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1.
J Oral Sci ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132327

RESUMO

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a serious, potentially malignant oral disorder. It is histopathologically characterized by chronic inflammation and atrophic epithelium accompanied by the accumulation of collagen fibers in the lamina propria. The molecular mechanisms leading to atrophic epithelium remain poorly understood. Therefore, the present study investigated the role of autophagy and apoptosis in atrophic epithelium in OSF. The expression of Caspase-3 and autophagy-related proteins (LC3 and P62) in OSF epithelial tissues was quantified by immunohistochemistry. The analysis demonstrated that, compared with normal oral mucosal tissues, autophagy and apoptosis increased with the progression of OSF. Flow cytometry and Western blotting showed that arecoline induces apoptosis in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) in a time-dependent manner in vitro. Arecoline-induced autophagy was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Western blotting. When chloroquine was used as an inhibitor of autophagy, the apoptosis rate and Caspase-3 expression decreased compared with the use of arecoline alone. Thus, autophagy and apoptosis may be involved in atrophic epithelium in OSF, and arecoline-induced autophagy promotes apoptosis in HOKs.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 360, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192486

RESUMO

It was highlighted that in the original article [1] the data on categorical variables was wrongly arranged in Table 1 and there was an incorrect statement in the fourth paragraph of the Discussion section.

3.
Science ; 367(6484): 1352-1358, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193323

RESUMO

We report the profiling of spatial and energetic distributions of trap states in metal halide perovskite single-crystalline and polycrystalline solar cells. The trap densities in single crystals varied by five orders of magnitude, with a lowest value of 2 × 1011 per cubic centimeter and most of the deep traps located at crystal surfaces. The charge trap densities of all depths of the interfaces of the polycrystalline films were one to two orders of magnitude greater than that of the film interior, and the trap density at the film interior was still two to three orders of magnitude greater than that in high-quality single crystals. Suprisingly, after surface passivation, most deep traps were detected near the interface of perovskites and hole transport layers, where a large density of nanocrystals were embedded, limiting the efficiency of solar cells.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202405

RESUMO

The irrational or excessive use of antibiotics causes the emergence of bacterial resistance, making antibiotics less effective or ineffective. As resistant antibiotics increase, it is crucial to develop new strategy and innovative approaches to potentiate the efficacy of existing antibiotics. In this paper, we report that some existing antibiotics can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly under light irradiation. Thus, a novel antibacterial photodynamic therapy (PDT) strategy is proposed by using the existing antibiotics whose activities are potentiated via light-activation. This antibiotic-based PDT strategy can achieve the efficient bacteria killing with low dosage of antibiotics, indicating that bacterial killing can be enhanced by the light irradiated antibiotics. Moreover, the specific types of ROS produced by different antibiotics under light irradiation were studied for better elucidation of the antibacterial mechanism. The findings can extend the application of the existing antibiotics and provides a promising strategy for treatment of bacterial infections, and even cancers.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Radiotherapy is one of the major remedies for the treatment of cancer, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Radioresistance occurs very often in target cells that is a large drawback in cancer treated with radiotherapy. Livin involves the over-growth of cancer cells. This study aims to investigate the role of livin in the radioresistance formation in NPC cells. METHODS: NPC cell lines were exposed to small doses of irradiation to establish a cell model of radioresistance, in which the role of livin in the development of radioresistance was evaluated. RESULTS: The expression of livin was observed in NPC cells, which was significantly increased after exposing to small doses of irradiation. A negative correlation was detected between livin and Fas expression in NPC cells. Livin formed a complex with heat shock factor-1 (HSF1, the transcription factor of Fas) in NPC cells after irradiation, which sped up ubiquitination of HSF1. Livin was involved in suppressing Fas expression in NPC cells with radioresistance. Exposure to livin inhibitors prevented radioresistance development and overcame the established radioresistance in NPC cells. CONCLUSIONS: Livin expression in NPC cells plays a critical role in the development of radioresistance. Depletion of livin increases the sensitiveness of NPC cells to irradiation. Target therapy against livin may have the translational potential for the treatment of NPC.

