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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 394: 122519, 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200240

RESUMO

Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has excellent CH4 production performance, however, CO2 still remains in the produced biogas at high content. For achieving in-situ CO2 sequestration and thus upgrading biogas, mineral carbonation was integrated into a MEC treating sludge hydrolysate. With 19 g/L wollastonite addition, in-situ mineral CO2 sequestration was achieved by formation of calcite precipitates. CH4 content in the biogas was increased by 5.1 % and reached 95.9 %, with CH4 production improved by 16.9 %. In addition, the removals of polysaccharide, protein, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the MEC were increased by 4.4 %, 6.7 %, and 8.4 %, respectively. The generated precipitates rarely accumulated on bio-cathode, and did not significantly affect the morphology of cathode biofilm. However, integrating mineral carbonation resulted in a higher relative abundance of Methanosarcina on anode and slightly decreased the ratio of Methanobacterium to Methanosaeta on cathode, which should be noticed. In conclusion, integrating mineral carbonation is an attractive way to improve the performance of MEC by achieving in-situ CO2 sequestration, accompanied with CH4 production enhancement.

2.
Pharmazie ; 75(1): 18-22, 2020 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033628

RESUMO

Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) is typically used in the treatment of diabetic complications and is often co-prescribed with gliquidone in China. However, whether danshen affects the absorption of gliquidone has not been elucidated. In this study, the effects of an aqueous extract of danshen (danshen injection, DSI) and its primary compounds (danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B) on gliquidone transport across Caco-2 monolayer cells was investigated. DSI enhanced the transport of gliquidone in Caco-2 cell monolayers from the apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) sides and from the BL to AP sides. Rosmarinic acid (RA) also significantly increased the Papp (AP-BL) value for gliquidone transport. Verapamil (a P-gp inhibitor) and Ko143 (a BCRP inhibitor) inhibited the BL-AP transport of gliquidone and promoted the AP-BL transport of gliquidone, whereas MK571 (an MRP1 inhibitor), probenecid (an MRP2 inhibitor), and benzbromarone (an MRP3 inhibitor) had no effect on gliquidone transport. RA also enhanced the intracellular accumulation of Rho123 and Hoechst 33342. The expression of P-gp and BCRP was significantly downregulated, and P-gp ATPase activity was promoted by RA in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that an aqueous extract of danshen can increase the transport of gliquidone in Caco-2 cell monolayers and that RA may be the primary compound associated with this activity, which is in agreement with RA simultaneously suppressing the function and expression of P-gp and BCRP.

3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109895, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Scoparone has been shown to ameliorate many forms of liver disease, and several underlying molecular mechanisms involved have been previously revealed. However, the potential role of scoparone in autophagy, which is dysregulated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD-NASH), has not been evaluated. In the current study, we investigated the effect and potential mechanisms of scoparone in hepatic autophagy in mice with NASH. METHODS: In vivo, mice were fed a methionine-choline deficient (MCD) diet to establish a NASH model and then subjected to treatment with or without scoparone for 4 weeks. In vitro, scoparone was applied in a hepatocellular lipid overload model in AML12 cells challenged with palmitic acid (PA) and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. RESULTS: Scoparone improved impaired autophagy and several key features of NASH in mice fed an MCD diet. In vitro, scoparone had an effect on the autophagy of macrophages but not hepatocytes. In RAW264.7 cells, scoparone reduced the LPS-induced accumulation of autophagosomes and autophagy substrates, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the inflammatory response. Scoparone inhibited the upregulation of p62 transcription, which is mediated by the ROS/P38/Nrf2 axis. Chloroquine (CQ), an inhibitor of autophagic flux, significantly inhibited scoparone-mediated protection against inflammation. In addition, scoparone suppressed activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, and MHY1485 (an mTOR activator that inhibits autophagy) inhibited the anti-inflammatory effect of scoparone. CONCLUSIONS: In LPS-induced macrophages, scoparone regulates autophagy and further suppresses inflammation by inhibiting the ROS/P38/Nrf2 axis and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and enhancing autophagic flux. Scoparone may improve hepatic autophagy and NASH partly through enhancing autophagy in macrophages but not hepatocytes. Scoparone is expected to become a novel therapeutic drug for NASH or diseases associated with dysregulated autophagy in macrophages.

