selection of heat-curing methods.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7623, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33828164

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are mRNA suppressors that regulate a variety of cellular and physiological processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, triglyceride synthesis, fat formation, and lipolysis, by post-transcriptional processing. In previous studies, we isolated and sequenced miRNAs from mammary epithelial cells from Chinese Holstein cows with high and low milk fat percentages. MiR-485 was one of the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs that were identified. In the present study, the relationship between the candidate target gene DTX4 and miR-485 was validated by bioinformatics and real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot (WB) analyses in bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs). The results indicated that miR-485 negatively regulated the mRNA expression of the target gene DTX4. Furthermore, an shRNA interference vector for the target gene DTX4 was constructed successfully, and it increased the triglyceride content and reduced the cholesterol content of transfected cells. These results suggest that miR-485 may affect the contents of triglycerides (TGs) and cholesterol (CHOL) by targeting the DTX4 gene. This study indicates that miR-485 has a role in regulating milk fat synthesis and that miR-485 targets the DTX4 gene to regulate lipid metabolism in bMECs. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional significance of miR-485 in milk fat synthesis.

3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(2): 977-987, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742894

RESUMO

Studying the influence of precipitation patterns on plant community diversity, soil C:N:P ecological stoichiometric characteristics, and the relationships between key soil factors and plant community diversity is of great significance for the protection of plant community diversity in desert grasslands. This paper was studied in the desert steppe of the west of Loess Plateau using a three-year precipitation manipulation experiment (40% reduction in precipitation, 20% reduction in precipitation, natural precipitation, 20% increase in precipitation, and 40% increase in precipitation), explored the influence of changes in precipitation in dry and wet years on the diversity of plant community and soil C:N:P ecological stoichiometric characteristics. And we also explored the relationship between soil C:N:P ecological stoichiometric characteristics and the key soil factors and the diversity of plant community under changes in precipitation. The results showed that in a normal year and the drier year (2013 and 2015), Patrick richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were significantly low under the 20% reduction treatment compared with the control and 40% increase treatments, respectively. During the wetter year, Patrick richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were no different between any of the precipitation treatments. In the normal year and the drier year, the soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents and the carbon-nitrogen ratio (C:N), carbon-phosphorus ratio (C:P), and nitrogen-phosphorus ratio (N:P) all decreased with an increase in precipitation (the decrease in the C:N ratio was statistically significant). During the wetter year, SOC, TN, C:P, and N:P increased with an increase in precipitation. During the normal year, precipitation treatments had no significant influence on soil water content, having a limited influence on the plant community. TN, N:P, SOC, C:N, and microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) had a more prominent influence on plant community diversity. In the wetter year, precipitation was abundant leading to a rise in soil nutrients. Water was not the most important factor limiting to plant growth whereas soil water content, soil nutrients, and ecological stoichiometric characteristics jointly regulate plant community diversity. In the drier years, precipitation treatments had a significant impact on soil water content, whereby an increase in precipitation led to high losses of soil nutrients. Therefore, soil water content was the most important factor affecting plant community diversity during drier years. These observations indicate that under dry and wet years, plant community diversity and soil C:N:P ecological stoichiometric characteristics have variable responses to precipitation and soil C:N:P effect on plant community were also different. These results provide a theoretical basis for the protection and management of desert steppe systems under future projected changes in precipitation.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Carbono/análise , China , Pradaria , Nitrogênio/análise , Plantas , Microbiologia do Solo
4.
Nano Lett ; 21(6): 2476-2486, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683126

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is a global health concern infecting over 90% of the population. However, there is no currently available vaccine. EBV primarily infects B cells, where the major glycoprotein 350 (gp350) is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. Given the advancement of nanoparticle vaccines, we describe rationally designed vaccine modalities presenting 60 copies of gp350 on self-assembled nanoparticles in a repetitive array. In a mouse model, gp350s on lumazine synthase (LS) and I3-01 adjuvanted with MF59 or aluminum hydroxide (Alhydrogel) elicited over 65- to 133-fold higher neutralizing antibody titers than the corresponding gp350 monomer to EBV. Furthermore, immunization with gp350D123-LS and gp350D123-I3-01 vaccine induced a Th2-biased response. For the nonhuman primate model, gp350D123-LS in MF59 elicited higher titers of total IgG and neutralizing antibodies than the monomeric gp350D123. Overall, these results support gp350D123-based nanoparticle vaccine design as a promising vaccine candidate for potent protection against EBV infection.