7.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(3): 594-599, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Targeted treatments may greatly affect the natural history of urothelial carcinoma based on their pharmacokinetics. A phase II trial has explored the combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy with the anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in selected patients with metastatic bladder cancer, but it failed. CASE SUMMARY: Here, we report a case of recurrent urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) in a patient who has undergone three operations, and further illuminate its diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis of UBC was rendered according to the pathological indices. Next-generation sequencing on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue was also performed and suggested HER2 gene amplification in the FFPE tissue. Based on HER2 gene amplification in FFPE, the patient was treated with chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab after his third surgery. Fortunately, the patient got a clinically complete remission to trastuzumab for 34 mo. CONCLUSION: There is not enough clinical evidence for incorporating trastuzumab in routine treatment of UBC. This case hinted that recurrent UBC patients with HER2 gene amplification may benefit from targeted trastuzumab. Further studies are needed to further investigate the status of HER2 gene and better determine trastuzumab in the management of UBC.

8.
Ther Innov Regul Sci ; 54(2): 447-461, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072595

RESUMO

Notwithstanding successful harmonization efforts, the global regulatory framework governing product safety is complex and continually evolving, as evidenced by additional regional guidance and regulations. In this regulatory review, we provide an overview from both global and regional perspectives. A historical perspective, with a focus on recent developments, enables identification of important long-term trends, such as a shift from single-case medical review of serious adverse events to an interdisciplinary evaluation of aggregate data for the purpose of judging product causality and informing benefit-risk assessments. We will show how these trends lead to opportunities for closer interdisciplinary collaboration, for bridging the gap between preand postmarketing surveillance, and for a more proactive determination of patient populations with a positive benefit-risk profile for product use. We will conclude by pointing to ongoing and future work that seeks to provide specific solutions for ongoing aggregate safety evaluation.

9.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460869, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959456

RESUMO

Prostaglandins (PGs) are vitally important unsaturated fatty acids involved in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, participating in numerous pathophysiological processes, especially in maintaining the homeostasis of uterus. Therefore, quantitative analysis of PGs is of great importance for uncovering potential mechanisms of PGs related diseases. However, methods for determining PGs in uterine samples have not been reported. In this study, an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was established to quantify PGs in uterine samples, using N,N-Dimethylethylenediamine (DMED) and N,N-Diethylethylenediamine (DEED) as derivatization reagents. The derivatization could be finished at 37 °C for 30 min catalyzed by 1-N,N,N',N'-Tetramethyl-O-(7-azabenzotriazol-1-yl) uronium hexafluorophosphate (HATU). This is a mild condition suitable for most of biological samples. The DMED labeling of PGs could significantly enhance their response compared to those of underived ones. This method exhibited excellent linearity (R2 > 0.997) and precision for the determination of PGs in uterine samples (CV ≤ 12.9%). The extraction recoveries of PGs were ranged from 83.0 to 100% and matrix effects were ranged from 86.3 to 106%, indicating DEED labeled standards could be used as internal standards for PGs quantification. With the proposed method, we successfully quantified PGs in rat uterus. The results showed their levels were significant changed in abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) rats, suggesting that PGs might be involved in the pathological process of AUB. This established analogous reagents derivatization based UHPLC-MS/MS method could be used as a powerful tool to monitor PGs, providing insights to the precise mechanism of PG action on the endometrium.

10.
J Hazard Mater ; 388: 122039, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954310

RESUMO

Rutile TiO2 is widely applied as the raw material to produce titanium dioxide and titanium sponge, whereas the Cr (III) and V (V) impurities in rutile TiO2 significantly affect the performance of related products. In the present work, the sodium carbonate decomposition treatment on Panzhihua titanium slag was attempted, to improve the preparation process of rutile TiO2 with high crystallinity and simultaneously reduce the chromium (Cr) and vanadium (V) content as hazardous elements. Effects of sodium carbonate decomposition treatment on the crystal composition, microstructure of rutile TiO2 were determined using XRD, SEM and Raman characterization. The recovery of Cr(III) and V(V) was achieved through leaching the roasted titanium slag by dilute sulfuric acid, with the chromium and vanadium content in the residue decreasing up to 0.03 % and 0.04 %, respectively, followed by the final product rutile TiO2 was produced by the leaching residue calcined at 1323.15 K with a duration time of 120 min, with 85.56 % of TiO2 grade. The work highlights the feasibility of synchronously preparing rutile TiO2 and removing hazardous Cr (III) and V (V) impurities from titanium slag using sodium carbonate decomposition.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e033448, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31969367