4.
Mol Pharm ; 17(1): 338-348, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793786

RESUMO

The synergy of chemotherapy and antiangiogenesis therapy is a new strategy for cancer treatment. In this paper, a well-developed core-shell nanoparticle loaded with gambogic acid (GA), heparin (HP), and the immunoadjuvant cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligonucleotide (CpG ODN), called GHC NP, was constructed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. GHC NPs with liver targeting activity can effectively inhibit tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis. With the delivery of nanocarriers and the assistance of GA and HP, the GHC NPs can more effectively upregulate cytotoxic T cell (CTL) levels, promote helper T cell (Th cell) differentiation, and induce Th1 immune responses in long-term treatment compared with single CpG ODN. This synergistically enhanced immunotherapy might have universal application in cancer treatments.

5.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(1): 26-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased percentage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients in June 2016 was observed. P aeruginosa were also obtained from flexible bronchoscope and rinse water in the microbiological surveillance in June 2016. METHODS: Reprocessing procedure of bronchoscope was assessed, and environmental samples were collected. P aeruginosa isolates recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients between May and September 2016 and environment were characterized using multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: A novel multilocus sequence type (ST) of P aeruginosa was defined as ST 2387. ST671 and ST 2387 were both cultured from bronchoscopes and connecting tube in manual reprocessing cleaning equipment. One strain from a patient was indistinguishable from the clones obtained from the bronchoscope and connecting tube revealed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Two strains from 2 patients from the burn intensive care unit were identical, and highly related to 2 other strains from the burn intensive care unit. The persistence of P aeruginosa in bronchoscopes, connecting tubes, and final rinse water was terminated by replacement of the connecting tube. CONCLUSIONS: We report a pseudo-outbreak of P aeruginosa associated with bronchoscope, for which connecting tube was the hidden reservoir for contaminating bronchoscopes. This highlights that effective measures are needed to control the bacterial load in final rinsing water to protect reusable equipment from contamination in reprocessing and cleaning.

6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109610, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710894

RESUMO

Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is a glycolysis inhibitor that has been reported to have a strong anti-tumour effect in many human tumours. Several studies have reported that 3-BrPA could inhibit glioma progression; however, its role on the interstitial cells in the glioma microenvironment has not been investigated. In previous studies, we found that in the glioma microenvironment, glioma stem cells can induce the malignant transformation of macrophages and dendritic cells. In this study, we focused on the effects of 3-BrPA on malignantly transformed macrophages and dendritic cells. First, we found that 3-BrPA inhibited the proliferation of malignantly transformed macrophages and dendritic cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Further study indicated that 3-BrPA significantly decreased extracellular lactate and inhibited the clone formation, migration and invasion of malignantly transformed macrophages and dendritic cells. Using an online database and a series of experiments, we demonstrated that 3-BrPA inhibits the malignant progression of malignantly transformed macrophages and dendritic cells via the miR-449a/MCT1 axis. These findings built experimental basis for new approach against glioma.

7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(12): 2951-2967, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654121