5.
Zootaxa ; 4938(4): zootaxa.4938.4.5, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756968

RESUMO

Three new earthworm species are described from South China, namely Amynthas rusticanus sp. nov., Amynthas scaberulus sp. nov., and Amynthas yuanjiangensis sp. nov. They are widely distributed in South China, and be polymorphic in reproductive organs. Of three new species, A. rusticanus sp. nov. is a small species with three pairs of spermathecal pores in 5/6-7/8 or two pairs of spermathecal pores in 5/6-6/7; it has developed prostate glands in XVI-XX. A. scaberulus sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with two pairs of spermathecal pores in 7/8-8/9; the lower edge of each spermathecal pore forms a tiny papilla, and the prostate glands are either degenerated or developed. A. yuanjiangensis sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with four pairs of spermathecal pores in 5/6-8/9 and has degenerated or developed prostate glands. Barcode data for each species (partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) are provided as well.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Animais , China , Masculino
6.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 52, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766129

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new arm of gene regulatory mechanism as discovered by sequencing techniques and follow-up functional studies. The lncRNAs regulation of pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection has rarely been reported so far. Using RNA sequencing analysis, 225 lncRNAs with significant altered expressions in 3D4/21 cells infected with PRV (ZJ01) were identified. Five lncRNAs upregulated in PRV-infected cells were verified in cells infected with different PRV strains by qRT-PCR. By down- and up-regulation of lnc641, the accelerating effect of lnc641 on PRV replication was confirmed. Furthermore, we found that lnc641 regulated PRV replication by inhibiting the JAK-STAT1 pathway. This study suggests that lnc641 could be a new host factor target for developing antiviral therapies against PRV infection.

7.
Radiat Oncol ; 16(1): 54, 2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy or whole pelvic irradiation is recommended for the patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer. However, the precise pattern of lymphatic tumor spread in cervical cancer is unknown. In the present study we evaluated the distribution of nodal metastases in stage IB1 cervical cancer to explore the possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment. METHODS: A total of 289 patients with cervical cancer of stage IB1, according to FIGO 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy (Querleu and Morrow type C2) and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy with or without para-aortic lymphadenectomy (level 2 or level 3 according to Querleu and Morrow) from October 2014 to December 2017. Lymph nodes removed from 7 well-defined anatomical locations as well as other tissues were examined histopathologically, and typed, graded, and staged according to the WHO/IARC classification. RESULTS: Totally 8314 lymph nodes were analyzed with the average number of 31.88 ± 10.34 (Mean ± SD) lymph nodes per patient. Nodal metastases were present in 44 patients (15.22%). The incidence of lymphatic spread to different anatomic sites ranged from 0% (presacral) to 30.92% (obturator nodes). Tumor size above 2 cm, histologically proven lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI) and parametrial invasion were shown to be significantly correlated with the higher risk of lymphatic metastasis, while obesity (BMI ≥ 25) was independently negatively associated with lymphatic metastases. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of lymph node metastasis in patients with stage IB1 cervical cancer is low but prognostically relevant. Individual treatment could be considered for the selected low-risk patients who have smaller tumors and obesity and lack of the parametrial invasion or LVSI.

