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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 4): 132398, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597647

RESUMO

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) pose a substantial threat to public health worldwide. Electrochemistry, as a low energy consumption and environmentally friendly technique, is ideal for inactivating ARB. This study explored the utility of electrochemical disinfection (ED) for inactivating ARB (Escherichia coli K-12 LE392 resistant to kanamycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin) and the regrowth potential of the treated ARB. The results revealed that 5.12-log ARB removal was achieved within 30 min of applying molybdenum carbide as the anode and cathode material under a voltage of 2.0 V. No ARB regrowth was observed in the cathode chamber after 60 min of incubation in unselective broth, demonstrating that the process in the cathode chamber was more effective for permanent inactivation of ARB. The mechanisms underlying the ARB inactivation were verified based on intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, membrane integrity detection, and genetic damage assessment. Higher ROS production and membrane permeability were observed in the cathode and anode groups (p < 0.001) compared to the control group (0 V). In addition, the DNA was more likely to be damaged during the ED process. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ED is a promising technology for disinfecting water to prevent the spread of ARB.

2.
Org Lett ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633202

RESUMO

Notwithstanding some progress in nickel-catalyzed etherification of alkanols and arylhalides, the ability of such a Ni-catalyzed transformation employing phenols to diaryl ethers is unsuccessful due to phenolates with much lower reduction potentials, which suppress the oxidation of nickel(II) intermediates into requisite Ni(III) species. We herein report visible-light-initiated, nickel-catalyzed O-arylation of phenols with arylhalides using t-BuNH(i-Pr) as the base and thioxanthen-9-one as the photosensitizer under visible light. This photocoupling exhibits a broad substrate scope.

3.
Viral Immunol ; 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647822

RESUMO

Pseudorabies (PR), the causative agent of Aujeszky's disease, has rapidly increased in recent years and has caused significant economic losses. To understand the seroprevalence and epidemiological characteristics of PR in Tianjin, China, a total of 23,627 blood and 1,093 tissue samples were collected from 228 pig farms during January 2010 to December 2018. The Pseudorabies virus (PRV) glycoprotein E (gE) antibody was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and wild-type PRV (WT PRV) was detected by gE-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in tissue samples. The results showed that 46.70% of the serum samples and 49.76% of pig farms were seropositive for PRV gE antibody based on the ELISA results, and 13.54% of the tissue samples were positive for WT PRV detected by PCR. The positive rate of serum samples increased rapidly after 2011 and reached 62.40% in 2013. Although it gradually decreased from 2014 to 2018, the positive rate of serum samples remained at a high level. The positive rate of pig farms showed the same trend. Moreover, after 2011, the detection rate of WT PRV was increased rapidly and was significantly higher than in 2010 and 2011. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in various tissues during histopathological examination. Based on univariate analysis, the increased risk of seropositivity was associated with the immune status and infection in sows and fattening pigs. These findings demonstrate that PR was prevalent in the region of Tianjin, China. These epidemiological data can assist in the control of PR.

4.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many insect species, including herbivorous crop pests. At present, scant information exists on the long-range migration of the polyphagous armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and its underlying climatic determinants (i.e., East Asian or South Asian monsoon circulation). In this study, we employed a population genetics approach to delineate S. exigua migration patterns across multiple Asian countries. RESULTS: Using mitochondrial cytochrome I (COI) and microsatellite markers, low to moderate levels of genetic diversity were detected among 101 S. exigua populations collected across China, Pakistan and Vietnam. Haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity did not differ between years. Two spatially-explicit genetic clusters were detected, i.e., an eastern and western clade, with the former comprising populations in the East Asia monsoon area. No genetic differentiation was recorded among armyworm populations in the year-round breeding area, nor among those of the overwintering and non-overwintering area. Five of the most widespread mitochondrial haplotypes reflected the extensive gene flow across at a large spatial scale. CONCLUSION: Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity were observed, and evidence was found for genetic clustering in certain geographical areas. Accordingly, our unique insights into S. exigua population genetics and spatio-temporal migration dynamics help to guide applied ecological studies, ecological intensification schemes or (area-wide) pest management campaigns in China and abroad. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
Gene Ther ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602608