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and new improvements are urgently needed. Several miRNA-targeted therapeutics have reached clinical development. MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) was found to significantly suppress the migration and invasion of NSCLC. It might be of great potential for NSCLC treatment. However, the therapeutic effect of miR-143 against NSCLC in vivo has not been explored until now. METHODS: The cationic liposome/pVAX-miR-143 complex (CL-pVAX-miR-143) was prepared and its biodistribution was assessed. The tumor suppression effects of CL-pVAX-miR-143 were evaluated in early-stage and advanced experimental lung cancer metastasis mice models by systemic delivery, respectively, and also in subcutaneous tumor models by intratumoral injection. The toxicity of CL-pVAX-miR-143 was assessed by H&E analysis and biochemical measurements. The preliminary mechanism of CL-pVAX-miR-143 on tumor suppression was explored by immunochemistry and western blotting. RESULTS: The assays on the stability and safety of CL-pVAX-miR-143 showed that it mainly accumulated in the lung after systemic administration. The intratumoral delivery of CL-pVAX-miR-143 effectively inhibited A549 subcutaneous tumor growth. Notably, systemic delivery of CL-pVAX-miR-143 significantly inhibited tumor metastasis and prolonged survival dose dependently in early-stage experimental lung cancer metastasis models. More importantly, same results were shown in advanced mice models with metastasis. CL-pVAX-miR-143 treatment did not induce obvious acute toxicity. The preliminary mechanism on inhibiting tumor metastasis might be induced by targeting CD44v3. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that CL-pVAX-miR-143 might be a promising strategy for clinical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, especially for advanced NSCLC with metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cátions/administração & dosagem , Lipossomos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/administração & dosagem , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Distribuição Tecidual
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17414, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding single-stranded RNAs with a length of ∼21 nucleotides. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may affect the function of miRNAs, resulting in a variety of disorders in vivo. Recently, diabetes mellitus (DM) has become a global healthcare problem, and several studies have reported that 2 common polymorphisms (miRNA 146a rs2910164 and miRNA 27a rs895819) are related to susceptibility to diabetes. Given that no consensus had been reached regarding the association of the 2 polymorphisms with diabetes, we conducted this meta-analysis. METHODS: Four databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science) were searched up to January 9, 2019. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association strength. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also performed. RESULTS: Six studies involving 2585 cases and 2435 controls for miR146a rs2910164 and 5 studies involving 2922 cases and 2781 controls for miR27a rs895819 were ultimately analyzed in our meta-analysis. Based on pooled results, no statistical significance in association between rs2910164 and diabetes in Caucasians, Asians, or type 2 diabetes was observed in any genetic models. Nevertheless, we found a significant correlation between miRNA27a rs895819 and diabetes in the homozygote model (CC vs TT: OR = 0.58, 95%CI [0.35,0.98]) and recessive model (CC vs CT + TT: OR = 0.59, 95%CI [0.36,0.97]). By performing subgroup analysis, we also observed that C allele conveyed a significant protective effect against diabetes development in Caucasians (C vs T: OR = 0.67, 95%CI [0.52,0.85]). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that miRNA27a rs895819 might play a protective role in diabetes, and miRNA146a rs2910164 likely had no association with diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
9.
Small ; 15(47): e1903977, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608586

RESUMO

Black phosphorous quantum dots (BPQDs) possess ambipolar charge transport, high mobility, and a tunable direct bandgap. Here, liquid-exfoliated BPQDs are used as interlayers to modify both the electron transport layer and hole transport layer in organic solar cells (OSCs). The incorporation of BPQDs is beneficial to the formation of a cascade band structure and electron/hole transfer and extraction. The power conversion efficiency of the BPQDs-incorporated OSC based on PTB7-Th:FOIC blend is enhanced from 11.8% to 13.1%. In addition, power conversion efficiency enhancement is also achieved for other nonfullerene and fullerene-based devices, demonstrating the universality of this interlayer methodology.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105797, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421545

RESUMO

Scoparone, a naturally-occurring, bioactive compound isolated from the Chinese herb Artemisia capillaria, has been shown to ameliorate hepatotoxicity and cholestasis in liver diseases. However, the pharmacological effect of scoparone in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of scoparone in NASH. In vivo, the NASH model was established in mice fed a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 4weeks, with or without simultaneous scoparone treatment. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were pretreated with or without different concentrations of scoparone. Hepatic triglycerides and serum AST and ALT levels were examined by biochemical assays. Hepatic histology was assessed by H&E, oil red O and Masson's trichrome staining methods, which were applied to analyze the protective effects of scoparone in NASH. To further explore the underlying mechanism of scoparone, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL, qRT-PCR, and Western blotting assays were applied to liver tissue or LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. We found that scoparone can effectively improve hepatic steatosis, apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in an MCD diet-induced NASH murine model. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that scoparone treatment alleviates NASH- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses in macrophages partly by blocking TLR-4/NF-κB signaling in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results present the potential protective effects and mechanism of scoparone in NASH, suggesting a potentially beneficial drug treatment for NASH.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Cumarínicos/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Fibrose , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
11.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(3): 2743-2753, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322255