8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6685493, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33748278

RESUMO

The vascular injury induced by central venous catheter (CVC) indwelling is the basis for the occurrence and development of CVC-related complications, such as phlebitis, venous thrombosis, and catheter-related infections. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and FAK-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway are of great significance in tissue repair after trauma. Here, we investigated the role and mechanism of the FAK inhibitor (1,2,4,5-phenyltetramine tetrahydrochloride (Y15)) in oxidative damage caused by CVC. EA.hy926 cells were divided into the control group (normal control), CVCs+scratches group (the intercepted CVC segments coculturing with scratched EA.hy926 cells), and CVCs+scratches+Y15 group (Y15 was added to the cell culture supernatant with CVCs + scratches at a final concentration of 50 µmol·L-1). New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the control group (normal control), CVC group (CVC was inserted through the rabbit's right jugular vein to the junction of the right atrium and superior vena cava), and CVC+Y15 group (CVC was immersed in a 50 µmol·L-1 Y15 solutions before insertion). The levels of markers and proteins related to oxidative damage in cells, cell culture supernatant, serum, and external jugular vein were measured by commercial kits and western blot, respectively. We found that Y15 treatment significantly decreased ROS and MDA levels and increased cell viability, NO, and SOD levels in a time-dependent manner in rabbit serum and cell culture supernatant. In addition, Y15 effectively reduced the CVC-induced pathological changes of damaged vascular tissues. Y15 also downregulated the levels of p-FAK Tyr 397 and p-Akt Ser 473 in damaged external jugular vein and EA.hy926 cells. These findings suggest that Y15 alleviated CVC-induced oxidative damage to blood vessels by suppressing focal FAK-Akt pathway activation.

9.
ChemMedChem ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755334

RESUMO

Novel chiral ionone alkaloid derivatives were synthesized, and their anti-metastatic effects were evaluated in human breast cancer cells using chemotaxis assay. Compared with positive control LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, derivatives 10a, 11a, 11c, 11g, 11j, 11k and 11w exhibited significant inhibitory effects against cancer cell migration. Especially, the IC 50 for compound 11g was as low as 0.035 ± 0.004 µM. Further investigations on compound 11g revealed that it could exert inhibitory effects on the adhesion, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. The mechanisms for the anti-tumor metastatic effects of 11g might be through the inhibition of HIF-1α/VEGF/VEGFR2/Akt pathway, which suppressed the downstream signaling molecules, including Akt1/mTOR/p70S6K and Akt2/PKCζ/integrin ß1 pathways. Taken together, chiral ionone alkaloid derivative 11g may be a potential anti-tumor metastasis agent for the treatment of breast cancer.

10.
Bioorg Chem ; 109: 104711, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609916

RESUMO

In this study, a series of novel 2H-imidazo [1, 2-c] pyrazolo [3, 4-e] pyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities. The in vitro cell growth inhibition assay of the target compounds indicated their selectivity in inhibiting the proliferation of blood tumor cells (K562, U937) and solid tumor cells (HCT116, HT-29). Compound 9b exhibited the highest antiproliferative activities against K562 (IC50 = 5.597 µM) and U937 (IC50 = 3.512 µM). Based on the flow cytometry assays, compound 9b caused obvious induction of cell apoptosis and cell arrest at the S phase. Furthermore, western blot analysis revealed that compound 9b upregulated the expression of Bax, downregulated the levels of Bcl-2, and further activated caspase-3 in K562 cells. Therefore, compound 9b may be a potential anticancer agent that deserves further investigation.