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aliskiren is a newly developed medicine. As one of the effective renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, its role in lowering blood pressure has been recognised. However, its safety and tolerability still remain controversial. The aim of the paper is to systematically summarise the published studies about the clinical efficacy and side effects of aliskiren monotherapy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive review of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases published from inception until June 2019 will be conducted. The selected articles are meta-analyses that integrated the randomised controlled studies, which evaluated efficacy, safety and tolerability of aliskiren monotherapy. Two people will select eligible articles and extract data independently. Any disputes will be resolved by discussion or the arbitration of a third person. The quality of reporting evidence will be assessed using the AMSTAR 2 tool. Study selection process will be presented using a flowchart. We will re-analyse each outcome with the random effect methods if necessary. If possible, we will also calculate 95% prediction intervals for each random effect estimate, by using Egger's test to evaluate if the reporting bias existed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for the study, as we only collected data from available published materials. This umbrella review will be also submitted to a peer-reviewed journal for publication after completion. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019142141.

12.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(2): 231-243, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The on-purpose-modulated dendritic cells (DCs) have shown charming effects on restoring immune regulatory functions in subjects with immune diseases. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to construct DCs carrying chimerical antigen (Ag) peptides (CAP-DCs) to induce interleukin (IL)-17+ inducible Tregs (iTregs) to alleviate food allergy (FA) in a murine model. METHODS: In this study, we constructed CAP-DCs. The CAP is a fusion protein, consisting of a segment of recombinant scFv of anti-DEC205 antibody and an ovalbumin (OVA) epitope (IC). A murine OVA-FA model was developed to test the effects of CAP-DCs on suppressing the allergic response in the intestine. RESULTS: The CAP-DCs are characterized as that a complex of scFv-IC is presented on the surface of the cells, moderately express CD80 and CD86 as well as IL-6, IL-23, transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß and CCR9. After being passively transferred with CAP-DCs or injection of scFv-IC, Ag-specific IL-17+ Foxp3+ iTregs were induced in the intestinal lamina propria of FA mice. The iTregs showed immune suppressive effects on Ag-specific Th2 response. FA mice were adoptively transferred with the CAP-DCs or scFv-IC injection, which resulted in a significant decrease in the number of Ag-specific Th2 cells and suppression of FA response in an Ag-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: CAP-DCs can ameliorate FA response by inducing Ag-specific IL-17+ Foxp3+ iTregs and suppressing Ag-specific Th2 response. To generate CAP-DCs has the translational potential in the treatment of FA.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 110010, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787381

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) forms not only affect cadmium (Cd) accumulation in plants, but also affect plant resistance to Cd toxicity. However, few researches have been reported underlying the mechanism of the relationship between nitrogen forms and plant resistance under Cd exposure. Here, we explored the mechanism on how different NO3-/NH4+ ratios affect antioxidase system and the glutathione-ascorbate cycle under five different ratios of NO3-/NH4+ (1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, 0:1) and three dosages of Cd exposure (0, 1, 5 µmol L-1 Cd) in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The results showed that high NO3- and high Cd exposure both significantly inhibited tissue growth of rice plants, and this inhibiting trend was mitigated with increasing NH4+ ratios as proved by the increased biomass and the decreased concentrations of malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as well as the levels of Cd contents in rice tissues. Additionally, high NH4+ ratios elevated the SOD activities in rice tissues, especially at high Cd treatment. However, other two antioxidases (CAT and APX) were insensitive to changes of NO3-/NH4+ ratios (except the full NO3-). Furthermore, high NH4+ ratios induced increasing of the efficiency of glutathione-ascorbate cycle (GSH-AsA) under two levels of Cd exposure, as evidenced by increasing concentrations of GSH and AsA and the activities of GR and DHAR in rice tissues. Overall, these results revealed that ammonium nutrition caused an enhancement resistance to Cd stress in rice plants was responsible for increasing of partial antioxidase system and the efficiencies of GSH-AsA cycle.