RESUMO

Liver inflammation and macrophage infiltration are critical steps in the progression of non­alcoholic fatty liver to the development of non­alcoholic steatohepatitis. Bone morphogenetic protein­9 is a cytokine involved in the regulation of chemokines and lipogenesis. However, the function of bone morphogenetic protein­9 in non­alcoholic steatohepatitis is still unknown. The present study hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein­9 may contribute to steatohepatitis in mice fed a methionine choline deficiency diet (MCD). C57BL/6 mice overexpressing bone morphogenetic protein­9 and control mice were fed the MCD diet for 4 weeks. Liver tissue and serum samples were obtained for subsequent measurements. Bone morphogenetic protein­9 overexpression exacerbated steatohepatitis in mice on the MCD diet, as indicated by liver histopathology, increased serum alanine aminotransferase activity, aspartate transaminase activity, hepatic inflammatory gene expression and M1 macrophage recruitment. Although bone morphogenetic protein­9 overexpression did not affect the expression of pro­fibrogenic genes, including Collagen I (α)1 or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, it did upregulate the expression of transforming growth factor­ß and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, and downregulated the expression of MMP2. The above results indicate that bone morphogenetic protein­9 exerts a pro­inflammatory role in MCD diet­induced non­alcoholic steatohepatitis.


Assuntos
Fator 2 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Deficiência de Colina/complicações , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Metionina/deficiência , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Regulação para Cima
12.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 463, 2019 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189920

RESUMO

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in tumourigenesis, including that of glioma. Small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) is a relatively novel lncRNA that is involved in the development of multiple human tumours. However, its underlying molecular mechanism in glioma has not been completely clarified. In this study, we show that SNHG1 is overexpressed in glioma tissues and cell lines. A series of functional assays suggested that SNHG1 promotes glioma progression in vitro and in vivo. Next, through online databases, a luciferase reporter assay and an RNA pull-down assay, we confirmed that SNHG1 functions as a sponge for miR-194, which acts as a suppressor in glioma. We also verified that pleckstrin homology like domain family A, member 1 (PHLDA1) is the functional target of miR-194. Moreover, rescue experiments demonstrated that SNHG1 regulates PHLDA1 expression in a miR-194-dependent manner. Taken together, our study shows that SNHG1 promotes glioma progression by competitively binding to miR-194 to regulate PHLDA1 expression, which may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for glioma.

13.
Biochimie ; 163: 94-100, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112743

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis (LF) is known as a result of the progressive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM), and always ascribed to chronic liver diseases. Advanced liver fibrosis results in cirrhosis, liver failure, portal hypertension, and even multi-organ dysfunction and will bring up a health care burden worldwide. Cyclic AMP response-element binding protein (CREB), as a critical transcriptional factor, binds with conserved cAMP response-element (CRE), which is located in the promoter of targeted genes, to regulate the transcription. In the past decades, numerous studies have contributed to improved understanding of the links between CREB and liver fibrosis. In this review, we will summarize molecular mechanisms of CREB pathways and discuss contributions of CREB to liver fibrosis, focusing on activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), proliferation of cholangiocytes, deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) and inflammation, for the development of antifibrotic therapies.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Int J Biol Markers ; 34(3): 221-231, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salivary proteomic analysis has been extensively used in a wide range of cancer, but not in hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to identify potential salivary biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma clinical screening. METHODS: In this study, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics analysis to detect differentially expressed proteins between saliva samples from 15 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 15 healthy controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) verification was undertaken in saliva samples from 14 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 14 healthy controls. RESULTS: Overall, 133 proteins with significant differential expression level (ratio > 1.5 or < 0.67) were detected. Using bioinformatic analysis, two candidate proteins were selected and subsequently verified by ELISA. The increased expression of superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (SOD2) in hepatocellular carcinoma patients was confirmed by ELISA, with an area under the curve value of 0.9082. CONCLUSIONS: iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics revealed that SOD2 might serve as a potential salivary biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma detection. Our results indicated that a noninvasive and inexpensive salivary test might be established for hepatocellular carcinoma detection.