11.
Environ Pollut ; 274: 116539, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549839

RESUMO

Bifenazate is a novel acaricide for selective foliar spraying and is widely used to control mites in agricultural production. However, its toxicity to aquatic organisms is unknown. Here, a zebrafish model was used to study bifenazate toxicity to aquatic organisms. Exposure to bifenazate was found to cause severe cardiotoxicity in zebrafish embryos, along with disorders in the gene expression related to heart development. Bifenazate also caused oxidative stress. Cardiotoxicity caused by bifenazate was partially rescued by astaxanthin (an antioxidant), accompanied by cardiac genes and oxidative stress-related indicators becoming normalized. Our results showed that exposure to bifenazate can significantly change the ATPase activity and gene expression levels of the calcium signaling pathway. These led to heart failure, in which the blood accumulated outside the heart without entering it, eventually leading to death. The results indicated that bifenazate exposure caused cardiotoxicity in zebrafish embryos through the induction of oxidative stress and inhibition of the calcium signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Cardiotoxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Carbamatos/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Hidrazinas , Estresse Oxidativo
12.
Plant Cell Environ ; 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560528

RESUMO

Salt cress (Eutrema salsugineum) presents relatively high phosphate (Pi) use efficiency cy in its natural habitat. Phosphate Transporters (PHTs) play critical roles in Pi acquisition and homeostasis. Here, a comparative study of PHT families between salt cress and Arabidopsis was performed. A total of 27 putative PHT genes were identified in E. salsugineum genome. Notably, seven tandem genes encoding PHT1;3 were found, and function analysis in Arabidopsis indicated at least six EsPHT1;3s participated in Pi uptake. Meanwhile, different expression profiles of PHT genes between the two species under Pi limitation and salt stress were documented. Most PHT1 genes were down-regulated in Arabidopsis while up-regulated in salt cress under salinity, among which EsPHT1;9 was further characterized. EsPHT1;9 was involved in root-to-shoot Pi translocation. Particularly, the promoter of EsPHT1;9 outperformed that of AtPHT1;9 in promoting Pi translocation, K+ /Na+ ratio, thereby salt tolerance. Through cis-element analysis, we identified a bZIP transcription factor EsABF5 negatively regulating EsPHT1;9 and plant tolerance to low-Pi and salt stress. Altogether, more copies and divergent transcriptional regulation of PHT genes contribute to salt cress adaptation to the co-occurrence of salinity and Pi limitation, which add our knowledge on the evolutionary and molecular component of multistress- tolerance of this species.

13.
BMC Immunol ; 22(1): 14, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus first recognized in late December 2019 that causes coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Due to the highly contagious nature of SARS-CoV-2, it has developed into a global pandemic in just a few months. Antibody testing is an effective method to supplement the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, multicentre studies are lacking to support the understanding of the seroprevalence and kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in COVID-19 epidemic regions. METHOD: A multicentre cross-sectional study of suspected and confirmed patients from 4 epidemic cities in China and a cohort study of consecutive follow-up patients were conducted from 29/01/2020 to 12/03/2020. IgM and IgG antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 were tested by a chemiluminescence assay. Clinical information, including basic demographic data, clinical classification, and time interval from onset to sampling, was collected from each centre. RESULTS: A total of 571 patients were enrolled in the cross-sectional study, including 235 COVID-19 patients and 336 suspected patients, each with 91.9%:2.1% seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 92.3%:5.4% seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgM. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG in COVID-19 patients was over 70% less than 7 days after symptom onset. Thirty COVID-19 patients were enrolled in the cohort study and followed up for 20 days. The peak concentrations of IgM and IgG were reached on the 10th and 20th days, respectively, after symptom onset. The seroprevalence of COVID-19 IgG and IgM increased along with the clinical classification and treatment time delay. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated the kinetics of IgM and IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in COVID-19 patients and the association between clinical classification and antibodies, which will contribute to the interpretation of IgM and IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests and in predicting the outcomes of patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/imunologia , /fisiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Formação de Anticorpos , China , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566628