RESUMO

NDV as an attractive candidate for oncolytic immunotherapy selectively lyses tumor cells but shows limited anti-tumor immunity. Immune co-stimulator OX40 ligand (OX40L) boosts anti-tumor immunity response by delivering a potent costimulatory signal to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. To improve the anti-tumor immunity of NDV, the recombinant NDV expressing the murine OX40L (rNDV-mOX40L) was engineered. The viral growth kinetics was examined in CT26 cell lines. The ability of rNDV-mOX40L to express mOX40L was detected in the infected tumor cells and tumor tissues. The anti-tumor activity of rNDV-mOX40L was studied in the CT26 animal model. Tumor-specific CD4+, CD8+ and OX40+ T cells were examined by immunohistochemistry staining. The virus growth curve showed that the insertion of the mOX40L gene did not affect the growth kinetics of NDV. rNDV-mOX40L expresses mOX40L and effectively inhibits the growth of CT26 colorectal cancer in vivo. The tumor inhibition rate of the rNDV-mOX40L-treated group was increased by 15.8% compared to that of  NDV-treated group in the CT26 model. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry staining of tumor tissues removed from the CT26 model revealed that intense infiltration of tumor-specific CD4+, CD8+ T cells, especially OX40+ T cells were found in the rNDV-mOX40L-treated group. FACS showed that rNDV-mOX40L significantly enhanced the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in spleen. Moreover, compared to the NDV-treated group, the level of mouse IFN-γ protein in the tumor site increased significantly in the rNDV-mOX40L-treated group. Taken together, rNDV-mOX40L exhibited superior anti-tumor immunity by stimulating tumor-specific T cells and may be a promising agent for cancer immunotherapy.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150764, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624289

RESUMO

Expanding the utilization strategy of waste concrete powder (WCP) is conducive to minimizing the environmental burden caused by construction & demolition wastes (C&DW). In this study, WCP prepared in the laboratory was thermally treated and used to remove As(V) from wastewater. Batch adsorption tests were implemented to explore the influence factors such as modification temperature (0-850 °C), pH (1.00-12.00), dosage (2-50 g/L), co-coexisting ions (SO42-, NO3-, Cl- and PO43-) and temperature (25-45 °C). Various methods including spectroscopic tests, Rietveld refinement and sequential extraction process were employed to examine the mechanisms and their contribution to As(V) removal. Results show that the As(V) removal capacity of WCP was slightly enhanced after treatment at 200 °C, the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and Langmuir model could describe the adsorption process well. The maximum uptake capacity for As(V) calculated by Langmuir model at 25, 35 and 45 °C were 31.89, 25.56 and 17.42 mg/g respectively, and the removal rate reached a maximum of 95.37% (C0 = 100 mg/L). Thermodynamically, the As(V) elimination was exothermic and spontaneous. The ettringite produced by rehydration of WCP proved to be essential for As(V) removal. Electrostatic attraction, precipitation, complexation and ion exchange were identified to be the main mechanisms of As(V) adsorption. This study confirmed the potential of WCP in removing As(V) from wastewater and provided a new insight into the removal mechanisms.

8.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507320

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) combined with therapeutic trauma can effectively induce skin repigmentation in vitiligo patients who are unresponsive to conventional treatments. Previous studies have mainly focused on identifying the antimitotic activity of 5-FU for the treatment of skin cancer, but few studies have investigated its extra-genotoxic actions favoring melanocyte recruitment. METHODS: We utilized the full thickness excisional skin wound model in Dct-LacZ transgenic mice to dynamically assess the migration of melanocytes in the margins of wounds treated with or without 5-FU. The in-situ expression of CXCL12 was examined in the wound beds using immunofluorescence staining. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses were performed to detect the expression levels of CXCL12 mRNA and protein in primary mouse dermal fibroblasts treated with or without 5-FU. Transwell assays and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin staining were used to observe cell migration and filamentous actin (F-actin) changes of melan-a murine melanocytes. RESULTS: Whole mount and cryosection X-gal staining showed that the cell numbers of LacZ-positive melanocytes were much higher in the margins of dorsal and tail skin wounds treated with 5-FU compared with the controls. Meanwhile, CXCL12 immunostaining was significantly increased in the dermal compartment of wounds treated with 5-FU (control vs. 5-FU, 22.47 ±â€Š8.85 vs. 44.69 ±â€Š5.97, P < 0.05). Moreover, 5-FU significantly upregulated the expression levels of CXCL12 mRNA (control vs. 5-FU, 1.00 ±â€Š0.08 vs. 1.54 ±â€Š0.06, P < 0.05) and protein (control vs. 5-FU, 1.00 ±â€Š0.06 vs. 2.93 ±â€Š0.10, P < 0.05) in cultured fibroblasts. Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis suppressed melanocyte migration in vitro using a CXCL12 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or a CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100). CONCLUSION: 5-FU possesses a pro-pigmentary activity through activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis to drive the chemotactic migration of melanocytes.