14.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 64(2)2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712202

RESUMO

We identified fosA3 at a rate of 2.6% in 310 Salmonella isolates from food animals in Guangdong province, China. The fosA3 gene was genetically linked to diverse antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including mcr-1, bla CTX-M-14/55, oqxAB, and rmtB These gene combinations were embedded in heterogeneous fosA3-containing multidrug resistance regions on the transferable ST3-IncHI2 and F33:A-:B- plasmids and the chromosome. This indicated a great flexibility of fosA3 cotransmission with multiple important ARGs among Salmonella species.

15.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 560: 475-484, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679776

RESUMO

Ultrathin MoS2 nanosheet hybridized Bi5O7I (MoS2/Bi5O7I) nanorods were synthesized via a reactable ionic liquid assisted solvothermal process for the first time. The photocatalytic activity of MoS2/Bi5O7I nanorods was determined by photodegrading bisphenol A (BPA), tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) under visible light irradiation. Experimental results showed that MoS2/Bi5O7I owned the excellent photocatalytic properties and photostability. The efficient visible light driven photocatalytic performance was due to a larger specific surface area of MoS2, which increased the close interfacial contact between pollutants and photocatalysts. Meanwhile, the introduction of ultrathin MoS2 nanosheet was conducive to the separation and utilization of photoinduced charge carriers, thus further suppressed high recombination rate in pure Bi5O7I nanorods. Moreover, a possible charge transfer path in MoS2/Bi5O7I composite material was also put forward.

16.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(12): 916, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801947

RESUMO

The burgeoning functions of many microRNAs (miRs) have been well study in cancer. However, the level and function of miR-1205 in laryngeal squamous cell cancer remains unknown. In the current research, we validated that miR-1205 was notably downregulated in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) samples in comparison with tissues adjacent to LSCC, and correlated with T stage, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis indicates that high expression of miR-1205 has a favorable prognosis for patients with LSCC. Functional assays show that enforced miR-1205 expression attenuates the migration, growth, and invasion of LSCC cells. And E2F1 is verified to be a target of miR-1205, while E2F1 binds to miR-1205 promoter and transcriptionally inhibits miR-1205 expression. Overexpression of E2F1 reverses the inhibitory impacts of miR-1205 on LSCC cells in part. Importantly, E2F1 is abnormally increased in LSCC tissues, and its protein levels were inversely relevant to miR-1205 expression. High E2F1 protein level is in connection with clinical stage, T stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. Consequently, reciprocal regulation of miR-1205 and E2F1 plays a crucial role in the progression of LSCC, suggesting a new miR-1205/E2F1-based clinical application for patients of LSCC.

17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(12): 4003-4011, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840444