RESUMO

Background - Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is an inherited cardiac disease characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of the right and/or left ventricle, often causing ventricular dysfunction and life-threatening arrhythmias. Variants in desmosomal genes account for up to 60% of cases. Our objective was to establish the prevalence and clinical features of ACM stemming from pathogenic variants, in the non-desmosomal cadherin 2 (CDH2), a novel genetic substrate of ACM. Methods - A cohort of 500 unrelated patients with a definite diagnosis of ACM and no disease-causing variants in the main ACM genes was assembled. Genetic screening of CDH2 was performed through next-generation or Sanger sequencing. Whenever possible, cascade screening was initiated in the families of CDH2-positive probands, and clinical evaluation was assessed. Results - Genetic screening of CDH2 led to the identification of 7 rare variants: five, identified in 6 probands, were classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic. The previously established p.D407N pathogenic variant was detected in 2 additional probands. Probands and family members with pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in CDH2 were clinically evaluated, and along with previously published cases, altogether contributed to the identification of gene-specific features (13 cases from this cohort and 11 previously published, for a total of 9 probands and 15 family members). Ventricular arrhythmic events occurred in most CDH2-positive subjects (20/24, 83%), while the occurrence of heart failure was rare (2/24, 8.3%). Among probands, sustained ventricular tachycardia and/or sudden cardiac death occurred in 5/9 (56%). Conclusions - In this worldwide cohort of previously genotype-negative ACM patients, the prevalence of probands with CDH2 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants was 1.2% (6/500). Our data show that this cohort of CDH2-ACM patients has a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, while evolution toward heart failure is rare.

15.
ACS Nano ; 15(2): 2738-2752, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464829

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus resulted in economic losses and threatened human health worldwide. The pandemic highlights an urgent need for a stable, easily produced, and effective vaccine. SARS-CoV-2 uses the spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) to bind its cognate receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and initiate membrane fusion. Thus, the RBD is an ideal target for vaccine development. In this study, we designed three different RBD-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine candidates, namely, RBD-Ferritin (24-mer), RBD-mi3 (60-mer), and RBD-I53-50 (120-mer), via covalent conjugation using the SpyTag-SpyCatcher system. When mice were immunized with the RBD-conjugated nanoparticles (NPs) in conjunction with the AddaVax or Sigma Adjuvant System, the resulting antisera exhibited 8- to 120-fold greater neutralizing activity against both a pseudovirus and the authentic virus than those of mice immunized with monomeric RBD. Most importantly, sera from mice immunized with RBD-conjugated NPs more efficiently blocked the binding of RBD to ACE2 in vitro, further corroborating the promising immunization effect. Additionally, the vaccine has distinct advantages in terms of a relatively simple scale-up and flexible assembly. These results illustrate that the SARS-CoV-2 RBD-conjugated nanoparticles developed in this study are a competitive vaccine candidate and that the carrier nanoparticles could be adopted as a universal platform for a future vaccine development.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , /prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Animais , /farmacologia , Chlorocebus aethiops , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Células Vero
16.
Clin Nutr ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess whether serum vitamin D deficiency before gestational 20 weeks was associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia. METHODS: We investigated the serum levels of 25(OH)D before gestational 20 weeks, and analyzed associations between the 25(OH)D and the risk of preeclampsia. 7976 pregnant women were enrolled in this study between January 2017 and July 2019 at the Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University. Adjusted smoothing spline plots, subgroup analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relative risk between 25(OH)D and preeclampsia. RESULTS: After fully adjusting the confounding factors, serum vitamin D is a protective factor in preeclampsia (OR = 0.85, P = 0.04). Compared with adequate vitamin D, vitamin D deficiency (OR = 1.55, P = 0.031), deficiency (OR = 1.50, P = 0.049) and severe deficiency (OR = 2.6, P = 0.005) are independent of preeclampsia in pregnant women Risk factors. CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency before gestational 20 weeks is a risk factor for preeclampsia.