15.
Inflammation ; 42(4): 1463-1473, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011928

RESUMO

Twelve polyketones were isolated from the fermentation broth of Penicillium sp., including six new compounds (supplementary material). Penicillium sp. is widely used in clinic as a highly effective and low toxic antibiotic. Among these compounds, (3R, 7R)-7-acetoxyl-9-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin named PS-2 showed significant anti-inflammatory activity. So, the anti-inflammatory mechanism of PS-2 was investigated by using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results showed that PS-2 can significantly inhibit the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas it showed no inhibition on the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Cell-free colorimetric method demonstrated that PS-2 could obviously inhibit the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Western blot results indicated that PS-2 could significantly inhibit high expression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Further investigations on the anti-inflammatory mechanism showed that PS-2 could suppress the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), but did not exhibit obvious inhibition on the phosphorylation of c-JunN-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylated 38 (p38). In addition, PS-2 inhibited the degradation of inhibitor of kappa-B alpha (IκB-α) and translocation to nucleus of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) p65 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results suggested that PS-2 might be an effective intervention against inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Penicillium/metabolismo , Animais , Mediadores da Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 282: 125-132, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852332

RESUMO

This study investigated the reactions among CO32-, PO43-, NH4+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, under different CO32- concentration and Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio, and conducted sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) with silicate addition to achieve in-situ CO2 sequestration and nutrients removal. High CO32- concentration facilitated the formation of MgNH4PO4, and Mg2+/Ca2+ ratio of 1:1 achieved best CO32-, PO43-, and NH4+ removal in simulated anaerobic digestate. Supplementation of 40 g/L magnesium silicate combined with 20 g/L wollastonite decreased CO2 content in biogas from 28.2% to 19.0%, and removed PO43- and NH4+ by 61.8% and 21.2%, respectively, in AD. Simultaneous in-situ CO2 sequestration and nutrients removal was achieved by directed precipitation of PO43-, NH4+, and CO2 with silicate released Mg2+ and Ca2+, to form MgNH4PO4 and CaCO3. Meanwhile, methane production was improved by 51.2% with silicate supplementation. This study provides an attractive measure for CO2 and nutrients removal as well as methane production enhancement of sludge AD.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Silicatos/química , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis/análise , Reatores Biológicos , Metano/metabolismo , Esgotos
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 272: 194-201, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340185

RESUMO

This study investigated the feasibility and performance of simultaneous in-situ CO2 sequestration and CH4 production promotion by wollastonite addition in sludge AD. A maximum CH4 yield increment of 30.8% and maximum methane production rate increment of 64.9% with wollastonite addition at dosage of 16.25 g/L were achieved. CO2 was efficient sequestered by wollastonite addition and resulted in a higher CH4 content of 81.7%-82.4%. The mechanism of CO2 sequestration by wollastonite was confirmed as Ca2+ release and subsequently carbonation based on cation and precipitates analysis. The results demonstrated that wollastonite could be applied as an effective additive for simultaneous in-situ CO2 sequestration and CH4 production promotion of sludge AD.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Sequestro de Carbono/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/biossíntese , Esgotos , Silicatos/farmacologia , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 125: 1147-1155, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578904