RESUMO

Nitrogen deposition will affect the morphology of fine roots and its absorption of nutrien-ts, resulting in changes nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to understand the effects of nitrogen deposition on fine root morphological traits of Castanopsis fabri and C. carlesii, two ectomycorrhizas tree species, we carried out in situ experiment using the root bags method in an evergreen broadleaved forest in the subtropical zone. The results showed that the plastic responses of specific root length and specific root surface area of low-order roots (first to third order) to nitrogen addition was higher than that of high-order roots (fourth order). The plastic responses of root tissue density to nitrogen addition increased from the first-order to the fourth-order, while the average root diameter of each order had no significant plastic responses to nitrogen addition. There was a certain synergistic change between the plastic response of specific root length and specific surface area in the low order fine root and the plastic response of tissue density in the high order fine root. The specific root length, specific root surface area and root tissue density of the two species showed opposite plastic responses to nitrogen addition, indicating that different ectomycorrhizal tree species had different nutrient foraging strategies. C. fabri adopted rapid absorption strategy by increasing specific root length, specific root surface area, and proliferation rate of fine root length, while C. carlesii adopted a relatively conservative resource absorption strategy by increasing tissue density of fine roots.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Florestas , Raízes de Plantas , Plásticos , Árvores
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1599, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher dietary acid load (DAL) was considered to be associated with an elevated risk of hypertension, while related data from mainland China remains scarce and incomplete. We aim to evaluate the association between DAL and the risk of hypertension among adults from South China. METHODS: We conducted a nutrition and health survey in Guangdong Province located in southern China from 2015 to 2017. A four-stage probability sampling method was utilized to select representative samples of citizens aged ≥18 years old. DAL was assessed by potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP). Participants were divided to 4 groups (Q1-Q4) according to the quartile points of PRAL or NEAP distributions. Generalized linear mixed effects models were applied to evaluate the association between DAL and the risk of hypertension. RESULTS: A total of 3501 individuals were eligible for this study and 45.9% was male participants. Hypertension rate was 30.7%. A higher PRAL was associated with higher prevalence rate of hypertension among the male (P-trend = 0.03). OR for Q2 was 1.34 (95%CI, 0.94-1.91), Q3 was 1.53 (95%CI = 1.08, 2.16) and Q4 was 1.51 (95%CI, 1.08-2.16) among the male. However, as for total participants, the female, the participants with ≤55 years or participants with > 55 years, the associations were lack of significance. With respect to association between NEAP and hypertension, non-significant results were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The current study indicated male hypertension was associated with higher PRAL, while given to this study was cross-sectional design, further studies are warranted to verify the association.

19.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 3913-3918, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814710

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate real-world use and outcomes of apatinib treatment in platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: This is an observational study. Patients with platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer initiating apatinib treatment from January 2016 to December 2018 were included. The primary end point was progression-free survival. Other end points included overall survival, objective response rate, disease control rate, and toxicity. Results: A total of 28 platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer patients were enrolled in this study. Thirteen cases received apatinib as maintenance therapy following chemotherapy with a median progression-free survival of 6.0 months and a medium overall survival of 11.0 months. Four patients received apatinib as palliative following chemotherapy with 2 cases in progressive disease and 2 cases in stable disease. Eleven cases received apatinib alone as salvage therapy with a disease control rate of 81.8% and a median progression-free survival of 3.0 months. The most common adverse effects were hand-foot syndrome (53.57%), secondary hypertension (46.43%) and fatigue (14.29%). Five patients discontinued treatment due to grade 3 toxicities and 4 patients required dose reduction because of adverse effects. Conclusion: Apatinib produced moderate improvements in progression-free survival in patients with platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer both as maintenance therapy following chemotherapy and as single-agent salvage therapy. Our study suggests that apatinib may be effective for women with platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.

20.
Allergy ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skewed T helper (Th)2 response plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. The therapeutic efficacy for allergic diseases is unsatisfactory currently. This study aims to regulate the skewed Th2 response with CARsomes. METHODS: The CARsome consisted of an epitope of Dermatophagoides farina-1 (Derf1), a segment of the anti-DEC205 antibody, the scFv, and an open reading frame of perforin. This fusion protein binds to DEC205 molecule on the surface of exosomes derived from dendritic cells (DC). The effects of CARsome on inducing antigen (Ag)-specific Th2 cell apoptosis were assessed both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Exposure to CARsomes in the culture induced Ag-specific Th2 cell apoptosis. Injection of CARsomes through the vein puncture also induced Ag-specific Th2 cell apoptosis in the lungs of sensitized mice. CARsomes could induce Ag-specific regulatory T cells. Administration of CARsomes efficiently inhibited experimental allergic airway inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The CARsomes can inhibit allergic airway inflammation by inducing Ag-specific Th2 cell apoptosis and induce Ag-specific regulatory T cells. The data suggest that CARsomes have the translational potential to be used to treat allergic airway inflammation.

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