17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504575

RESUMO

Macrophages are the most important phagocytes in vivo. However, the tumor microenvironment can affect the function and polarization of macrophages and form tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Usually, the abundance of TAMs in tumors is closely associated with poor prognosis. Preclinical studies have identified important pathways regulating the infiltration and polarization of TAMs during tumor progression. Furthermore, potential therapeutic strategies targeting TAMs in tumors have been studied, including inhibition of macrophage recruitment to tumors, functional repolarization of TAMs toward an antitumor phenotype, and other therapeutic strategies that elicit macrophage-mediated extracellular phagocytosis and intracellular destruction of cancer cells. Therefore, with the increasing impact of tumor immunotherapy, new antitumor strategies to target TAMs are now being discussed.

18.
Curr Mol Med ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate DACH1 protein expression in lung cancer tissue and matched paracancerous tissue, and explore its effect on proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells (HLACs). METHODS: Tumor tissue and matched paracancerous tissue was collected from 46 patients with pathologically diagnosed lung cancer. RT-PCR was perfomed to detect DACH1 mRNA expression and immunohistochemistry to measured DACH1 protein expression. To determine the effect of DACH1 on lung cancer behavior, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence DACH1 expression in A549 cells. The impact on the proliferation of tumor cells was then observed by MTT assay, changes in the invasion of tumor cells were identified using transwell chamber assay, and the effects on apoptosis in the cell line were detected using flow cytometry. RESULTS: The expression of DACH1 mRNA and DACH1 protein were significantly decreased in lung cancer tissue versus matched paracancerous control tissue. Silencing of DACH1 expression in A549 cells significantly enhanced cell proliferation, significantly increased cell invasion and significantly reduced spontaneous apoptosis. CONCLUSION: DACH1 is downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissue. In vitro assessment shows that DACH1 functions as a tumor suppressor, suggesting its potential use as new target for lung cancer treatment.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512508

RESUMO

Anxiety and depressive symptoms may predispose individuals to sleep disturbance. Understanding how these emotional symptoms affect sleep quality, especially the underlying neural basis, could support the development of effective treatment. The aims of the present study were therefore to investigate potential changes in brain morphometry associated with poor sleep quality and whether this structure played a mediating role between the emotional symptoms and sleep quality. 141 healthy adults (69 women, mean age 26.06 years, SD = 6.36 years) were recruited. A structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) investigation was performed and self-reported measures of anxiety, depressive symptoms and sleep quality obtained for each participant. Whole-brain regression analysis revealed that worse sleep quality was associated with thinner cortex in left Superior Temporal Sulcus (STS). Furthermore, the thickness of left STS mediated the association between the emotional symptoms and sleep quality. A subsequent commonality analysis showed that physiological component of the depressive symptoms had the greatest influence on sleep quality. In conclusion, thinner cortex in left STS may represent a neural substrate for the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality and may thus serve as a potential target for neuromodulatory treatment of sleep problems.

20.
Brachytherapy ; 20(2): 454-466, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358847

RESUMO

Brachytherapy (BT) is a minimally invasive anticancer radiotherapeutic modality where the tumor is directly irradiated via a radioactive source that is precisely implanted in or adjacent to the tumor. BT for lung cancer may be conducted in the form of endobronchial BT and radioactive seed implantation (RSI-BT), mainly for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For patients with early-stage lung cancer who are not suitable for surgery or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), BT may be used as an alternative treatment, and curative results could be achieved in certain patients with cancer confined to the trachea lumen. For patients with locally advanced/metastatic lung cancer, BT could be selectively applied alone or as a boost to EBRT, which could improve the local tumor control and patient's survival. In addition, BT is also useful as a salvage treatment in select patients with locally recurrent/residual lung cancer that failed other treatments (e.g., surgery, chemotherapy, and EBRT). However, clinical outcomes are mainly obtained from retrospective studies. Prospective studies are limited and needed. In recent years, the introduction of modern image guidance, novel radioactive seeds, BT treatment planning systems (BT-TPS), after-loading technique, and three-dimensional printing template (3D-PT) assistance, among others, have potentially improved the clinical outcomes of BT. However, a comprehensive review of BT with newly published literature was lacking. This review is to discuss BT for NSCLC based on recent literature published in PubMed.

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