RESUMO

The tubers of Ipomoea batatas was one of the main sources of starch. This work aimed to assess the effect of extraction methods (alkali method and ethanol method) on the structural and physicochemical properties of Ipomoea batatas starches. The amylose content ranged from 10.18% to 13.35% for starches and from 5.63% to 7.61% for flours compared with isolated starches. I. batatas flours possessed greater water-binding capacity than their starches, but the difference was not significant. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the I. batatas flour granules were attached to surrounding small particles and fragments, which gathered to form oval clusters. The starches all showed typical C-type X-ray diffraction patterns with the flours' CB-type. The predicted glycaemic index was relatively low, ranging from 59.30 to 79.88 for flour, which is available for functional food. Principal component analysis showed that the three principal components explained 90.71% of the total variation. The flours and starches were divided into three groups according to their properties. Most starches isolated with the ethanol method received higher scores than those isolated with the alkali method. It is possible to conclude that the isolation method exerted a marked effect on the starch properties and on in vitro starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas/química , Amido/química , Álcalis/química , Amilose/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Etanol/química , Hidrólise , Solubilidade , Análise Espectral , Água/química
19.
Materials (Basel) ; 11(11)2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30441864

RESUMO

Due to the broad application prospect, flexible and transparent electronic device has been widely used in portable wearable devices, energy storage smart window and other fields, which owns many advantages such as portable, foldable, small-quality, low-cost, good transparency, high performance and so on. All these electronic devices are inseparable from the support of energy storage device. Energy storage device, like lithium-ion battery and super capacitor, also require strict flexibility and transparency as the energy supply equipment of electronic devices. Here, we demonstrate the development and applications of flexible and transparent lithium-ion battery and super capacitor. In particular, carbon nanomaterials are widely used in flexible and transparent electronic device, due to their excellent optical and electrical properties and good mechanical properties. For example, carbon nanotubes with high electrical conductivity and low density have been widely reported by researchers. Otherwise, graphene as an emerging two-dimensional material with electrical conductivity and carrier mobility attracts comparatively more attention than that of other carbon nanomaterials. Substantial effort has been put on the research for graphene-based energy storage system by researchers from all over the world. But, there is still a long way to accomplish this goal of improving the performance for stretchable and transparent electronic device due to the existing technical conditions.

20.
Int J Oncol ; 53(2): 904-914, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29916529

RESUMO

Wnt inhibitory factor­1 (WIF­1) is an important antagonist of Wnt/ß­catenin signaling by binding to Wnt ligands. The downregulation of WIF­1 leads to the development of non­small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The upregulation of WIF­1 significantly inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis by inhibiting Wnt/ß­catenin signaling in NSCLC. However, the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of Wnt/ß­catenin signaling by WIF­1­mediated autophagy are poorly understood. Thus, in this study, we aimed to shed some light into these mechanisms. The upregulation of WIF­1­induced autophagy in NSCLC cells was detected by transmission electron microscopy, acridine orange staining, punctate GFP­LC3 and immunoblotting­based LC3 flux assay. Subsequently, WIF­1­mediated autophagy was blocked in NSCLC cells and the effects of WIF­1­mediated autophagy blocking were examined on the proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells in vitro. Western blot analysis was used to investigate the molecular mechanisms effected by WIF­1­mediated autophagy in NSCLC cells. Finally, combination treatment with WIF­1 and an autophagy agonist was used to examine the tumor growth inhibitory effects of WIF­1 in vivo. The results revealed that the upregulation of WIF­1 induced autophagy in NSCLC cells. WIF­1­mediated autophagy was demonstrated to inhibit Wnt/ß­catenin signaling by downregulating dishevelled­2 (Dvl2), which contributed to the inhibition of the proliferation and the promotion of the apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Moreover, the induction of autophagy mediated by WIF­1 was associated with to suppression of the activation of the phosphoinositide 3­kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Finally, we found that transfection with a WIF­1 gene overexpression vector in combination with treatment with the autophagy agonist, everolimus (RAD001) exerted synergistic antitumor effects on A549 subcutaneous tumor xenografts and pulmonary metastasis in mice. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrated that WIF­1­mediated autophagy inhibits Wnt/ß­catenin signaling by downregulating Dvl2 expression in NSCLC cells. This may a novel molecular mechanism through which WIF­1 inhibits Wnt/ß­catenin signaling. This study may provide a theoretical basis for joint therapy of NSCLC with WIF­1 and autophagic agonists in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Proteínas Desgrenhadas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Células A549 , Animais , Apoptose , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Transplante de Neoplasias , Regulação para Cima
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