9.
Infect Genet Evol ; : 105078, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508884

RESUMO

A fowl aviadenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), Y17215-1, was isolated from the liver of chickens with Hydropericardium-hepatitissyndrome(HHS) in a chicken farm of Tianjin, China. Obvious cytopathic effects were observed in the infected chicken liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (LMH cells) at 24 h post infection (hpi), which consisted of enlarger and rounder shape of cells. The typical and specific green fluorescence was observed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Tissue Culture Infectious Dose50 (TCID50) of it measured after five stable passage in LMH cells reached 106.5TCID50/0.1 ml. The strain was inoculated through allantoic membrane of 10-day specific pathogen free(SPF) Chick embryos, the thicker allantoic membranes were observed at 120 hpi. 7-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated with the strain via intramuscular (i.m.) or intranasal (i.n.) injection which resulted in 100% mortality of test chickens. Additionally, the sickness and death of cohabitation chickens in the test group were observed which indicated that the virus can infect healthy chickens by horizontal transmission. The sick chickens showed depression, anorexia and diarrhea with green watery feces. Y17215-1-inoculated chickens mainly presented swollen liver with blood spot, and the enhancement of effusion or yellow gel like effusion that were observed in the pericardium through necropsy. Histopathological examination showed focal necrosis of hepatocytes and characteristic eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm. The results showed that the Y17215-1 isolate had high pathogenicity to SPF chickens. The phylogenetic analysis of the major structural proteins including hexon, fiber-1 and fiber-2 revealed that Y17215-1 strain belongs to C species of fowl aviadenovirus of aviadenovirus family, and has high homology with other Chinese strains isolated in recent years, but was distinct from ON1、MX-SHP95、KR5 and other foreign isolates. This study laid a foundation for further study of epidemiological investigation, pathogenic mechanism as well as the diagnosis and control technology of FAdV-4.

10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3806-3813, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472253

RESUMO

Phytohormones play an important role at all stages of plant growth, influencing plant growth and development and regulating plant secondary metabolism, such as the synthesis of flavone, flavonol, anthocyanin, and other flavonoids. Flavonoids, a group of important secondary metabolites ubiquitous in plants, have antioxidative, anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory activities and thus have a wide range of potential applications in Chinese medicine and food nutrition. With the development of biotechnology, phytohormones' regulation on flavonoids has become a research focus in recent years. This study reviewed the research progress on the mechanism of common phytohormones, such as abscisic acid, gibberellin, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid, in regulating flavonoid metabolism, and discussed the molecular mechanism of the synthesis and accumulation of flavonoids, aiming at clarifying the key role of phytohormones in modulating flavonoid metabolism. The result is of guiding significance for improving the content of flavonoids in plants through rational use of phytohormones and of reference value for exploring the mechanism of hormones in regulating flavonoid metabolism.


Assuntos
Giberelinas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Ácido Abscísico , Flavonoides , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
11.
J Elder Abuse Negl ; : 1-17, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530689

RESUMO

Elder mistreatment is a risk factor in the life satisfaction of older adults, yet understanding of its underlying mechanisms remains limited. This study investigates the mediating role of emotional closeness and loneliness in the association between elder mistreatment and life satisfaction. A sample of 8,717 Chinese older adults is obtained from the 2018 China Longitudinal Aging Social Survey. Results reveal that emotional mistreatment has a negative effect on the life satisfaction of older adults. Moreover, emotional mistreatment is associated with a low level of emotional closeness and a high degree of loneliness, which further decreases life satisfaction. However, emotional closeness with children did not significantly mediate the association between physical mistreatment and life satisfaction. This study advances the comprehension of the influencing path on how elder mistreatment affects the life satisfaction of older adults. Implications for policy and intervention programs are discussed.

12.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 384-389, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492431

RESUMO

Background Despite previous research indicates that academic stress is a risk factor for students' mental health, the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relationship are less known. This study tests the mediation effect of school burnout in the association between academic stress and adolescent depression, and whether this mediation is moderated by self-esteem. Methods A sample of 552 Chinese adolescents in junior high schools (mean age = 14.48 years, SD = 0.98) is obtained through multi-stage cluster random sampling. Mediation and moderation analyses are carried out in SPSS macro PROCESS. Results The association between academic stress and depression is found to be mediated by school burnout (b = 0.200, 95% CI [0.145, 0.263]). Moreover, the effect of school burnout on depression is moderated by self-esteem, with the effect being stronger for adolescents with low self-esteem (b = 0.377, p < 0.001) than for those with high self-esteem (b = 0.218, p < 0.001). Limitations The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow causal inferences. Conclusions These findings contribute to the understanding of how academic stress predicts adolescent depression, and provide practical implications for prevention and intervention programs to protect adolescents' mental health in the school setting.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515394

RESUMO

Social exclusion is a widely accepted risk factor for child well-being, but relatively little is known about its dynamics and effect on multiple well-being domains. This study aims to extend prior research by examining the influencing mechanisms of structural-economic and socio-relational exclusion on the physical, psychological, behavioural and educational well-being of Chinese migrant children. Multi-stage cluster random sampling is used to recruit a sample of migrant children (N = 484; Mage  = 11.65 years; 52.9% girls) in Kunming, China, and structural equation modelling is used for data analysis. Results indicate that a high level of structural-economic exclusion predicts a high level of socio-relational exclusion, which, in turn, leads to low levels of physical, psychological, behavioural and educational well-being among migrant children. This study not only contributes to the understanding of the dynamic effects of social exclusion but also provides practical implications for social policy and interventions to reduce social exclusion and improve the well-being of Chinese migrant children.

14.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509376

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: How can the effect of genetic mutations that may cause primary female infertility be evaluated? DESIGN: Patients and their family members underwent whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing to detect the infertility-causing gene and inheritance pattern. To study the function of mutant proteins in vitro, vectors containing wild-type or mutant TUBB8 cDNA were constructed for transient expression in HeLa cells, and in-vitro transcribed mRNA were used for microinjection in germinal vesicle-stage mouse oocytes. Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the microtubule structure in HeLa cells or meiotic spindle in mouse oocytes. RESULTS: A maternally inherited TUBB8 (Tubulin beta 8 class VIII) mutation (NM_177987.2: c. 959G>A: p. R320H) and a previously reported (NM_177987.2: c. 161C>T: p. A54V) recessive mutation from two infertile female patients were identified. The oocytes from the patient carrying p.A54V mutation failed fertilization, whereas oocytes with p.R320H mutation could be fertilized but showed heavy fragmentation during early development. In vitro, functional assays showed that p. A54V mutant disrupted the microtubule structure in HeLa cells (49.3% of transfected cells) and caused large polar body extrusion in mouse oocytes (27.5%), whereas the p.R320H mutant caused a higher abnormal rate (69.7%) in cultured cells and arrested mouse oocytes at meiosis I (38.7%). CONCLUSION: Two TUBB8 mutations (p.A54V and p.R320H) were identified and their pathogeny was confirmed by in-vitro functional assays.

15.
J Sleep Res ; : e13484, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510626

RESUMO

Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders, which imparts tremendous societal and economic impact. However, the present pharmacotherapy is greatly limited by adverse effects, so it is necessary to explore new drugs for the treatment of insomnia. Radix Bupleuri (RB) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for >2000 years; it has many pharmacological effects, including sedation and anticonvulsant properties. The present study investigated the effects of saikosaponin a (SSa), an active component of RB, on sleep and locomotion. Male C57BL/6j mice received intraperitoneal injections of SSa at three different dosages (0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mg/kg). Sleep parameters were analysed by electroencephalography and electromyography. The open-field test was used to measure locomotor activities. Our present results showed that SSa treatment significantly increased the duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep and shortened sleep latency in a dose-dependent manner. A high dose of SSa (2.5 mg/kg) also decreased locomotor activities. Moreover, by measuring c-Fos expression and the calcium signal in the lateral hypothalamus (LH), we found that SSa treatment decreased neuronal activity in the LH. In conclusion, SSa might be the sleep-promoting component in RB and its mechanism may be related to the modulation of neuronal activity in the LH.

16.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 814-820, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511171

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the survival rate and the incidence of complications of very preterm infants and the factors influencing the survival rate and the incidence of complications. METHODS: The medical data of the very preterm infants with a gestational age of <32 weeks and who were admitted to the Department of Neonatology in 11 hospitals of Jiangsu Province in China from January 2018 to December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Their survival rate and the incidence of serious complications were analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors for death and serious complications in very preterm infants. RESULTS: A total of 2 339 very preterm infants were enrolled, among whom 2 010 (85.93%) survived and 1 507 (64.43%) survived without serious complications. The groups with a gestational age of 22-25+6 weeks, 26-26+6 weeks, 27-27+6 weeks, 28-28+6 weeks, 29-29+6 weeks, 30-30+6 weeks, and 31-31+6 weeks had a survival rate of 32.5%, 60.6%, 68.0%, 82.9%, 90.1%, 92.3%, and 94.8% respectively. The survival rate tended to increase with the gestational age (P<0.05) and the survival rate without serious complications in each gestational age group was 7.5%, 18.1%, 34.5%, 52.2%, 66.7%, 75.7%, and 81.8% respectively, suggesting that the survival rate without serious complications increased with the gestational age (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high gestational age, high birth weight, and prenatal use of glucocorticoids were protective factors against death in very preterm infants (P<0.05), and 1-minute Apgar score ≤3 was a risk factor for death in very preterm infants (P<0.05); high gestational age and high birth weight were protective factors against serious complications in very preterm infants who survived (P<0.05), while 5-minute Apgar score ≤3 and maternal chorioamnionitis were risk factors for serious complications in very preterm infants who survived (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate is closely associated with gestational age in very preterm infants. A low 1-minute Apgar score (≤3) may increase the risk of death in very preterm infants, while high gestational age, high birth weight, and prenatal use of glucocorticoids are associated with the reduced risk of death. A low 5-minute Apgar score (≤3) and maternal chorioamnionitis may increase the risk of serious complications in these infants, while high gestational age and high birth weight may reduce the risk of serious complications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
17.
Science ; 373(6561): eabj0486, 2021 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529467
18.
J Org Chem ; 86(18): 12932-12944, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482692

RESUMO

Although dynamic reactions of imines have been extensively studied, the dynamic behaviors manipulated by chirality remain nearly unexplored. In this work, enantioselective amine exchange reactions were demonstrated as a first example via the reaction of enantiomeric chiral amines such as natural amino acids with a series of innovative axially chiral 1,1'-binaphthyl-2,2'-diamine (BNDA)-based imines that were prepared from the condensation reactions between BNDA and salicylaldehyde (SA) or its derivatives. This enantioselective dynamic behavior can be directly indicated by the degree of the fluorescence response of the R-configuration of imines to the d-enantiomer of chiral amine, because the released BNDA can serve as the fluorescence signal output when the amine exchange reaction occurs, which is far higher than the response to its l-enantiomer under identical experimental conditions. For the S-configuration of chiral imines, the fluorescence response is the opposite. The enantioselective exchange reaction can be tuned by altering the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating capability of the substituent at position 4 or 5 of the SA part of chiral imines. Not only o-OH groups in SA-based imines but also protic solvents used as reaction media were found to be important to the dynamic behavior at high rates.

20.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 911: 174503, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547247

RESUMO

Renal fibrosis, a characteristic of all chronic kidney diseases, lacks effective therapeutic drugs currently. Pirfenidone (PFD), a small molecule drug with good oral bioavailability, is widely used in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and exerts anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects. These effects have been attributed to the suppression of cell growth factors (in particular, but not exclusively, transforming growth factor-ß) and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as well as the possible down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators (such as tumour necrosis factor-α), the protection of mitochondrial function, and the regulation of inflammatory cells. Considering the activation of similar anti-fibrotic pathways in lung and kidney disease and the broad activity of PFD, this drug has improved the treatment of the renal fibrotic disease. In this review, we briefly summarize the pharmacokinetics and safety of PFD as well as the mechanisms of PFD focusing on kidney disease. We summarize the effects of PFD on renal function and pathological alterations based on animal experiments, as well as changes in growth factors based on both animal and renal cell experiments. Moreover, given the activation of similar profibrotic pathways in pulmonary diseases and other disorders, we reviewed in-depth the possible signalling pathways targeted by PFD to attenuate renal fibrosis and protect renal function. Finally, we provide an overview of the current clinical trials of PFD for the treatment of renal fibrosis.

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